# 15.2 Convection. It is the material itself that moves

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1 15.2 Convection It is the material itself that moves

2 Learning Objectives What is convection? How can we change the rate of convection? Where do we make use of convection in the home?

3 Particles In fixed positions in solids Can change places in liquids and gases

4

5 Liquids and Gases Both fluids. Heat is transferred by convection in fluids. The particles in the fluid move, carrying energy with them.

6 When a fluid is warm Less dense than when it is cool Particles gain energy and vibrate more Particles move further apart Fluid takes up more space Fluid expands and rises Cooler denser water sinks Same for gases such as air

7

8 A wind is felt when cool air is sucked into a bonfire to replace the hot smoke

9 Hot air in the balloon is less dense than the surrounding air, so it floats.

10

11 Watch this

12 Heat loss Heat is lost by convection through gaps in badly fitting window frames and doors Hot smoke is less dense than surrounding air so it rises up a chimney. Heat is lost up the chimney because of convection.

13 Ovens Fan ovens use fans to move the hot air inside an oven so the food cooks evenly. No fan food at the top of the oven cooks quicker because convection means the hot air rises Burners in gas oven are at the bottom, so convection helps the heat to spread more evenly.

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15 Heat Heat spreads quickly if a liquid or gas is heated from the base or cooled from the top This sets up convection currents

16 Kettle The heating element is fitted at the base of a kettle. When the kettle is on it heats up the water next to it. The warm water rises and cool water sinks and takes its place.

17 Some fridges have an ice box at the top of the fridge. Cooler air near the ice box sinks and warmer air rises to take its place, transferring heat away from the fridge. Fridge

18 convection The hottest air in a room is near the ceiling. Gliders can rise because of thermals in the atmosphere. Breezes occur on the coast because of air rising above the land or sea. The outlet for the hot water is at the top of the hot water tank. The ice box is always at the top of a fridge. Motor cycle engines are air cooled and are fitted with fins. The element in a kettle is near the bottom of the kettle. Some hot water cylinders have two immersion heaters, one small one near the top of the tank and one large one nearer the bottom.

19 Problems 1. Why is it not vital to keep the lid of a chest freezer closed? 2. Why is the ice box always at the top of the fridge? 3. Why do you think that convection is important in a house hot water system? 4. Why does a coal, fire help to ventilate a room as well as heat it?

20 Experiments 1. Convection in water Fill a beaker with cold water and then carefully drop a few crystals of potassium permanganate into it so that they fall close to one side of the beaker. Now heat the base of the beaker just under where the crystals have fallen. You should see the colour rise up this side, go across the top and then fall down the other side of the beaker this is a convection current. You can also use the special piece of apparatus shown in the diagram. It is a "square " glass tube filled with water. Drop a crystal of potassium permanganate into the top and then heat one of the bottom corners gently. You will see the colour begin to move round the tube going down the limb opposite the heating and then rising up the other side above the Bunsen due to convection currents in the water.

21 Unwanted convection Block up gaps Create small pockets of air Block up old fireplaces Install draft excluders Keep doors and windows closed. Insulate the loft stop warm air escaping through the roof

22

23 Did you know Molten rock inside the Earth is constantly moving due to convection currents. These currents move tectonics plates, causing earthquakes and volcanoes.

24 Watch this 9-santa-cruz-california-earthquake/5722.html

25 Key points Convection occurs when particles move, carrying heat with them Convection takes place in liquids and gases Convection currents spread heat in fluids where they are heated from the base or cooled from the top

26 Watch this

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