Prof. Pastrana-Pérez. fe-o pre-o-cu-pa-do ne-ce-sa-rio bue-no dí-a des-pués. en-fer-mo al-qui-ler ca-le-fac-ción ca-cho-rri-llo in-nato

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1 Syllabication and Accents I. SYLLABICATION 1. Syllables usually end in a vowel. me-sa tra-ba-jo ca-ma-re-ro 2. Two vowels should always be separated unless one of the vowels is an unaccented i or u, in which case we have a diphthong. fe-o pre-o-cu-pa-do ne-ce-sa-rio bue-no dí-a des-pués 3. Two consonants are usually separated. The consonants ch, ll and rr are considered single letters in Spanish and should never be separated. Double c and double n are separated. en-fer-mo al-qui-ler ca-le-fac-ción ca-cho-rri-llo in-nato 4. The consonants l and r are never separated from the preceding consonant, except from s and n. ha-blar a-brir si-glo a-pren-der is-la En-ri-que 5. Combinations of three or four consonants are separated following the rules above. The letter s should go with the preceding syllable. en-tre-ga com-ple-to ins-ti-tu-ción obs-cu-ro ins-crip-ción II STRESS AND ACCENTS 1. If a word ends in n, s or a vowel, the stress falls on the next -to-last syllable: ha-blan e-xa-men tar-je-tas a-par-ta-men-to pe-rri-to 2. If a word ends in any other letter, the stress falls on the last syllable: pa-pel es-pa-ñol us-ted pa-re-cer re-gu-lar 3. If these stress rules are violated, stress must be indicated with a written accent: fran-cés ha-blé ár-bol ca-rác-ter e-léc-tri-co ál-bum 1

2 III. DIPHTHONGS A diphthong is a combination of a weak (i, u) and a strong (a, e, o) vowel (in either order), or of two weak vowels. The strong vowel or the second of two weak vowels receives a slightly greater stress: ai: pai-sa-je, can-táis ei: ley, can-téis oi: sois au: au-to eu: eu-fo-ria ou: ia: ta-pia, ciá-ti-ca ie: mie-do, hin-ca-pié io: rio-ja, mu-rió iu: ciu-dad ua: a-gua, A-suán ue: vuel-ve, des-pués uo: ac-tu-ó ui: Luis When the stress falls on the weak vowel of a combination of weak and strong vowels, no diphthong exists. This is called hiatus. Then, the weak vowel takes a written accent: a-í: pa-ís e-í: le-ímos o-í: o-í-mos a-ú: Ra-úl e-ú: Se-úl o-ú: í-a: dí-a í-e: en-ví-e í-o: en-ví-o ú-a: pú-a ú-e: ac-tú-e ú-o: ac-tú-o IV USE OF THE WRITTEN ACCENT AS A DIACRITIC 1. A diacritic accent is used to distinguish two words with the same spelling and pronunciation but different meaning: de of, from dé (Ud.) give el the él he mas but más more mi my mí me se pronoun sé I know si if, whether sí yes solo alone, lonely sólo only, just te you (obj.) té tea tu your tú you (subj.) 2. Diacritic accents are used on relative pronouns and adverbs when used for exclamations and questions: como such as, like, since cómo how donde where, wherever dónde where...? por que for which porque because por qué why que that, which qué what, which...? 3. Diacritic accents are used on demonstrative pronouns to distinguish them from demonstrative adjectives: este curso this course éste this one esa casa this house ésa that one aquellos libros those books aquéllos those ones 2

3 Syllabication and Accents (Practice sheet 1) s e n a d o r r e c o p i l a c i o n s u d a r s e n t i m i e n t o f e l i c i d a d r e c o g i m i e n t o f i l o s o f i a d e s e o c a t a s t r o f e a r r e p e n t i r s e h i p e r b o l e A m a d e o s a t i r a c o m e n s a l o i d o o d i o m e d i c o m e d i c a m e n t o o b s t r u c c i o n p r o b l e m a t i c o d e s t r u i r r a p i d i s i m o c e n t r o a f r i c a n o c o n s t r u i r e n r e d o g r a n d i o s o R a u l N e s t o r i n n e c e s a r i o D i o n i s i o c o r t e s i a s e n e c t u d f e u d a l i s m o i n s t r u c c i o n d e s t i t u i r t r a d i c i o n e s r e f l e j o c i u d a d f a m i l i a s o c i o f e r r e o s e r v i c i a l i d a d E n r i q u e e m p r e n d e d o r i n t e r e s a n t i s i m o e n c a r c e l a m i e n t o s a l i o b e r e b e r s e r v i c i o p u e r t o r r i q u e ñ o m i o p i a c a n t a r o c a n t a r o n c a n t a r a m o s c a n t a r e m o s d e n t r i f i c o c a r a c t e r i s t i c o s e n s u a l i s m o d e r r o t a r d e r r o t a I s r a e l i n f a n c i a f a t a l b a u l h i e r r o d e m o n i a c o C o z u m e l r i m e l c a n c i o n e r o i n f a n t i l s e r v o c r o a t a d e c i d i r d i g a m o s e l o c h o c o l a t i l l o l e v a n t e m o n o s 3

4 Syllabication and Accents (Practice sheet 2) r e a l r e a l e z a r e a l i s t a r e a l i d a d c r e d i t o a c r e d i t o a c r e d i t o s a c a i s s a q u e i s s a c a s t e i s s a c a r i a i s s a c a r a i s d i v i d a n s e d i v i d i r s e r e e l i j a m o s l e r e e l e c c i o n h u m o r i s t i c a m e n t e s a t i r a s a t i r i c o s a t i r i z a l o s a t i r i z a r s a t i r i z a r o n s a t i r i z a r a s a t i r i z a r a s a t i r i z a r i a n u m e r o n u m e r i c o n u m e r a r n u m e r a r i a n u m e r a r i a c a m p e o n c a m p e o n e s c a m p e o n a t o i n s t r u c c i o n i n s t r u c c i o n e s r a c i o c i n i o i n t r i n s e c o a l h e l i a l c o h o l a l c o h o l i c o a l c o h o l e m i a a l c o h o l i m e t r o a l c o h o l i m e t r i a i n t e g r a i n t e g r a i n t e g r a r i n t e g r a r a i n t e g r a r a 4

5 Syllabication and Accents (Practice sheet 3) c a t a r a t a s u p e r i o r i d a d i n t e l e c t u a l f a c i l m e n t e a g u a n t a t e C e s a r I n e s M a r t i n e z a l e m a n c o n s t i t u y e n t e r m i n o s p e o r e s r e s p e t u o s o p o s t e r i o r i d a d m a j e s t u o s i d a d d e b i l a l e g r i a a n g u s t i a f r e c u e n c i a v e n t i t r e s c o m u n m e n t e p a r a l e l e p i p e d o d e f i n i t i v a m e n t e d i f i c i l i s i m o h o m o s e x u a l i d a d n a r c o t r a f i c o c o c i n a b a m o s c o m u n d i s c r i m i n a c i o n e g o i s t a i n d o l e r e c a u d a r b a l d i o t r a i d o t r a i c i o n c a m a r a a h i p e r i o d i c o e l i m i n a n e l i m i n a r i a e l i m i n a r a m o s e l i m i n a r e m o s e l i m i n a l o e l i m i n a n d o l o r e s f r i a d o s i n d r o m e f i n a n c i e r o i n c r e d u l a m e n t e e x t r a o r d i n a r i o e c o n o m i a e c o n o m i c a e p o c a l e e r l o p a c i f i s t a d i a d i o D i o s e x c e p c i o n e s d i a r i o E t i o p i a S o m a l i a c o n v i e r t e n A m a z o n i a c i u d a d a n i a 5

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