New Approaches to Energy Storage for Transportation

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1 New Approaches to Energy Storage for Transportation Chris Reeves September 10, 2015

2 Driving Forces: CO 2 is increasing at record levels 2014 breached the 400ppm milestone Source: September 14,

3 Legislation driving a decline in Automotive Emissions and fleet average CO 2 September 14,

4 Energy Storage and Transportation Electricity - Batteries Primary and Secondary (rechargeable) - Super Capacitors Power devices Water/Hydraulic Pressure Hydrogen - Compressed gas ( up to 700 Bar ) - Liquid H 2 ( Cryogenic 253 C) - Metal hydride - Boro-hydride Air or Nitrogen - Compressed air ( up to 300 Bar ) - Liquid air ( Cryogenic -196 C) September 14,

5 Energy Storage and Transportation September 14,

6 Hydrogen on Demand Hydrogen is a possible solution to reduce our dependence on hydrocarbons and eliminate CO 2 emissions at the wheel Traditionally, difficult to store: - Expensive, heavy, potentially hazardous and widespread investment in refilling infrastructure Solid hydrogen based on a nanotechnology polymer-hydride composite which allows hydrogen through freely but inhibits oxygen and moisture Developing a system for hydrogen on demand: - Fuel cell applications September 14,

7 Energy Storage and Transportation Ammonia Borane September 14,

8 Long Range Electric Vehicle (LREV) Project The technology is a safe solid state hydrogen storage that releases hydrogen upon controlled heating Zero emissions at the point of use Material can be handled safely in air The system is potentially one third the weight of a similar battery Ease of distribution Potential to pelletise, so material can be pumped like a fluid September 14,

9 Long Range Electric Vehicle (LREV) Project Replace the high pressure H 2 tank with an on-demand low pressure hydrogen system Maximum pressure 20 bar Minimum gaseous H 2 volume Thermally managed Release rate controlled Quality maintained September 14,

10 Long Range Electric Vehicle (LREV) Project Achieving 150km range: - Carrousels containing cans of AB o Micro Cab 125 Whr/km Fuel Cell 50% Eff. Requires 250 Whr/km H 2 o 150 km = 37.5 kwhr equivalent to 135 MJ o 1g AB creates 1 litre H 2 Each can contains 200g AB (200 litres H 2 ) o 68 cans equates to approximately 150km September 14,

11 Liquid Air/Nitrogen Liquid air is produced by cryogenic distillation in an air separation plant. This process is mature: - More than 100 years old - Present in every industrialised nation - Plants only need air and electricity - Plants are large scale and flexibly operated to achieve lowest electricity prices - Distribution and storage technologies and infrastructure are mature. September 14,

12 Why Liquid Air/Nitrogen? Common operating principle for all technologies: - Heat from the environment is transferred into shaft power - Low starting temperature gives high yields from even low-grade waste heat - The only emission is air or nitrogen - Applications in grid-scale energy storage and transport - Opportunities for big synergies with processes that have cooling requirement or spare heat a store of cold and power September 14,

13 The Dearman Engine Principle Vaporise & superheat bar 2 3 Pressure Isothermal Expansion The Dearman Engine 1bar 1 Pressurize Liquefaction 4 follows the Rankine Cycle -200 C Temperature C September 14,

14 Cool-E Refrigerated Haulage Applications Cooling currently accounts for up to 20% of a refrigerated vehicle s fuel consumption - Using the refrigerated payload as a source of low grade heat to boil the LiN ~66% of the cooling is generated this way - Dearman Engine drives ancillaries (fans, defroster) and a downsized refrigerator that provides ~30% of the cooling September 14,

15 Power (kw) CE-POWER Heat Hybrid for Public Transport Prototype hybrid bus using Liquid air diesel hybrid Internal combustion engines (ICEs) reject about 60% of the energy in their fuel in the form of heat ICE + Dearman - The Dearman Engine can convert this rejected heat into shaft power The Dearman Engine and ICE can be used individually or together to meet the power requirements of the vehicle 50 0 Time (s) ICE Only Dearman Only This enables the ICE to be operated at a more efficient point more of the time to achieve an efficiency improvement Estimated fuel saving of up to 25% September 14,

16 Thank you & questions September 14,

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