# 52. Explain interrupt scheme for retrieving input data. Also explain any one algorithm for input device handling. 53. Explain the process of 3-D

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1 Computer Graphics 1. Derive the equation for the intercept form of the line. 2. Explain the frame buffer, point and pixels. 3. Describe the Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) for line drawing. 4. Explain Bresenham s line drawing algorithm. 5. Explain the Aliasing and Antialiasing. 6. What is a difference between Raster scan CRT and Vector Scan CRT. 7. Consider three different Raster systems with resolutions of 640x480 and 1280x1024. What size of frame buffer is needed for the system to store 12 bits per pixel? How much storage is required if 24 bits per pixel are to be stored. 8. Compare the advantage and disadvantage of CRT and LCD. 9. Write a routine using LINE and MOVE command for any image. 10. Explain construction and working of the Direct View Storage Tube with suitable diagram. 11. Implement the DDA algorithm to draw a line form (0, 0) to (8, 8). 12. Write integer Bresenham s algorithm and show how it draws a line whose starting point is (4, 4) and end point is (-3, 0). 13. What is the difference between generation of character by stroke and Bitmap method? Explain with suitable example. 14. Explain super sampling process and why is it used? 15. What are the basic disadvantages of the Shadow -mask CRT. 16. How 4-Connected area filling approach is differs from 8-Connected approach? 17. How inside tests are performed using Odd-parity Rule? Explain with example. 18. Explain positive and negative orientation in brief. 19. What are basic advantages and disadvantages of segment? 20. How renaming is useful? Explain popular application of renaming. 21. What are segments? State the need for having a segmented display file. 22. Give general form for rotation about any given point P (h, k). 23. What is the difference between geometric and co-ordinate transformations? 24. Prove that two 2-D transformation are commute i.e., T1 T2 = T2 T1 25. Explain instance transformation with suitable example. Prove that simultaneous shearing is not same as a shearing is one direction followed by in another direction. 26. What is composite transformation? 27. Derive the transformation matrix for the rotation by angle θ counter clock- wise about origin.

2 28. Find the form of matrix of reflection about any given line with slope m and passing through (0, b). 29. Prove that two 2- D rotations above the origin, commute i.e., R1 R2 = R2 R1 30. Explain the transformation used in magnification and reduction with respect to origin. Find the new coordinates of the triangle A(0, 0) B(1, 1) C(5, 2) after it has been reduced to half its size. 31. Write a 2 x 2 transformation matrix for each of the following rotation about the origin. (a) counterclockwise by Π (b) clockwise by Π / What are the new co-ordinates of the point (2, -4) after a 60 degree rotation of the object. 33. Prove that one scaling transformation and one rotation in two dimensional transformation are commute i.e., S. R = R. S 34. Differentiate between Window and a Viewport. 35. Draw the flow chart illustrating the logic of the Sutherland Hodgeman algorithm. 36. Explain the Cohen Sutherland line clipping algorithm. Use this algorithm to find the visible portion of the line P(40, 80) Q(120, 30) inside the window, the window is defined as ABCD : A(20, 20) B(60, 20) C (60, 40) and D (20, 40). 37. What is Windowing? Explain its importance. 38. What difference is between object and image space? 39. Describe generalized clipping in your own words. 40. Describe the method by which any point can be determined that it is left or right to the any line segment. 41. How Cohen- Sutherland Hodgeman polygon differs from each other. 42. Explain Morphing with an example. 43. Show that reflection about the line Y = X is attained by reversing co-ordinates. That is, M L (x, y) = (y, x) 44. Explain instance transformation with suitable example. 45. Explain three dimensional transformations. 46. Derive the matrix for the rotation about Z- axis by an angle θ. 47. Explain the difference between parallel and perspective projection. 48. Explain Three- Dimensional Clipping. 49. Explain structure and functioning of the thumbwheel. 50. What is difference mouse and trackball? 51. What is event handling? Explain in details with examples.

3 52. Explain interrupt scheme for retrieving input data. Also explain any one algorithm for input device handling. 53. Explain the process of 3-D clipping. 54. Explain the working structure of light pen. 55. Explain the functioning of Joystick with diagram. 56. What is positioning techniques? 57. Discuss the Inking and pointing procedure. 58. Explain the difference between locator device and the selector device. 59. Explain the concept of multiple windowing. 60. What is Ray Tracing Algorithm for hidden surface removal?explain mathematically how do we find which planes are visible using ray tracing algorithms. 61. Explain Bezier Curves in detail. Given control point (10,100),(50,100),(70,120) and (100,150). Calculate coordinates of any four point lying on the corresponding Bezier Curve. 62. Derive simple illumination model.include the contribution of Diffuse, ambient and specular reflection. 63. Explain Depth buffer method for hidden surface detection. 64. How Z-buffer method and scan line methods differ? 65. Explain Painter s Algorithm. 66. What are basic disadvantages of Z-buffer method? 67. Explain the B-Spline curve with suitable example. 68. Explain Bezier curve with suitable example. 69. Explain the Hermite curve in detail. 70. What are periodic curves? Explain in brief. 71. What is basic difference between B-Spline and Bezier curves? 72. How B-Spline curve differ from Hermite curve? 73. Describe the properties of Bezier curve. 74. Describe the properties of B-Spline curves. 75. Construct enough points on the Bezier curve whose control points are P0(4, 2), P1(8, 8), P2 (16, 4) to draw an accurate sketch. a. What is degree of freedom b. What are the co-ordinates at u = 0.5? 76. Explain the idea about Convex Hull. 77. Calculate the blending functions for the periodic B-Spline curves for P = Explain the frame buffer, point and pixels. Explain working of Raster scan CRT. 79. Describe the Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) for line drawing. 80. Explain Bresenham s line drawing algorithm.

4 81. Consider three different Raster systems with resolutions of 640x480 and 1280x1024. What size of frame buffer is needed for the system to store 12 bits per pixel? How much storage is required if 24 bits per pixel are to be stored. 82. Draws a line whose starting point is (4, 4) and end point is (-3, 0) using Bresenham s line drawing algorithm. 83. What is the difference between geometric and co-ordinate transformations? Prove that two 2-D transformation are commute i.e., T1 T2 = T2 T1 84. What is composite transformation? Derive the transformation matrix for the rotation by angle θ counter clock- wise about origin. 85. Differentiate between Window and a Viewport. Explain the Cohen Sutherland line clipping algorithm. Use this algorithm to find the visible portion of the line P(40, 80) Q(120, 30) inside the window, the window is defined as ABCD : A(20, 20) B(60, 20) C (60, 40) and D (20, 40). 86. Explain the following: a. Aliasing and Antialiasing. b. Difference between Raster scan CRT and Vector Scan CRT. c. Advantage and disadvantage of CRT and LCD. d. Disadvantages of the Shadow -mask CRT. 87. Give general form for rotation about any given point P (h, k). What is the difference between geometric and co-ordinate transformations?prove that two 2-D transformation are commute i.e., T1 T2 = T2 T Explain instance transformation with suitable example. Prove that simultaneous shearing is not same as a shearing is one direction followed by in another direction. 89. What is composite transformation? Derive the transformation matrix for the rotation by angle θ counter clock- wise about origin. 90. Find the form of matrix of reflection about any given line with slope m and passing through (0, b). a. Explain the transformation used in magnification and reduction with respect to origin. Find the new coordinates of the triangle A(0, 0) B(1, 1) C(5, 2) after it has been reduced to half its size. b. Write a 2 x 2 transformation matrix for each of the following rotation about the origin. (c) counterclockwise by Π (d) clockwise by Π / 2 (e) What are the new co-ordinates of the point (2, -4) after a 60 degree rotation of the object.

5 91. Differentiate between Window and a Viewport. Draw the flow chart illustrating the logic of the Sutherland Hodgeman algorithm. Explain the Cohen Sutherland line clipping algorithm. Use this algorithm to find the visible portion of the line P(40, 80) Q(120, 30) inside the window, the window is defined as ABCD : A(20, 20) B(60, 20) C (60, 40) and D (20, 40). 92. What difference is between object and image space? Describe generalized clipping in your own words. Describe the method by which any point can be determined that it is left or right to the any line segment. 93. Explain how Cohen- Sutherland Hodgeman polygon differs from each other. 94. Explain three dimensional transformations. Derive the matrix for the rotation about Z- axis by an angle θ. 95. Explain the difference between parallel and perspective projection in detail. 96. Explain Three- Dimensional Clipping. 97. Define Vanishing points. Is the location of the vanishing point directly related to the viewing point. Explain how? 98. What are the various logical graphics input primitives. What are the various input modes in which they work? Give some examples. 99. What is ray tracing algorithm for hidden surface removal? Explain mathematically how do we find which planes are visible using ray tracing algorithm What are the two spaces in which hidden surface algorithms works? How does sorting and coherence speed up calculation in such algorithms

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