5 kw Alkaline fuel cells target commercialization

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1 5 kw Alkaline fuel cells target commercialization R. Privette, N. English, H. Wang, D. Wong ECD S. Eick, W. Haris, U.S. Army TARDEC T. Lowe, Energy Technologies, Inc Energy Conversion Devices (ECD) 2983 Waterview Drive Rochester Hills, MI

2 Agenda Energy Conversion Devices Alkaline Fuel Cell with Metal Hydride catalyst Low cost materials Market-ready Power & Specific Power Manufacturability enhancements Practical balance of plant Commercialization 2

3 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. Demonstrated Green Technology commercial successes United Solar Ovonic Pioneer and market leader in amorphous silicon thin-film photovoltaic devices Leader in solar roofing Lightweight, flexible, durable Ideal for BIPV, BAPV $405M raised for expansion to 1 GW (2012) Ovonic Battery Company Inventor of the NiMH battery 98% of worldwide NiMH production licensed High-growth NiMH market segments: All hybrid electric vehicles use NiMH Replacement of primary alkaline (throwaways) with rechargeable NiMH H2 Storage 2009

4 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. High potential near-term Green Technology opportunities: Renewable Hydrogen Low cost hydrogen production from renewable fuels such as biomass. Proprietary technology Low-cost distributed production No CO2 produced, net reduction Multiple feedstocks Solid Hydrogen Storage Safe, compact, refillable, and market ready. Proprietary technology Low pressure MH storage Unique DOT-approved status System integration expertise

5 Ovonic Metal Hydride ENHANCED Alkaline Fuel Cell The Power of PEM Fuel Cells at a Fraction of the Cost High-power alkaline fuel cell ( W/kg) Low cost materials, no platinum Reliable performance, long life Instant and cold start capability, low temperature operation 50 W 1 kw systems stems demonstrated Multiple patents on materials, designs, devices, and systems High Power, Compact Fuel Cell Stacks 1 kw System with Energy Technologies, Inc. Backup/Emergency Power IT/Server Rooms Telecom Military

6 Ovonic Enabling a practical fuel cell Business Vision Ovonic manufactures 1-5 kw stacks Target Markets Partners integrate 1 10 kw generators Military Commercial Tactical APU Telecom backup Homeland security 6

7 Ovonic Enabling a practical fuel cell 5 kw Stack Cost Projections Stack Comparison Metal Hydride FC PEM FC Power (Watts) Specific Power (Watts/kg) Power Density (Watts/L) Cost estimate ($/kw) $100 - $500 $2,000-5,000 No platinum-group catalysts No expensive fluorinated membranes e.g. Nafion Inexpensive materials: Graphite powders Plastic meshes Nickel screens and tabs 7

8 Ovonic Enabling a practical fuel cell Customer Features & Manufacturability Voice of the customer input Rack mountable High power fluid & gas flow Compact plumbing Laser welding Insert molding Wet paste electrode 8

9 Ovonic Enabling a practical fuel cell Power Advancements Gen2 High Power W/kg for conventional alkaline FC 9

10 Ovonic Enabling a practical fuel cell Generation 2 stack test [V] e cell voltage [ Average Optimized thermal hydraulic design 10

11 Ovonic Enabling a practical fuel cell Stack Durability 1.2 Generation 1: hours Generation 2: To date ~2000 hours 1 age voltage tack volta ized stack v malized s Normal Generation 2: 2007+, High power, W/kg Generation 1: circa 2005, Low power, 60 W/kg Time (hr)

12 Ovonic Enabling a practical fuel cell Balance of plant Alkaline vs PEM Alkaline PEM Comparable: Size, Weight, Cost Distinctions: PEM management and control of water including freeze management AFC maintenance of CO 2 filter 12

13 Ovonic Enabling a practical fuel cell Status of Technology Initial Stack Cost T h i l F (2 W/$, = $500/kW) Technical Focus Durability Reproducibility Output (5 kw) Life Cost ($20k NPV) Power density Durability (150 W/kg) (2000 hr) OFC PEM Back Up Power Requirement Life cost based on Battelle contract (DE-FC36-03GO13110)

14 Ovonic Enabling a practical fuel cell Accomplishments Accomplishments Power - increased by 15X Durability extended by 3X to 2000 hours at commercial conditions Manufacturability volume-ready processes implemented Market driven design Rack compatible Instant start & low-temperature operation Compact system plumbing Summary Inherent cost advantage Delivers market-based performance Poised to win race to broad commercialization 1.5 kw 4.1 kw 14

15 P Ovonic Enabling a practical fuel cell Roadmap to commercialization Market 3 rd Party testing Customer sales Product 1 kw System demo Material cost model Improve mfg Yield Labor + OHD cost model Establish manufacturing Prototype reproducibility Scale up mfg Key Milestones Power Output (W) Power Output Specific Power Year 1.5 kw 150 W/kg Laser weld Over mold 5 kw Continuous 1.5 kw Durability Electrode Customer demo System mfg sales CO2 Scrubbing upgrade Technology Manufacturability Power Mfg Yield Durability Cost $1 M $4.5 M $5.7 M

16 TARDEC Hydrogen Program Accomplishments Solid Storage Vessel and Dispensing System For Tow Tractor Jan. & Aug Delivered to Lynntech (MB4 Vehicle) Ovonic 3kg Vessel Nov Delivered three solid H 2 storage vessels and one dispensing system to CTC. July 09 - CTC has completed initial testing and is ready to deliver tow tractors and dispensing system to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii

17 Ovonic s Roadmap to improve NiMH batteries Advanced materials are key Next Generation NiMH - Half the size, half the cost Results in a smaller and lighter battery Decreases weight and cost Increase NiMH Energy MH alloys 20%, Ni(OH) 2 15% higher capacity materials Increase NiMH Power ower (W/kg) MH alloys Cobalt reduction Embedded Ni fibers 1000 Separator Cell design Specific P 2004 HEV 2000 HEV Next generation NiMH High 700 Power 600 Devices Commercial 1995 Portable 100 NiMH in 1991 Electronics Specific Energy (Wh/kg) 17

18 Acknowledgments US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering g Center (TARDEC) State of Ohio Ohio Third Frontier Energy Technologies Inc. 18

19 Conclusions Alkaline Fuel Cells offer near-term commercialization Low cost materials - no platinum group metals Competitive specific power to 200 W/kg Manufacturability enhancements readily scalable Practical balance of plant no breakthroughs required Commercialization seeking partners and field demos 19

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