Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 10: Operant & Cognitive Approaches. Module 10. Operant & Cognitive Approaches

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1 Module 10 Operant & Cognitive Approaches

2 OPERANT CONDITIONING Thorndike s law of effect states that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened Skinner s operant conditioning focuses on how consequences (rewards or punishments) affect behaviors 1920 s and 1930 s gave learning a mighty jolt with the discovery of two general principles Pavlov s classical conditioning Skinner s operant conditioning

3 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Principles and procedures Skinner box - automated to record the animal s bar presses and deliver food pellets Skinner box is an efficient way to study how an animal s ongoing behaviors may be modified by changing the consequences of what happens after a bar press 3 factors in operant conditioning of a rat a hungry rat will be more willing to eat the food reward operant response: condition the rat to press the bar shaping: procedure in which an experimenter successively reinforces behaviors that lead up to or approximate the desired behavior

4 p215 SKINNER BOX

5 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Shaping Facing the bar rat is put in box. when rat finally faces the bar, food pellet is released rat sniffs the food pellet Touching the bar rat faces and moves towards the bar another pellet is released. Rat eats then wanders. Returning to sniff for a pellet, another pellet is dropped into the cup. Rat places a paw on the bar and another pellet is released.

6 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Shaping Pressing the bar When rat touches bar, pellet is released. Rat eats and then puts paws back on bar and gets another pellet. Wait for rat to now push bar then release pellet. Rat soon presses bar over and over again to get pellets. Rat s behavior was reinforced as the rat leads up to, or approximates, the desired behavior of bar pressing

7 Virtual Rat

8 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Immediate reinforcement reinforcer should follow immediately after the desired behavior if reinforcer is delayed, the animal may be reinforced for some undesired or superstitious behavior Superstitious behavior behavior that increases in frequency because its occurrence is accidentally paired with the delivery of a reinforcer

9 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Examples of operant conditioning Toilet training target behavior preparation reinforcers shaping Food refusal target behavior preparation reinforcers shaping

10 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Operant versus classical conditioning Operant conditioning goal: increase or decrease the rate of some response voluntary response: must perform voluntary response before getting a reward emitted response: animals or humans are shaped to emit the desired responses

11 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Operant versus classical conditioning Operant conditioning contingent on behavior: depends or is contingent on the consequences or what happens next reinforcer must occur immediately after the desired response consequences: animals or humans learn that performing or emitting some behavior is followed by a consequence (reward or punishment)

12 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Operant versus classical conditioning Classical conditioning goal: create a new response to a neutral stimulus involuntary response: physiological reflexes (salivation, eye blink) triggered or elicited by some stimulus and called involuntary responses elicited response: unconditioned stimulus triggers or elicits an involuntary reflex response, salivation, which is called the unconditioned response

13 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Operant versus classical conditioning Classical conditioning conditioned response: neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus when alone before the occurrence of the conditioned response expectancy: animals and humans learn a predictable relationship between, or develop an expectancy about, the neutral and unconditioned stimuli classical conditioning leads to the animal or human learning a predictable relationship between stimuli

14 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.)

15 OPERANT CONDITIONING (CONT.) Consequences consequences are contingent on behavior Reinforcement consequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the chance that the behavior will occur again Punishment consequence that occurs after a behavior and decreases the chance that the behavior will occur again

16 REINFORCEMENT Reinforcement Positive reinforcement refers to the presentation of a stimulus that increases the probability that a behavior will occur again positive reinforcer is a stimulus that increases the likelihood that a response will occur again Negative reinforcement refers to an aversive stimulus whose removal increases the likelihood that the preceding response will occur again

17 REINFORCEMENT (CONT.) Reinforcers Primary reinforcers stimulus such as food, water, or sex, that is innately satisfying and requires no learning on the part of the subject to become pleasurable Secondary reinforcers any stimulus that has acquired its reinforcing power through experience; secondary reinforcers are learned, such as by being paired with primary reinforcers or other secondary reinforcers

18 PUNISHMENT Punishment Positive punishment refers to presenting an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus after a response Negative punishment refers to removing a reinforcing stimulus after a response Problems with punishment Does not teach or promote alternative, acceptable behavior May produce undesirable results such as hostility, passivity, fear Likely to be temporary May model aggression

19 SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Skinner s contributions Schedule of reinforcement refers to a program or rule that determines how and when the occurrence of a response will be followed by a reinforcer Continuous reinforcement every occurrence of the operant response results in delivery of the reinforcer Partial reinforcement refers to a situation in which responding is reinforced only some of the time

20 SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT (CONT.) Partial reinforcement schedules Fixed-ratio schedule a reinforcer occurs only after a fixed number of responses are made by the subject Fixed-interval schedule a reinforcer occurs following the first response that occurs after a fixed interval of time

21 SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT (CONT.) Partial reinforcement schedules Variable-ratio schedule a reinforcer is delivered after an average number of correct responses has occurred Variable-interval schedule reinforcer occurs following the first correct response after an average amount of time has passed

22 OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS Generalization an animal or a person emits the same response to similar stimuli tendency for a stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response similar to the conditioned response Discrimination occurs during classical conditioning when an organism learns to make a particular response to some stimuli but not to others

23 OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS (CONT.) Extinction and spontaneous recovery Extinction refers to a procedure in which a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus the conditioned stimulus tends to no longer elicit the conditioned response Spontaneous recovery tendency for the conditioned response to reappear after being extinguished even though there have been no further conditioning trials

24 COGNITIVE LEARNING Three viewpoints of cognitive learning against: B. F. Skinner Skinner said, As far as I m concerned, cognitive science is the creationism (downfall) of psychology. in favor: Edward Tolman explored hidden mental processes cognitive map - a mental representation in the brain of the layout of an environment and its features in favor: Albert Bandura focused on how humans learn through observing things Social cognitive learning (also called observational or vicarious learning) results from watching, and modeling and does not require the observer to perform any observable behavior or receive any observable reward

25 COGNITIVE LEARNING (CONT.) Bandura s social cognitive theory emphasizes the importance of observation, imitation, and self-reward in the development and learning of social skills, personal interactions, and many other behaviors Four processes Attention - observer must pay attention to what the model says or does Memory - observer must store or remember the information so that it can be retrieved and used later Imitation - observer must be able to use the remembered information to guide his or her own actions and thus imitate the model s behavior Motivation - observer must have some reason or incentive to imitate the model s behavior.

26 COGNITIVE LEARNING (CONT.) Insight learning Insight a mental process marked by the sudden and expected solution to a problem: a phenomenon often called the ah-ha! experience.

27 BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Biological factors refer to innate tendencies or predispositions that may either facilitate or inhibit certain kinds of learning Imprinting refers to inherited tendencies or responses that are displayed by newborn animals when they encounter certain stimuli in their environment

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