CSS 560 Principles of Ecology for Environmental Educators

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1 CSS 560 Principles of Ecology for Environmental Educators

2 Journaling task (15:00 min/each) Draw a diagram that shows the major components (boxes) and interactions (arrows) of a terrestrial ecosystem

3 Conceptual model Source: Knight, 1994

4 Ecosystems: The flux of energy and matter Source:

5 Energy (heat) transfer Convection Radiation Source: blogs.saschina.org/

6 Earth-atmosphere energy balance Net solar energy absorbed by the surface 48% Evaporation 25% Convection 5% Thermal Rad. 17% Photosynthesis < 1%

7 Latent heat flux Latent heat flux

8 Latent heat transfer (cont.) Latent heat video

9 Observation Describe what you see happens regarding energy transfer What do you think happens to the water in the round flask and why? Source:

10

11 Latent heat transfer Source:

12 Sensible heat flux Sensible heat flux Air temperature

13 Observation Measure CO2 rate of change and record data 2 g of yeast 0.5 g of sugar Create scatter plot in Excel 100 ml 100 ml 100 ml 100 ml Increasing temp Important: Set gas sensor to ppm

14 Reaction rate of enzymatically catalyzed reactions (mmol Product per unit of time) Sensible heat flux Temperature ( C)

15 Sensible heat flux (cont.)

16 Growing degree days (or heat units) T base = minimum temperature required for plants to grow (McCall area 5 C) Using growing degree days to predict phenology

17 Growing degree days (cont.)

18 Task (10:00 min/two groups) Record the air temperature ~ 5 cm above: - Lake surface - Parking lot - Above grass canopy Make sure all locations you measure are under approximately the same illumination conditions

19 Task Solution Net solar energy absorbed by the surface 48% Evaporation 25% Convection 5% Thermal Rad. 17% Photosynthesis < 1%

20 Climate in the McCall area (cont.) Data source for plot: Western Regional Climate Center (http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/climain.pl?id5708)

21 Climate in the McCall area (cont.) Source:

22 Climate in the McCall area Moist winters and drier summers Colder drier winters, wetter summers Source: Deren, 2010

23 SNOTEL SNOTEL website

24 Task (30:00 min/two groups) How many growing degree days did we get over the last 5 days at Bear Basin?

25 Temperature sensors Logtag tutorial Logtag manual

26 Temperature sensors (cont.) Which temperature line (red or blue) is associated with the treated and untreated forest?

27

28 Task (Groups of 2) On a diurnal basis, when do winds usually reach their maximum and minimum speeds?

29 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis

30 Photosynthesis

31 Photosynthesis

32 Light Photosynthetic active radiation Measures Lux

33 Photosynthesis

34 Chlorophyll Figure 1. Relationship between chlorophyll content and rate of photosynthesis in soybean leaves. Chlorophyll mutants as open circles; cultivars as solid black circles (Buttery and Buzzell, 1977). Figure 2. Relationship between chlorophyll per area and maximum Photosynthesis in sugar beat (Taylor and Terry, 1984)

35 Task(10:00 min/groups of 2) How does light availability and chlorophyll change within a plant canopy?

36 Task Solution

37 Photosynthesis

38 Water-use efficiency Water-use efficiency Source: Raven et al. 2000

39 Task (Groups of 2) Let s bag some leaves

40 Photosynthesis

41 Task (10:00 min/groups of 2) Hypothesize, how CO2 concentration in the light and dark treatment will change. Test your hypothesis. To test your hypothesis, collect leaves and measure the CO2 concentration of the dark and light treatment for 10 minutes. Important: Make sure both CO2 sensors are set to ppm

42 Data logging with Verniers Record

43 Task (5:00 min/each) How do you think increased CO2 concentration will affect plant growth and soil moisture?

44 Task Solution Biomass production (see article Soil N constraint on the CO2 fertilization of plants on our class website) Water cycle

45 Task (2:00 min/each) Both leaves are exposed to the same environmental conditions (e.g., temperature etc.). Which leaf surface (1 or 2) do you think is warmer and why. Stomata closed 1 2 Stomata open

46 Plant temperature Source: Jones, Application of Thermal Imaging and Infrared Sensing in Plant Physiology and Ecophysiology

47 Plant temperature (cont.)

48 Task (5:00 min/each) And fresh air too! Do you agree or disagree with this statement and why?

49 Gross and net-primary production (NPP) Net-primary production = Gross primary production respiration Savings = Total income - spending

50 Sun Sunlight drives (cont.) Carnivores Herbivores Primary consumer 2 nd consumer 3 rd consumer Energy Nutrients Picture Sources: Raven et al., Flow chart adapted from:

51 Journaling task (15:00 min/each) Discuss what Eugene Odum means when he writes the following: One important aspect of function is the energy flow through the ecosystems beginning with the incoming solar energy and passing through the successive trophic levels. At each transfer a large par of the energy is dissipated in respiration and passes out of the system as heat. The amount of energy remaining after three steps is so small that is can be ignored in so far as the energetics of the community are concerned. However, tertiary consumers ( top carnivores ) can be important as regulators; that is, predation may have an important effect on energy flow at the herbivore level Eugene P. Odum, 1962

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