Chapter 17 Assessment Please write you answers on a separate piece of paper.

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1 Chapter 17 Assessment Please write you answers on a separate piece of paper. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Mendeleev created the first periodic table by arranging elements in order of a. decreasing atomic mass. b. increasing atomic mass. c. increasing atomic number. d. increasing melting points and densities. 2. From an element s location in the periodic table, you can predict a. its properties. b. its chemical name. c. its chemical symbol. d. when it was discovered. 3. Which of these statements about a column of the periodic table is true? a. The elements have similar properties. b. The elements have a wide range of properties. c. The elements have the same atomic number. d. The elements have the same atomic mass. 4. To make most synthetic ( man-made ) elements, scientists use powerful machines called a. semiconductors. b. particle accelerators. c. supernovae. d. Fax machines. 5. In an atom, the number of protons equals the number of a. nuclei. b. electrons. c. neutrons. d. isotopes. 6. The elements in a row of the periodic table a. are in the same family. b. have the same or nearly the same properties. c. have the same average atomic mass. d. have properties that change in a pattern. 7. Which particles in atoms have a negative electric charge? a. electrons b. protons c. neutrons d. nuclei

2 Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true. 8. The modern periodic table is organized according to atomic mass. _ 9. The horizontal rows in the periodic table are known as groups. _ 10. The elements in a group of the periodic table have similar characteristics. _ 11. Protons have no charge; they are neutral. _ 12. Nonmetals can be found on the left side of the periodic table. _ Completion Complete each sentence or statement. 13. Mendeleev discovered that periodic patterns appeared when he arranged the elements in order of increasing. 14. The property of an element that indicates the number of protons in its atoms is the. 15. Quarks are particles found inside of protons and _. 16. are used to help scientists study tracks left by subatomic particles. 17. Each element is given a specific _ that usually consists of one or two letters. 18. The is the very small center core of an atom. 19. Elements known as are located to the right of the metalloids on the periodic table. Short Answer Fill in the diagram. (It may be helpful to recreate the diagram on your paper.) You do not need to show work. Element Atoms of Some Common Elements Atomic Number Mass Number Protons Neutrons Electrons 11? 11?? Magnesium? 24?? 12?? 13? 13 15?? 16 15

3 Use your periodic table to answer questions What name is given to the elements in Groups 3 through 12? 21. What is the magic number of electrons that most elements want to have in their valance shell? 22. Most of the elements that touch that form a zigzag line in the periodic table belong to one major group. What is that group? 23. One example of a nonmetal is the element (give the name or the symbol). 24. Democritus believed that the universe was made of empty space and. 1. Molecules 2. Atoms 3. Elements 4. Compounds 25. Aristotle believed that matter was. a. composed of atoms b. Composed of 4 elements: earth, wind, water, and fire c. Composed of protons and electrons d. capable of being broken down into smaller parts 26. Match the scientist with their discovery 1. J.J. Thompson a. Electrons exist 2. Ernest Rutherford b. The atom s nucleus has most of the mass; electrons are not and is surrounded by electrons 3. Niels Bohr c. Electrons travel in orbits 27. Compare and Contrast Uranium-235 and Uranium-238: Uranium-235 has: protons electrons neutrons Uranium-238 has: protons electrons neutrons

4 28. Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for the following elements: a) Hydrogen b) Phosphorus c) Calcium d) Argon e) Chlorine f) Aluminum g. Xenon h. Bromine i. Boron

5

6 chapter 17 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. K-81 OBJ: K ANS: D DIF: L2 REF: p. K-82 OBJ: K ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. K-86 OBJ: K ANS: A DIF: L3 REF: p. K-87 OBJ: K ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. K-79 OBJ: K ANS: D DIF: L1 REF: p. K-111 OBJ: K ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. K-89 OBJ: K ANS: B DIF: L3 REF: p. K-89 OBJ: K ANS: A DIF: L2 REF: p. K-90 OBJ: K ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. K-94 OBJ: K ANS: B DIF: L3 REF: p. K-94 OBJ: K ANS: C DIF: L3 REF: p. K-88 OBJ: K ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. K-99 OBJ: K ANS: C DIF: L3 REF: p. K-103 OBJ: K ANS: D DIF: L2 REF: p. K-109 OBJ: K STO: 12.F.3.b

7 16. ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. K-108 OBJ: K STO: 12.F.3.b 17. ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. K-88 OBJ: K ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. K-75 OBJ: K ANS: D DIF: L1 REF: p. K-86 OBJ: K ANS: A DIF: L3 REF: p. K-87 OBJ: K ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. K-78 OBJ: K ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. K-75 OBJ: K ANS: C DIF: L1 REF: p. K-78 OBJ: K ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. K-82 OBJ: K STO: 13.A.3.b 25. ANS: D DIF: L1 REF: p. K-91 OBJ: K ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. K-92 OBJ: K ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. K-105 OBJ: K ANS: D DIF: L2 REF: p. K-104 OBJ: K ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. K-75 OBJ: K ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. K-103 OBJ: K MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE 31. ANS: F, atomic number

8 DIF: L2 REF: p. K-82 OBJ: K ANS: F, periods DIF: L1 REF: p. K-86 OBJ: K ANS: T DIF: L2 REF: p. K-87 OBJ: K ANS: F, Neutrons DIF: L2 REF: p. K-75 OBJ: K ANS: T DIF: L1 REF: p. K-88 OBJ: K ANS: T DIF: L3 REF: p. K-90 OBJ: K ANS: F, right DIF: L2 REF: p. K-85 OBJ: K ANS: F, different from DIF: L1 REF: p. K-99 OBJ: K ANS: T DIF: L1 REF: p. K-109 OBJ: K ANS: F, one electron DIF: L1 REF: p. K-103 OBJ: K COMPLETION 41. ANS: atomic mass DIF: L2 REF: p. K-81 OBJ: K ANS: atomic number DIF: L2 REF: p. K-78 OBJ: K ANS: family DIF: L2 REF: p. K-87 OBJ: K ANS: models

9 DIF: L2 REF: p. K-79 OBJ: K ANS: conductivity DIF: L1 REF: p. K-89 OBJ: K ANS: decrease DIF: L1 REF: p. K-90 OBJ: K ANS: right DIF: L3 REF: p. K-101 OBJ: K ANS: poor DIF: L1 REF: p. K-99 OBJ: K ANS: supernova DIF: L2 REF: p. K-111 OBJ: K STO: 12.F.3.b 50. ANS: periodic table DIF: L1 REF: p. K-82 OBJ: K STO: 13.A.3.b 51. ANS: properties DIF: L1 REF: p. K-86 OBJ: K ANS: chemical symbol DIF: L2 REF: p. K-83 OBJ: K ANS: synthesized DIF: L2 REF: p. K-94 OBJ: K ANS: solid DIF: L1 REF: p. K-89 OBJ: K ANS: nucleus DIF: L1 REF: p. K-75 OBJ: K ANS: nonmetals

10 DIF: L2 REF: p. K-85 OBJ: K ANS: gases DIF: L3 REF: p. K-99 OBJ: K ANS: semiconductor DIF: L1 REF: p. K-105 OBJ: K ANS: plasma DIF: L2 REF: p. K-109 OBJ: K STO: 12.F.3.b 60. ANS: fusion DIF: L1 REF: p. K-109 OBJ: K SHORT ANSWER 61. ANS: 23 DIF: L3 REF: p. K-78 OBJ: K STO: 11.A.3.e 62. ANS: 11 DIF: L2 REF: p. K-75 OBJ: K STO: 11.A.3.e 63. ANS: 12 DIF: L3 REF: p. K-78 OBJ: K STO: 11.A.3.e 64. ANS: Silicon s atomic number is 14, and a silicon atom has 14 protons and 14 electrons. You cannot determine the number of neutrons or the mass number. DIF: L3 REF: p. K-78 OBJ: K ANS: 13 DIF: L2 REF: p. K-78 OBJ: K STO: 11.A.3.e 66. ANS: 15

11 DIF: L2 REF: p. K-78 OBJ: K STO: 11.A.3.e 67. ANS: Group 17 DIF: L2 REF: p. K-87 OBJ: K ANS: Group 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. K-87 OBJ: K ANS: Transition metals. They are less reactive than the metals in Groups 1 and 2 to their left; they tend to be more reactive than the metals to their right. DIF: L3 REF: p. K-92 OBJ: K ANS: Hydrogen. Hydrogen is not considered a part of any group, or family, because its chemical properties differ so much from those of other elements. DIF: L2 REF: p. K-104 OBJ: K ANS: Metalloids. Metalloids have some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals. DIF: L2 REF: p. K-105 OBJ: K ANS: The element is a gas, one of the noble gases. It does not ordinarily react with other elements to form compounds. DIF: L3 REF: p. K-104 OBJ: K ESSAY 73. ANS: All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons, but those atoms may have different numbers of neutrons. That means that the masses of individual atoms are not necessarily the same. The atomic mass for the element is the average mass of all the different atoms. That average is not a whole number. DIF: L3 REF: p. K-83 OBJ: K ANS: The three elements are members of the same group, the alkali metals. Their similar chemical behavior results from the fact that their atoms all react with other elements by losing one electron. These elements are part of the most reactive group of metals.

12 DIF: L3 REF: p. K-87, p. K-90 OBJ: K ANS: Mendeleev organized the first useful periodic table. He arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass and grouped them according to properties that repeated in patterns. By using this periodic arrangement, Mendeleev was able to predict the properties of several elements that had not yet been discovered. DIF: L2 REF: p. K-81, p. K-82 OBJ: K STO: 13.B.3.b 76. ANS: Sodium is one of the most chemically reactive metals; it can react explosively with air or water if not stored properly. Calcium is less reactive than sodium, but it is more reactive than most metals. In nature, sodium and calcium are always found in compounds, and never as elements. Iron also reacts with oxygen, but it does so over a period of time; unprotected iron will gradually turn to rust, a compound of iron and oxygen. Gold is extremely unreactive with air and water; in nature, metallic gold can remain in its elemental form indefinitely. DIF: L3 REF: p. K-89, p. K-90, p. K-91, p. K-92 OBJ: K ANS: Metals are generally solid at room temperature; are shiny, malleable, and ductile; and are good conductors. Nonmetals are generally gases at room temperature. Solid nonmetals are usually dull and brittle, and are poor conductors. The properties of metals are generally the opposite of the properties of nonmetals. DIF: L2 REF: p. K-88, p. K-89, p. K-99 OBJ: K.3.3.1, K ANS: When people build a structure, they want it to be stable, to support great weight, and to last for a long time. Iron and certain other transition metals have these characteristics. Alkali metals, on the other hand, are soft and highly reactive, so they are not useful for construction. DIF: L3 REF: p. K-90, p. K-92 OBJ: K ANS: In stars, atoms exist as plasma. In this state, the atoms are stripped of their electrons; the nuclei are under great pressure and collide with one another. Sometimes pairs of nuclei join together, or fuse, making a new, more massive nucleus with a larger atomic number. In this process, known as fusion, new elements are created. These reactions require high temperatures and pressures that are found in stars but not on Earth, so this process does not occur naturally on Earth. DIF: L3 REF: p. K-109, p. K-110 OBJ: K STO: 12.F.3.b 80. ANS:

13 Both groups are nonmetals. All of Group 18 and all but one element in Group 17 are gases under ordinary conditions. However, their chemical behavior is very different. The atoms of halogens easily gain one electron, making them extremely reactive. The noble gases do not ordinarily gain, lose, or share electrons, making them chemically unreactive. DIF: L3 REF: p. K-99, p. K-103, p. K-104 OBJ: K.3.4.1

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