Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy"

Transcription

1 Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

2 A. Ecology I. Ecology 1. eco house & logy study of 2. The study of interactions among and between organisms in their abiotic environment B. Biotic - living environment 1.Includes all organisms C. Abiotic - non living or physical environment 1. Includes living space, sunlight, soil, precipitation, etc.

3 D. Ecologists are interested in the levels of life above that of organism

4 E. Species 1. A group of similar organisms whose members freely interbreed F. Population 1. A group of organisms of the same species that occupy that live in the same area at the same time G. Community 1. All the populations of different species that live and interact in the same area at the same time H. Ecosystem 1. A community and its physical (abiotic) environment K. Landscape 1. Several interacting ecosystems for example a pond next to a forest

5 I. Biosphere contains earth s communities, ecosystems and landscapes, and includes: 1. Atmosphere - gaseous envelope surrounding earth 2. Hydrosphere - earth s supply of water 3. Lithosphere - soil and rock of the earth s crust

6 II. Energy A. The ability or capacity to do work B. Types of energy 1. chemical energy energy stored in the bonds of molecules 2. radiant energy energy, such as radio waves, visible light, and x-rays, that is transmitted as electromagnetic waves

7 3. solar energy is radiant energy from the sun includes uv radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation 4. thermal energy heat that flows from an object with a higher temperature (source) to an object with lower temperature (sink) 5. mechanical energy energy in the movement of matter 6. electrical energy energy that flows as charged particles

8 C. Energy exists as: 1. Potential energy (stored energy) 2. Kinetic energy (energy of motion) D. Potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as arrow is released

9 III. Thermodynamics A. Study of energy and its transformations B. System- the object being studied 1. Closed System - Does not exchange energy with surroundings (rare in nature) 2. Open System - exchanges energy with surroundings

10 C. First Law of Thermodynamics 1. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can change from one form to another D. Second Law of Thermodynamics 1. When energy is converted form one form to another, some of it is degraded to heat 2. Heat is highly entropic (disorganized) entropy is the measure of disorder or randomness organized, usable energy has low entropy whereas disorganized energy such as heat has high entropy

11 IV. Photosynthesis A. Biological process by which energy from the sun (radiant energy) is transformed into chemical energy of sugar molecules 6 CO H 2 O + radiant energy C 6 H 12 O H 2 O + 6 O 2

12 V. Cellular Respiration A. The process where the chemical energy captured in photosynthesis is released within cells of plants and animals C 6 H 12 O O H 2 O 6 CO H 2 O + energy This energy is then used for biological work

13 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

14 V. Energy Flow A. Passage of energy through an ecosystem 1. Producers autotrophs make organic molecules from simple inorganic molecules photosynthesis, chemosynthesis 2. Consumers a. Primary consumers herbivores eat producers b. Secondary consumers eat primary consumers c. Tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers d. carnivores eat only meat e. omnivores eat both producers and meat f. detrivores detritus feeders consume organic matter that includes carcasses, leaf litter, and feces 3. Decomposers saprophytes saprobes heterotrophs that break down dead organic material help recycle nutrients

15 B. Food Chains The Path of Energy Flow 1.Energy from food passes from one organisms to another based on their Trophic Level 2.An organisms position in a food chain determined by its feeding relationships 3.First Trophic Level: Producers 4. Second Trophic Level: Primary Consumers 5. Third Tophic Level: Secondary Consumers 6. Decomposers are present at all trophic levels

16 C. Food Web shows all of the food chains

17 D. Ecological Pyramids 1. Graphically represent the relative energy value of each trophic level 2. Important feature is that large amount of energy are lost between trophic levels to heat 3.Three main types a. Pyramid of numbers b. Pyramid of biomass c. Pyramid of energy

18 4. Pyramid of Numbers - Illustrates the number of organisms at each trophic level a. Fewer organisms occupy each successive level b. Does not indicate: 1. biomass of organisms at each level 2. amount of energy transferred between levels

19 5. Pyramid of biomass - Illustrates the total biomass at each successive trophic level a. Biomass: measure of the total amt of living material b.progressive reduction in biomass through trophic levels

20 6. Pyramid of energy - Illustrates how much energy is present at each trophic level and how much is transferred to the next level a. Most energy dissipates between trophic levels b. Explains why there are so few trophic levels

21 VI. Ecosystem Productivity A. Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) 1. Total amount of energy that plants capture and assimilate in a given period of time B. Net Primary Productivity (NPP) 1. Plant growth per unit area per time 2. Represents the rate at which organic material is actually incorporated into the plant tissue for growth C. GPP cellular respiration = NPP 1. Only NPP is available as food to organisms

22 D. Variation in NPP by Ecosystem

23 E. Human Impact on NPP 1. Humans represent 0.5% of land-based biomass, but use 32% of land-based NPP! a. This may contribute to loss of species (extinction) 2. This represents a threat to planet s ability to support both human and non-human inhabitants

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 What is Ecology? The Energy of Life Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Producers, Consumers

More information

Ecosystems and Energy

Ecosystems and Energy 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 What is Ecology? The Energy of Life Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Producers, Consumers &

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 o Ecology o Energy, the ability to do work First Law of Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics o Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration o Flow

More information

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids What is Ecology? ECOLOGY is a branch of biology that studies ecosystems. Ecological Terminology Environment Ecology Biotic

More information

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 55 Ecosystems PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Overview:

More information

List and define the six levels of organization in ecology, from the most specific to the most complex. individual (organism)- a single living

List and define the six levels of organization in ecology, from the most specific to the most complex. individual (organism)- a single living List and define the six levels of organization in ecology, from the most specific to the most complex. individual (organism)- a single living organism population- a group of individuals that belong to

More information

Eastern Regional High School. F 2. Like nutrients and water, energy also recycles through an ecosystem.

Eastern Regional High School. F 2. Like nutrients and water, energy also recycles through an ecosystem. Eastern Regional High School Honors Biology Name: Period: Date: Unit 14 Introduction to Ecology Worksheet The Science of Ecology Part 1 - True or False Write true if the statement is true or false if the

More information

Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships. KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships. KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. Section 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships KEY CONCEPT Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization.

More information

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter - Exchange of energy and matter You should be able to: (a) briefly describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow (b) establish the relationship of the following in food webs: producer, consumer, herbivore,

More information

Energy flow in ecosystems. Lecture 6 Chap. 6

Energy flow in ecosystems. Lecture 6 Chap. 6 Energy flow in ecosystems Lecture 6 Chap. 6 1 What is an ecosystem? System = regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole Ecosystem = an ecological system; = a community

More information

Introduction to Ecology

Introduction to Ecology Introduction to Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment. Scientists who study ecology are called ecologists. Because our planet has many

More information

Level Description Example 1. Organism 2. Population 3. Community 4. Ecosystem 5. Biosphere. Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere

Level Description Example 1. Organism 2. Population 3. Community 4. Ecosystem 5. Biosphere. Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Main Idea: Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. Write a description of each level of organization in the table. Also, provide an example for each level. Level Description

More information

3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems

3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems 3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems Printed Page 60 [Notes/Highlighting] To understand how ecosystems function and how to best protect and manage them, ecosystem ecologists study not only the biotic and

More information

Lecture Eight: Energy Flow And Biogeochemical Cycles

Lecture Eight: Energy Flow And Biogeochemical Cycles Lecture Eight: Energy Flow And Biogeochemical Cycles We now know what a FOOD WEB is, and what TROPHIC LEVELS are. The Food Web reflects the flow of ENERGY and NUTRIENTS through ecosystems. ENERGY (E) is

More information

9/6/2013. Ecosystem Ecology. Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors

9/6/2013. Ecosystem Ecology. Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors Ecosystem Ecology Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors 1 Matter and Energy Matter has mass and occupies space: it is the stuff you and everything else is made of. Energy is what you

More information

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. life by observing many different kinds of life forms. sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy.

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. life by observing many different kinds of life forms. sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy. The Biosphere Matter of Energy, Interdependence in Nature Q: How do Earth s living and nonliving parts interact and affect the survival of organisms? 3.1 How do we study life? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER:

More information

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS In an ecosystem, plants capture the sun's energy and use it to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich organic compounds. This process of using the sun's

More information

The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight.

The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight. Energy in Ecosystems: Ecology: Part 2: Energy and Biomass The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight. What is the amount of energy from the sun? 100 W/ft 2 The energy gets transferred through

More information

Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology. AP Biology

Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology. AP Biology Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology Studying organisms in their environment organism population community ecosystem biosphere Essential questions What limits the production in ecosystems? How do

More information

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS SECTION 1 In an ecosystem, plants capture the sun's energy and use it to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich organic compounds. This process of using

More information

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work?

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Introduction to Ecology Ecology - Increasing Levels of Complexity: Population: All members of a particular species living within a defined area Organism Community: All

More information

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species.

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species. Name: practice test Score: 0 / 35 (0%) [12 subjective questions not graded] The Biosphere Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the

More information

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13 Energy & Matter in Ecosystems Chapter 13 The Big Idea Matter cycles between organisms and the abiotic environment. Energy flows one way, from sunlight to producers to consumers and decomposers. Lesson

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Ecosystems as machines. Simple laws of physics. Energy Ability to do work

Ecosystem Ecology. Ecosystems as machines. Simple laws of physics. Energy Ability to do work Ecosystem Ecology Read Chps 18-19 (know N, P, C cycles) Ecosystem: A community of organisms plus its nonlinving (=abiotic) environment At the individual level, the abiotic environment affects organisms

More information

2.5: Energy Flow in Ecosystems pg. 38. Radiant Energy: energy that travels through empty space.

2.5: Energy Flow in Ecosystems pg. 38. Radiant Energy: energy that travels through empty space. 2.5: Energy Flow in Ecosystems pg. 38 Radiant Energy: energy that travels through empty space. Producer: an organism that makes its own energy-rich food using the Sun s energy. Photosynthesis: the process

More information

How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5)

How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5) How Ecosystems Work ( Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5) Study online at quizlet.com/_i2rl5 1. AUTOTROPH OR PRODUCER Organism that makes its own food by photosynthesis 2. Biodiversity When an ecosystem

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles

Ecosystem Ecology. Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles Ecosystem Ecology Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles Introduction to Ecosystems Some reflected Some converted to heat Some absorbed PSN Some absorbed by organisms, soils, water Introduction to Ecosystems

More information

Relationships in Ecosystems. Vocabulary

Relationships in Ecosystems. Vocabulary Relationships in Ecosystems Vocabulary Relationships in Ecosystems Big Ideas Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species

More information

13.1. Principles of Ecology CHAPTER 13. Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

13.1. Principles of Ecology CHAPTER 13. Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. SECTION 13.1 KEY CONCEPT ECOLOGISTS STUDY RELATIONSHIPS Study Guide Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. VOCABULARY ecology community MAIN IDEA: Ecologists study

More information

Consortium for Educational Communication

Consortium for Educational Communication Consortium for Educational Communication Module on ENERGY FLOW IN AUTOTROPHIC AND DETRITUS BASED ECOSYSTEMS By Zahoor Ahmad Itoo M. Phil. Scholar Department of Botany Kashmir University Srinagar TEXT 1.1.

More information

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling Ecosystems THE REALM OF ECOLOGY Biosphere An island ecosystem A desert spring ecosystem Biosphere Ecosystem Ecology: Interactions between the species in a given habitat and their physical environment.

More information

Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011

Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Grades: 6, 7 & 8 Time: 3 hours With the pond as a model, students explore how energy that originates from the sun keeps changing shape and form as

More information

ENERGY WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

ENERGY WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS ENERGY PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? Biological community plus all abiotic factors affecting the community Ecosystem first proposed by Arthur Tansley Boundaries not fixed

More information

Energy Flow in the Biosphere

Energy Flow in the Biosphere Energy Flow in the Biosphere 36.1-36.2 Objectives Compare and contrast the pathways of matter and energy in an ecosystem. Identify and describe the various feeding relationships in an ecosystem. Describe

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A group of organisms of the same

More information

ENERGY FLOW THROUGH LIVING SYSTEMS

ENERGY FLOW THROUGH LIVING SYSTEMS reflect Enter the word domino as a search term on the Internet; you can fi nd some amazing domino runs. You can make your own by setting up a series of dominoes in a line. When you push the fi rst domino

More information

aerobic cellular respiration a process by which organisms convert sugar into usable energy (SRB, IG)

aerobic cellular respiration a process by which organisms convert sugar into usable energy (SRB, IG) FOSS Populations and Ecosystems, Second Edition Glossary abiotic nonliving (SRB, aerobic cellular respiration a process by which organisms convert sugar into usable energy (SRB, aquatic of the water (SRB,

More information

Food Chains and Webs --- "What's for dinner?"

Food Chains and Webs --- What's for dinner? Food Chains and Webs --- "What's for dinner?" Every organism needs to obtain energy in order to live. For example, plants get energy from the sun, some animals eat plants, and some animals eat other animals.

More information

The animals at higher levels are more competitive, so fewer animals survive. B.

The animals at higher levels are more competitive, so fewer animals survive. B. Energy Flow in Ecosystems 1. The diagram below shows an energy pyramid. Which of the following best explains why the number of organisms at each level decreases while moving up the energy pyramid? The

More information

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems Matter and Energy in Ecosystems The interactions that take place among biotic and abiotic factors lead to transfers of energy and matter. Every species has a particular role, or niche, in an ecosystem.

More information

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles Multiple Choice Test 1. The flow of solar energy through an ecosystem is marked by a) plants converting light energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis

More information

APES Unit 3 Ecosystems

APES Unit 3 Ecosystems APES Unit 3 Ecosystems Ecology From the Greek words oikos = house and logos = study of The study of how organisms interact with one another and with their environment. YOU SHOULD KNOW! The difference between

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers Ecosystem Ecology 1. Overview of material and energy flows in ecosystems 2. Primary production 3. Secondary production and trophic efficiency 4. Ecological Pyramids Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems

More information

Check Point Energy Unit Test. Dr. Browne

Check Point Energy Unit Test. Dr. Browne Check Point Energy Unit Test Dr. Browne 1. The ability to make things happen or do work is known as 2. There are two main types of energy: energy that is stored, and energy of motion is. 3. Energy is conserved

More information

4 Ecology. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised

4 Ecology. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 4 Ecology Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 1 Ecology is the study of organisms in relation to their environment. An ecosystem, such as a lake or woodland, is a stable and settled

More information

Ecological Communities

Ecological Communities LESSON Ecological Communities Guiding Question: How do energy and nutrients move through communities? Explain the difference between a producer and a consumer. Explain the effect of inefficient energy

More information

Ecosystems and Food Webs

Ecosystems and Food Webs Ecosystems and Food Webs How do AIS affect our lakes? Background Information All things on the planet both living and nonliving interact. An Ecosystem is defined as the set of elements, living and nonliving,

More information

Ecology PS 12 PS 13:

Ecology PS 12 PS 13: Ecology PS 12: Matter cycles and energy flows through living and nonliving components in ecosystems. The transfer of matter and energy is important for maintaining the health and sustainability of ecosystems.

More information

Ecology- an ecosystem: a Biome: o They are either terrestrial or aquatic. rainforests, deserts, coral reefs

Ecology- an ecosystem: a Biome: o They are either terrestrial or aquatic. rainforests, deserts, coral reefs Topic 17: Ecology Ecology- The environment is an organism s surroundings o It includes:! biotic factors: Ecosystems! abiotic factors: an ecosystem: In order for an ecosystem to maintain life it must: -

More information

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling AP Biology Chapter 54 notes Ecosystems Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

7. Use the dead tree in Fig 3-10 to describe the processes of detritus feeders and decomposers.

7. Use the dead tree in Fig 3-10 to describe the processes of detritus feeders and decomposers. APES Miller 17th ed. Chapter 3 Questions 5. Describe the 2 chemical equations used by autotrophs and heterotrophs to gain energy for chemical functions. Compare/contrast respiration to fossil fuel combustion

More information

Principles of Ecology

Principles of Ecology Principles of Ecology Before You Read Use the What I Know column to list the things you know about ecology. Then list the questions you have about ecology in the What I Want to Find Out column. K W L What

More information

Principles of Ecology

Principles of Ecology Principles of Ecology Chapter 2. pp. 33-61 Flexbook. pp. 709-746 Principles of Ecology Ecology the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environments Living things are affected

More information

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with their environments are studied. An Ecologist is someone

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

More information

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Overview: 1. What is an ecosystem? Name Period An ecosystem is the sum of all the organisms living in a given area and the abiotic factors with which they

More information

Energy, Producers, and Consumers. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers

Energy, Producers, and Consumers. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers Lesson Overview 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers THINK ABOUT IT At the core of every organism s interaction with the environment is its need for energy to power life s processes. Where does energy

More information

Section 3: Trophic Structures

Section 3: Trophic Structures Marine Conservation Science and Policy Service learning Program Trophic Structure refers to the way in which organisms utilize food resources and hence where energy transfer occurs within an ecosystem.

More information

Ecology limiting factors plant limiting factors field mouse nitrogen nitrogen ALL nitrogen returned to soil process major role; mutualism

Ecology limiting factors plant limiting factors field mouse nitrogen nitrogen ALL nitrogen returned to soil process major role; mutualism Ecology List some limiting factors that would affect a plant (such as a corn plant) population. Light, carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, nutrients in soil, water List some limiting factors that

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 3 Energy and Matter in Ecosystems. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 3 Energy and Matter in Ecosystems. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Soak Up the Sun How do organisms get energy and matter? Energy is the ability to do work. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. All organisms need energy and matter to live, grow, and reproduce.

More information

Unit 3 Lecture 4 Energy flow in an ecosystem

Unit 3 Lecture 4 Energy flow in an ecosystem Energy flow is the movement of energy through an ecosystem: from the external environment through a series of organisms and back to the external environment. It is one of the fundamental processes common

More information

UNIT 3 LECTURE 3 FOOD CHAIN, FOOD WEB, ECOLOGICAL PYRAMID. Italics indicate text already on slide

UNIT 3 LECTURE 3 FOOD CHAIN, FOOD WEB, ECOLOGICAL PYRAMID. Italics indicate text already on slide UNIT 3 LECTURE 3 FOOD CHAIN, FOOD WEB, ECOLOGICAL PYRAMID Italics indicate text already on slide SLIDE 1 Definition of food chain The transfer of food energy from the source in plants through a series

More information

Chapter 13- Food chains and webs

Chapter 13- Food chains and webs Section 4: Food Chains and Food Webs Chapter 13- Food chains and webs KEY CONCEPT Food chains and food webs model the flow of energy in an ecosystem. VOCABULARY food chain herbivore carnivore omnivore

More information

Chapter 36: Population Growth. Population Concepts. Population: Carrying Capacity: Critical Number: Growth Rate: Growth rate = Birth rate - Death rate

Chapter 36: Population Growth. Population Concepts. Population: Carrying Capacity: Critical Number: Growth Rate: Growth rate = Birth rate - Death rate Chapter 36: Population Growth Population: Population Concepts interbreeding group of same species Carrying Capacity: maximum population size an ecosystem can sustainably support Critical Number: minimum

More information

What is ecology? Ecology basic concepts. Energy flow in ecosystems. We use the energy that plants capture from the sun

What is ecology? Ecology basic concepts. Energy flow in ecosystems. We use the energy that plants capture from the sun What is ecology? The study of how organisms adapt to The environment Other organisms Ecology basic concepts Energy flow Trophic (feeding) relationships Global climate change Energy flow in ecosystems We

More information

ECOSYSTEM 1. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS

ECOSYSTEM 1. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS ECOSYSTEM 1. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS ECOSYSTEM:- A functional unit of nature where interactions of living organisms with physical environment takes place. STRATIFICATION:- Vertical distribution of different

More information

5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients

5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients CHAPTER 5 ECOSYSTEMS 5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients Did anyone ever ask you the question: Where do you get your energy? Energy enters our world from the Sun but how does the Sun s energy become

More information

ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Environment The term environment denotes all the physical, chemical and biotic conditions surrounding and influencing a living organism. Favourable environmental conditions

More information

D. Categorize Words. E. Find the Odd Word

D. Categorize Words. E. Find the Odd Word Answer Key Vocabulary Practice A. Synonyms or Antonyms 1. synonym 2. antonym 3. antonym 4. synonym 5. antonym 6. antonym B. Stepped-Out Vocabulary 1. A species that has an unusually large effect on its

More information

Ecology: Practice Questions #1

Ecology: Practice Questions #1 Ecology: Practice Questions #1 1. One biotic factor that affects consumers in an ocean ecosystem is A. number of autotrophs B. temperature variation C. salt content D. ph of water 2. A food web is represented

More information

trophic levels environment abiotic interactions producers consumers decomposers food chain components trophic interactions community food webs biotic

trophic levels environment abiotic interactions producers consumers decomposers food chain components trophic interactions community food webs biotic AGUSTINIANO CIUDAD SALITRE SCHOOL NATURAL SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SIXTH GRADE MAKE UP WORKSHOP NAME: COURSE: DATE: ECOSYSTEM Fill in the blanks using the word box: trophic levels environment

More information

2.6: Interactions in the Ecosystem pg. 42

2.6: Interactions in the Ecosystem pg. 42 2.6: Interactions in the Ecosystem pg. 42 Ecological Niche: the function a species serves in its ecosystem, including where it lives, what it eats, what eats it, and how it behaves. Trophic Level: the

More information

1. In food chains and webs, what trophic level must you have more of than others? 2. Each trophic level has how much LESS energy?

1. In food chains and webs, what trophic level must you have more of than others? 2. Each trophic level has how much LESS energy? Pyramid of Energy Packet Every organism needs to obtain energy in order to live. For example, plants get energy from the sun, some animals eat plants, and some animals eat other animals. A food chain is

More information

Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems

Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems photosynthesis a process by which plants use water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to produce sugars (food) Types

More information

AP Biology Lab 10: Energy Dynamics

AP Biology Lab 10: Energy Dynamics Name: Period: AP Biology Lab 10: Energy Dynamics Purpose: What factors govern energy capture, allocation, storage, and transfer between producers and consumers in a terrestrial ecosystem? Background: Almost

More information

Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers:

Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers: Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers: Energy and Matter in Ecosystems by Ellen Deehan, M.S. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Biological Overview: Hierarchy of

More information

Energy Flow. Background. The following page illustrates a sample diagram of a food chain.

Energy Flow. Background. The following page illustrates a sample diagram of a food chain. Background Energy Flow The following page illustrates a sample diagram of a food chain. Notice the dark black arrows and the direction in which they are pointing. The arrows indicate the flow of energy

More information

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes 2015 1 Ecology Initial Vocab and Practice Page 1 in notes 2 The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment. 3 Organism/species an individual living thing.

More information

Chapter 3 Section 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers

Chapter 3 Section 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers Chapter 3 Section 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers At the core of every organism s interaction with the environment is its need for energy to power life s processes. Where does energy in living systems

More information

A Biotic and Abiotic Factors

A Biotic and Abiotic Factors Ecology Project Earth s Biomes Biomes 1. Savanna 2. Temperate Grasslands 3. Desert 4. Tropical Rain Forest 5. Taiga /Boreal Forest 6. Tundra 7. Temperate Forest 8. Temperate Shrubland/Scrublands 9. Nothwestern

More information

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes Biomes The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 2 THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes By the end of this topic you should be able to:- SYLLABUS STATEMENT ASSESSMENT STATEMENT CHECK NOTES 2.4 BIOMES 2.4.1 Define the term biome.

More information

Ecology - Interactions in Communities

Ecology - Interactions in Communities Ecology - Interactions in Communities Symbiotic Relationships ( living together ) symbiosis - dissimilar organisms living together symbiont lives in /on a second species, host parasitism and mutualism

More information

UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #4: Energy Flow In An Ecosystem

UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #4: Energy Flow In An Ecosystem SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #4: Energy Flow In An Ecosystem The sun is the source of energy for Earth. It is a one-way flow. Energy enters food chains through the process

More information

Ecology. Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce.

Ecology. Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. Biotic vs. Abiotic Ecology Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. Some Abiotic Factors light intensity temperature range

More information

Chapter 4 Interactions of Life Review Matching

Chapter 4 Interactions of Life Review Matching Chapter 4 Interactions of Life Review Matching a. population density i. producers q. ecosystem b. community j. ecology r. autotroph c. population k. carrying capacity s. competition d. habitat l. symbiosis

More information

Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18

Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18 Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18 Sunlight to photosynthesizer to herbivore to carnivore to decomposer!!! 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or

More information

HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK

HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 05 HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK I. Energy Flow in Ecosystems List two examples of ecological succession. Explain how a pioneer species contributes to ecological succession. Explain

More information

Following Energy Movement in Ecosystems

Following Energy Movement in Ecosystems 1.11 Following Energy Movement in Ecosystems You can begin to understand energy flows by categorizing living things by their trophic level in their ecosystem, according to how they gain their energy. The

More information

Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work. You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through.

Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work. You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through. Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through. Ilya Ehrenburg Energy Flow in Ecosystems For most living organisms the sun

More information

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask:

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask: B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. ecosystem - biotic community (all

More information

Energy Production. Marine Ecology. Activity 3

Energy Production. Marine Ecology. Activity 3 Energy Production In their daily struggle for survival marine animals perform a variety of activities e.g. movement - squids and octopuses use jet propulsion, scallops clap their shells and fish swim.

More information

The Ecosystem of the Forest

The Ecosystem of the Forest The Ecosystem of the Forest The Ecosystem of the Forest Even if it doesn t look like it, all living things constantly interact with their environment. For instance, every time you take a breath, you get

More information

Chapter 13 study guide

Chapter 13 study guide Below are listed some Key Topics or terms to aid in focusing your study time. More topics then these may appear on the exam but these are a good place to start. Check each box as you review the concept

More information

Ecology: An Explanation

Ecology: An Explanation Ecology: An Explanation Define Ecology - study of the interactions that take place among Biosphere - part of Earth that supports life, including the top portion of Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and all

More information

Student Worksheets. 9th Grade. Name

Student Worksheets. 9th Grade. Name Student Worksheets 9th Grade Name Ecosystems Ecosystems are complex entities made up of interacting inorganic and biotic elements. In this worksheet, we will mainly be concerned with one particular ecosystem

More information

ECOSYSTEMS: THE ROLE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS from the series Biology: The Science of Life Pre-Test

ECOSYSTEMS: THE ROLE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS from the series Biology: The Science of Life Pre-Test 1 Pre-Test Directions: Answer each of the following either true or false: 1. In ecosystems, non-living (abiotic) factors usually have insignificant effects on living things. True False 2. Carbon dioxide

More information

Ecosystems Processes: Energy Flow

Ecosystems Processes: Energy Flow Ecosystems Processes: Energy Flow 6 STRUCTURE 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Objectives 6.3 Understanding Energy Flow 6.4 Energy in Ecological Systems 6.5 Food Chains 6.6 Understanding Food Chains 6.7 Conclusion

More information

STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment.

STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. 2. A Hierarchy of interactions: cells tissues organs

More information

Regents Biology REVIEW 3: NUTRITION, RESPIRATION & PHOTOSY/NTHESIS

Regents Biology REVIEW 3: NUTRITION, RESPIRATION & PHOTOSY/NTHESIS Period Date REVIEW 3: NUTRITION, RESPIRATION & PHOTOSY/NTHESIS NUTRITION AND METABOLISM All living organisms need energy and nutrients. The energy is used for many purposes, such as synthesis building

More information