# Physics 2A Chapter 3: Kinematics in Two Dimensions. Problem Solving

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1 Physics 2A Chapter 3: Kinematics in Two Dimensions The only thing in life that is achieved without effort is failure. Source unknown "We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, therefore, is not an act, but a habit. Aristotle Act as if what you do makes a difference, because it does. Source unknown Reading: pages (skip section 3.4) Outline: displacement, velocity, and acceleration in two dimensions equations of kinematics in two dimensions projectile motion lots of examples Problem Solving When you read a projectile motion problem, you should be able to identify two events, just as you did for one-dimensional problems. Take the time to be 0 for one of them, the launching of the projectile, for example. Take the y axis to be vertically upward and the x axis to be horizontal in the plane of the motion. The coordinates and velocity components are x 0, y 0, v 0x, and v 0y for the event at time 0. Let t be the time of the other event. The coordinates and velocity components are x, y, v x, and v y for that event. Identify the known and unknown quantities, then solve the kinematic equations of constant acceleration for the unknown quantity. Remember that for projectile motion, a x = 0 and a y = 9.8 m/s 2 downward. Projectile motion problems are the same as problems from the last chapter except that you have two sets of equations, one for the horizontal motion and one for the vertical motion. The equations that describe the horizontal motion are: x - x 0 = v 0x t v x = v 0x. The equations that describe the vertical motion are: v y = v 0y + a y t y - y 0 = ½ (y ov + v y )t y - y 0 = v 0y t + ½ a y t 2 v y 2 = v 0y 2 + 2a(y- y 0 ).

2 If up is defined as positive, then a y = -9.8 m/s 2. If down is defined as positive, then a y = 9.8 m/s 2. If the initial speed and launch angle of the projectile are given, then v 0x = v 0 cos(θ) and v 0y = v 0 sin(θ), assuming θ is given with respect to the +x axis. One of the key things to realize when dealing with two dimensional motion is that you can treat each dimension separately. The x part of the motion and the y part of the motion are completely independent of each other; each behaves as if the other did not exist. However, the two motions are connected by the variable t. Questions and Example Problems from Chapter 3 Question 1 A tennis ball is hit upward into the air and moves along an arc. Neglecting air resistance, where along the arc is the speed of the ball (a) a minimum and (b) a maximum? Justify your answers. Question 2 The figure shows three paths for a football kicked from ground level. Ignoring the effects of air resistance, rank the paths according to (a) time of flight, (b) initial vertical velocity component, (c) initial horizontal velocity component, and (d) initial speed.

3 Problem 1 The punter on a football team tries to kick a football so that it stays in the air for a long hang time. (a) If the ball is kicked with an initial velocity of 25.0 m/s at an angle of 60.0 o above the ground, what is the hang time? (b) How far does the ball travel before it hits the ground? Problem 2 A diver runs horizontally with a speed of 1.20 m/s off a platform that is 10.0 m above the water. What is the speed just before striking the water?

4 Problem 3 A golf ball is struck at ground level. The speed of the golf ball as a function of the time is shown in the figure below, where t = 0 at the instant the ball is struck. (a) How far does the golf ball travel horizontally before returning to ground level? (b) What is the maximum height above ground level attained by the ball? Problem 4 A car drives straight off the edge of a cliff that is 54 m high. The police at the scene of the accident note that the point of impact is 130 m from the base of the cliff. How fast was the car traveling when it went over the cliff?

5 Problem 5 A golfer, standing on a fairway, hits a shot to a green that is elevated 5.50 m above the point where she is standing. If the ball leaves her club with a velocity of 46.0 m/s at an angle of 35.0 o above the ground, find the time the ball is in the air before it hits the green. Problem 6 A diver springs upward from a board that is three meters above the water. At the instant she contacts the water her speed is 8.90 m/s and her body makes an angle of 75.0 o with respect to the horizontal surface of the water. Determine her initial velocity, both magnitude and direction.

6 Problem 7 The highest barrier that a projectile can clear is 13.5 m when the projectile is launched at an angle of 15.0 above the horizontal. What is the projectile s launch speed? Problem 8 In the javelin throw at a track-and-field event, the javelin is launched at a speed of 29 m/s at an angle of 36 above the horizontal. As the javelin travels upward, its velocity points above the horizontal at an angle that decreases as time passes. How much time is required for the angle to be reduced from 36 at launch to 18?

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