Index. 344 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8

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1 Index Index 343

2 Index A A, an (usage), 8, 123 A, an, the (articles), 8, 123 diagraming, 205 Abbreviations, correct use of, 18 19, 273 Abstract nouns, defined, 4, 63 Accept, except, 12, 227 Action verbs, defined, 4, 75 Active voice, explained, 6, 97 in writing, 323 Adjective clauses, 9, 159 diagraming, 213 essential, 161 nonessential, 40, 161 Adjective phrases as infinitive phrases, 179 as participial phrases, 10, 171 as prepositional phrases, 145 Adjectives, defined, 7 8, 121, 123, 125, 127, 133 articles as, 8, 123 avoiding errors in, 36 37, 133 comparative forms, 7 8, 36 37, 125 demonstrative, 127 diagraming, 205 hyphen in compound, 271 as participles, 10, 121, 171 predicate, 82, 121 proper, 8, 124 superlative forms, 7 8, 36 37, 125 Adverb clauses, 9, 40, 163 diagraming, 213 Adverb phrases as infinitive phrases, 179 as prepositional phrases, 145 Adverbs, defined, 8, 129 avoiding errors in, 8, 133, 135 comparative forms, 8, 131 conjunctive, 9, 149 diagraming, 205 intensifiers, 129 negative words as, 8, 135 superlative forms, 8, 131 Agreement pronoun-antecedent, 7, 34, 109 subject-verb, 11, 28 31, 187, 189, 191, 193, 195 and collective nouns, 191 and compound subjects, 11, 30 31, 195 and indefinite pronouns, 11, 29, 193 and intervening prepositional phrases, 11, 28, 189 in inverted sentences, 11, 28 29, 189 and special subjects, 11, 191 with titles, 11, 191 All ready, already, 12, 227 All together, altogether, 12, 227 A lot, not alot, 12, 227 Already, all ready, 12, 227 Altogether, all together, 12, 227 Among, between, 12, 229 Antecedents, defined, 7, 109 agreement of pronouns with, 7, 34, 109 clear pronoun reference, 7, 111 Antonyms, 289 Apostrophes, rules for using, 17 18, 41 43, 69, 269 in contractions, 18, 69, 269 in possessive nouns and pronouns, 17, 41 43, 65, 69, 269 in plurals, 17, 42, 69, 269 Appositive phrases, 10, 39, 71 Appositives, defined, 10, 71 Articles, 8, 123 Audience, in writing, 20, 303 Auxiliary verbs, defined, 4, 89 B Bad, badly, 133 Bad, worse, worst, 36, 125 Beside, besides, 12, 229 Between, among, 12, 229 Bring, take, 12, 229 Business letters, 21 22, letters of complaint, 340 letters of request, 22, 339 opinion letters, 22, 341 But preposition, 8 coordinating conjunction, 9, 147 C Can, may, 12, 229 Capitalization, rules for, 14 15, 44, 243, 245, 247, 249, 273 of abbreviations, 15, 245, 273 in direct quotations, 14, 44, 243 in family names and titles of persons, 15, 245 of first words of sentences, 14, 47, 243 of names of places, 15, 247 of proper adjectives, 15, 44, 249 of proper nouns, 3, 15, 44, 245, 247, 249 of salutations and closings of letters, 14, 243 Case of pronouns, 6, 107 Choose, chose, 12, 229 Chronological order, 20, 327 Clauses, defined, 9 10, 155, 157, 159, 161, 163, 165 See also Adjective clauses, Adverb clauses, Dependent clauses, Independent clauses, Main clauses, Noun clauses, Subordinate clauses Clue words, 19, 283 Coherence, of paragraphs, 331 Collective nouns, defined, 4, 67, 191 agreement of verb with, 67, 191 Colons, rules, 17, 265 Commas, rules, 16, 38 40, 257, 259, 261, 263 with addresses and dates, 16, 261 and adjective clauses, 16, 40, 259 and adverb clauses, 16, 40, 259 with appositives, 16, 39, 71, 257 and compound sentences, 16, 57, 259 after conjunctive adverbs, 9, 16, 149, 257 in direct address, 16, 257 in direct quotations, 17, 38 39, 263 and introductory phrases, 16, 257 with nonessential elements, 16, 39 40, 71, 161, 257, 259 after salutations and closes in letters, 16, 263 in a series, 16, 38, 257 with titles, 18, 261 Common nouns, defined, 3, 61 Copyright by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 344 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8

3 Copyright by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Comparative form, modifiers, 7, 8, 36 37, 125, 131 Compare/contrast order, 20, 327 Comparison of adjectives, 7 8, 125 of adverbs, 8, 131 irregular, 8, 36, 125, 131 Complements direct objects 6, 77, 175, 179 indirect objects, 4, 79 subject, 82 Complete predicates, defined, 3, 53 Complete subjects, defined, 3, 53 Complex sentences, defined, 10, 157 diagraming, 213, 215 Compound elements nouns, 20, 65 numbers, hyphens in, 271 predicates, 3, 55 diagraming, 209 prepositions, 141 sentences, 10, 57, 155 diagraming, 211 subjects, 3, 55, 147, 195 diagraming, 209 Concrete nouns, defined, 4, 63 Conjunctions, defined, 9 conjunctive adverbs, 9, 149 coordinating, 9, 27, 147, 195 diagraming, 209, 211 correlative, 9, 147, 195 list, 9 subordinating, 9, 163 Conjunctive adverbs, 9, 149 Context clues, 19, 283 Contractions, 18, 43, 69, 135, 269 Conversations, punctuating, 267 Coordinating conjunctions, 9, 27, 147, 195 Correlative conjunctions, 9, 147, 195 D Dashes, 18, 271 Dates, punctuating, 261 Declarative sentences, defined, 10, 47, 255 Degrees of form (comparison), 7 8, 125, 131 Demonstrative adjectives, 127 Demonstrative pronouns, 6, 117, 127 Dependent (subordinate) clauses, 9 10, 157, 159, 161, 163, 165 punctuating, 259 Diagraming sentences adjective clauses, 213 adjectives, 205 adverb clauses, 213 adverbs, 205 compound sentence parts, 209 compound sentences, 211 declarative, 201 direct objects, 203 exclamatory, 201 gerunds, gerund phrases, 217 imperative, 201 indirect objects, 203 infinitives, infinitive phrases, 219 interrogative, 201 noun clauses, 215 participles, participial phrases, 217 predicate nouns and adjectives, 203 predicates, 201, 209 prepositional phrases, 207 complex sentences, 213, 215 adjective clauses, 213 adverb clauses, 213 noun clauses, 215 subjects, 201, 209 verbals, 217, 219 Direct objects, defined, 4, 6, 77 gerunds as, 175 infinitives as, 179 Double negatives, avoiding, 8, 135 Drafting, 20, 307 chronological order, 20, 327 compare/contrast order, 20, 327 practice, spatial order, 20, 327 style, voice, 307 theme, 307 thesis statement, 307 topic sentence and related sentences, 307 E Each, agreement with, 193 Editing, 21, 315 proofreading marks, 315 Either, agreement with, 195 Emphatic verbs, defined, 6 Except, accept, 12, 227 Exclamation points, 16, 49, 255 quotation marks and, 17, 267 Exclamatory sentences, defined, 10, 49, 255 F Fewer, less, 12, 229 Formally, formerly, 13, 231 Fragments, sentence, 24 25, 51 Freewriting, 20, 303 G Gerund phrases, defined, 11, 175 Gerunds, defined, 11, 175 Good, better, best, 36, 125 Good, well, 125, 133 H Helping verbs, 4, 89 Homographs, 291 Homophones, 291 Hyphens, rules, 18, 271 I Imperative sentences, defined, 10, 49, 255 In, into, 13, 231 Indefinite pronouns, defined, 6, 29, 113, 193 list, 11, 113, 193 Independent (main) clauses, 9 10, 155, 157 Indirect objects, defined, 4, 79 Indirect quotations, 243 Infinitive phrases, defined, 11, 179 diagraming, 219 Infinitives, defined, 11, 179 diagraming, 219 as nouns, 11, 179 Inquiry, letters of, 339 Inside addresses in letters, Intensifiers, 129 Intensive pronouns, 6, 115 Interjections, defined, 9, 150, 255 list, 150 Interrogative pronouns, defined, 6, 117 Interrogative sentences, defined, 10, 47, 255 Into, in, 13, 231 Intransitive verbs, defined, 4, 77 Inverted order in sentences, 3, 11, Irregular verbs, 5, 32 33, 99, 101 Italics, 17, 267 Its, it s, 13, 43, 231 Index 345

4 L Lay, lie, 13, 231 Learn, teach, 13, 231 Leave, let, 13, 233 Less, fewer, 12, 229 Let, leave, 13, 233 Letter writing, 21 22, 335, 337, 339, 341 business, 21 22, letters of complaint, 340 letters of request, 22, 339 opinion letters, 22, 341 personal, 21 22, 335, 337 formal, 335 informal, 337 See also Business letters, Personal letters Lie, lay, 13, 231 Linking verbs, 4, Loose, lose, 13, 233 M Main (independent) clauses, 9 10, 155, 157 Many, much, 13, 233 May, can, 12, 229 Modifiers adjective clauses, 9, 159, 161 adjectives, 7 8, 121, 123, 125, 127, 133 adverb clauses, 9, 163 adverbs, 8, 129, 131, 133, 135 comparisons, degrees, 7 8, 125, 131 comparisons, double and incomplete, 8 comparisons, irregular, 8, 36, 125, 131 Much, many, 13, 233 N Negatives, double, avoiding, 8, 135 Negative words as adverbs, 8, 135 Neither, agreement with, 30 31, 147, 195 Nominative case, pronouns in the, 6 Nor, in compound sentences, 30 31, 147, 195 Noun clauses, 9, 165 diagraming, 215 Nouns, defined, 3 4, 61, 63, 65,67, 191 abstract, 4, 63 as appositives, 71 collective, 4, 67, 191 common, 3, 61 compound, 20, 65 concrete, 4, 63 contractions, 69 as gerunds, 175 as indirect objects, 79 as infinitives, 179 as objects of prepositions, 142 plurals, 3, 20, 65, 69 possessive, 4, 41 43, 65, 69 predicate, 82 proper, 3, 61, 245, 247, 249 singular, 3 as subjects, simple and complete, 3, 53 Numbers and numerals, 18 19, 275 and hyphens, 271 O Objective case, pronouns, 6, 107, 111, 143 Objects direct, 4, 6, 77, 175, 179, 203 indirect, 4, 79, 203 of prepositions, 10, Outlines, writing, 21, 321 sentence outlines, 21 topic outlines, 21, 321 P Paragraphs, building, 20, 327, 331 chronological order, 20, 327 compare/contrast order, 20, 327 spatial order, 20, 327 transitions in, 331 Paragraphs, ordering, 20, 331 coherence, 331 transitions, 331 unity, 331 Parentheses, 18, 271 punctuation with, 18 Participial phrases, defined, 10, 173 comma after, 257 diagraming, 217 practice, Participles, defined, 10, 33, 171 as adjectives, 10, 121, 171 diagraming, 217 as verbs, 171 Passive voice, 6, 97, 323 Periods, rules, 15, 47, 49, 255 Personal letters, 21 22, 335, 337 formal, 335 informal, 337 Personal pronouns, defined, 6, 34, 107 cases, 6, 107 first person, 6 intensive, 6, 115 list, 6, 107 as objects, 6, 35, 107, 111 possessive, 6, 42 43, 113 reflexive, 6, 115 second person, 6 as subjects, 6, 34 35, 107, 111 third person, 6 Phrases, defined, See also Appositive phrases, Gerund phrases, Infinitive phrases, Participial phrases, Prepositional phrases, Verbal phrases Plural nouns, 3, 20, 65, 69 Plurals, spelling of, 20, 65, 296 Possessive apostrophes, 17, 41 43, 65, 269 Possessive nouns, 4, 17, 41 43, 65, 69 Possessive pronouns, 6, 42 43, 113 Precede, proceed, 13, 233 Predicate adjective, defined, 81 82, 121 Predicate noun, defined, Predicates complete, 3, 51, 53 compound, 3, 55, 209 simple, 3, 53 Prefixes, 19, 287, 293 Prepositional phrases, defined, 10, 142 diagraming, 207 as adjectives, 145 as adverbs, 145 object of the preposition, 10, Prepositions, defined, 8, 141 compound, 8, 141 list, 8, 141 Presentation, of writing, 21, 319 Prewriting, 20, 303 choose a topic, 20, 303 determine the audience, 20, 303 determine the purpose, 20, 303 freewriting, 20, 303 practice, Principal parts of verbs, 4 5, 89, 99, 101 Proceed, precede, 13, 233 Progressive verbs, 6, 91, 95 Pronouns, defined, 6, 107 Copyright by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 346 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8

5 Copyright by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill antecedents of, 7, 34, 109 agreement with, 11, 29, 113, 193 as objects of prepositions, 111, 143 cases of, 6, 107 declension of, 6 7, 107 demonstrative, 6, 117, 127 first person, 6 in incomplete comparisons, 111 indefinite, 6, 11, 29, 113, 193 intensive, 6, 115 interrogative, 6, 117 number of, 6, 107 as objects, 6, 107, 111, 143 personal, 6, 34, 107 possessive, 6, 42 43, 113 reflexive, 6, 115 relative, 6, 159 second person, 6 as subjects, 6, 34 35, 107, 111 third person, 6 who, whom, 7, 143 Proofreading, 21, 315 marks, 315 Proper adjectives, 8, 15, 124, 249 Proper nouns, defined, 3, 61, 245 Punctuation rules. See specific types. Purpose, in writing, 20, 303 Q Question marks, 15, 47, 255 and quotation marks, 17, 267 Quiet, quite, 13, 233 Quotation marks, 17, with colons or semicolons, 17 with commas or periods, 17, 267 in direct quotations, 17, 38 39, with question marks or exclamation points, 17, 267 within a quotation, 17 with titles of short works, 17, 267 Quotations, capitalizing, 14, 44, 243 R Raise, rise, 13, 233 Reflexive pronouns, 6, 115 Regular verbs, 4 6, 89, 91, 93, 95, 97 Relative pronouns, 6, 159 Revising, 20, 311 coherence, 331 Rise, raise, 13, 233 Roots of words, 19, 285 Run-on sentences, 26 27, 57 S Semicolons, 16, 155, 265 Sentence, defined, 47, 49 Sentence fragments, 24 25, 51 Sentence outlines, 21 Sentence structure complex, 10, 157 compound, 10, 57, 155 simple, 10, 57, 155 Sentences, effective, 323 active voice, 6, 97, 323 varied length, 323 varied structure, 323 Sentences, kinds of declarative, 10, 47, 201, 255 exclamatory, 10, 49, 201, 255 imperative, 10, 49, 201, 255 interrogative, 10, 47, 201, 255 Sentences, run-on, 26 27, 57 Series commas in, 16, 38, 257 colon before, 17, 265 Set, sit, 14, 233 Simple predicates, defined, 3, 53 Simple sentences, defined, 10, 57, 155 Simple subjects, defined, 3, 53 Singular nouns, 3 Sit, set, 14, 233 Spatial order, 20, 327 Spelling adding -ly and -ness, 20, 295 doubling the final consonant, 19, 295 forming compound words, 20, 295 of plural nouns, 20, 296 of prefixes, 19, 293 of suffixes, 19, of ie and ei, 19, 293 of unstressed vowels, 19, 293 Subject complements, 82 Subject-verb agreement, 11, 28 31, 187, 189, 191, 193, 195 and collective nouns, 191 and compound subjects, 11, 30 31, 195 and indefinite pronouns, 11, 29, 193 and intervening prepositional phrases, 11, 28, , 193 in inverted sentences, 11, 28, 189 and special subjects, 11, 191 with titles, 11, 191 Subjects agreement of verb with, 11, 28 31, 187, 189, 191, 193, 195 complete, 3, 51, 53 compound, 3, 55, 147, 195 diagraming, 209 gerunds as, 11, 175, diagraming, 217 infinitives as, 11, 179 diagraming, 219 simple, 3, 53 Subordinate (dependent) clauses, 9 10, 157, 159, 161, 163, 165 punctuating, 259 Subordinating conjunctions, 9, 163 Suffixes, 19, 20, 287, 294 Superlative form, modifiers, 7 8, 37, 125, 131 Synonyms, 289 T Take, bring, 12, 229 Teach, learn, 13, 231 Tenses, defined, 5, 85 future, 5, 95 future perfect, 5, 95 past, 5, 33, 85 past perfect, 5, 93 present, 5, 85, 95 present perfect, 5, 93 Than, then, 14, 235 Their, they re, 14, 235 Theirs, there s, 14, 235 Theme, writing, 307 Then, than, 14, 235 There s, theirs, 14, 235 Thesis statement, 307 They re, their, 14, 235 To, too, two, 14, 235 Topic, choosing, 20, 303 Topic outlines, 21 Topic sentences, 307 Transitions, 331 Transitive verbs, defined, 4, 77 Two, to, too, 14, 235 U Understood subject, 201 Usage glossary, 12 14, V Verb phrases, defined, 4, 89 Verbal phrases, 10 11, 171, 173, 175, 179 Verbals, defined, Index 347

6 See also Gerunds, Infinitives, Participles Verbs, defined, 4, 53, 75 action verbs, 4, 53, 75 intransitive, 4, 77 transitive, 4, 77 agreement with subjects, rules, 11, 28 31, 187, 189, 191, 193, 195 emphatic, 6 helping (auxiliary), 4, 89 intransitive, 4, 77 irregular, 5, 32 33, 99, 101 linking, 4, irregular, 5, 32 33, 99, 101 main, 4, 89 principal parts of regular, 4, 89 progressive forms, 6, 91, 95 tenses of, 5, 32 33, 85, 93, 95 See Tenses transitive, 4, 77 voice of, active and passive, 6, 97, 323 Vocabulary building, 19, 283, 285 from context, 19, 283 homographs and homophones, 291 prefixes and suffixes, 19, 287 synonyms and antonyms, 289 word roots, 19, 285 Voice of verbs, defined, 6 active, 6, 97, 323 effective use of, 323 passive, 6, 97, 323 W Well, good, 133 Where at, avoiding, 14, 235 Who, whom, 7, 143 Who s, whose, 14, 235 Writing process. See specific steps. Writing letters, 21 22, 335, 337, 339, 341 Writing paragraphs, 20 21, 327, 331 Writing sentences, 323 See also Sentences, effective Y You, as understood subject, 201 Your, you re, 14, 235 Copyright by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 348 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8

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