# Computer Graphics. Geometric Modeling. Page 1. Copyright Gotsman, Elber, Barequet, Karni, Sheffer Computer Science - Technion. An Example.

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1 An Example Outline Objective: Develop methods and algorithms to mathematically model shape of real world objects Categories: Wire-Frame Representation Object is represented as as a set of points and edges (a graph) containing topological information. Used for fast display in interactive systems. Can be ambiguous: " Wire-frame representations " Boundary representations " Volumetric representations 5 6 Page 1

2 Volumetric Representation Voxel based (voxel = 3D pixels). Advantages: simple and robust Boolean operations, in/ out tests, can represent and model the interior of the object. Disadvantages: memory consuming, non-smooth, difficult to manipulate. Constructive Solid Geometry Use set of volumetric primitives " Box, sphere, cylinder, cone, etc For constructing complex objects use Boolean operations " Union " Intersection " Subtraction " Complement 7 8 Operations performed recursively Final object stored as sequence (tree) of operations on primitives Common in CAD packages " mechanical parts fit well into primitive based framework Can be extended with free-form primitives CSG Trees 9 Freeform Representation Explicit form: z = z(x, y) Explicit is a special case of Implicit form: f(x, y, z) = 0 implicit and parametric form Parametric form: S(u, v) = [x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)] Example origin centered sphere of radius R: 10 Parametric Curves Analogous to trajectory of particle in space. Single parameter t [T 1,T 2 ] like time. position = p(t) = (x(t),y(t)), velocity = v(t) = (x (t),y (t)) Mathematical Continuity C 1 (t) & C 2 (t), t [0,1] - parametric curves Level of continuity of the curves at C 1 (1) and C 2 (0) is: " C -1 :C 1 (1) C 2 (0) (discontinuous) " C 0 : C 1 (1) = C 2 (0) (positional continuity) " C k, k > 0 : continuous up to k th derivative Circle: " x(t) = cos(t), y(t) = sin(t) t [0,2π) v(t) 1 " x(t) = cos(2t), y(t) = sin(2t) t [0,π) v(t) 2 " x(t) = (1-t 2 )/(1+t 2 ), y(t) = 2t/(1+t 2 ) t (-,+ ) 11 Continuity of single curve inside its parameter domain is similarly defined - for polynomial bases it is C 12 Page 2

3 Geometric Continuity Mathematical continuity is sometimes too strong May be relaxed to geometric continuity " G k, k 0 : Same as C k " G k, k =1 : C' 1 (1) =α C' 2 (0) " G k, k 0 : There is a reparameterization of C 1 (t) & C 2 (t), where the two are C k E.g. " C 1 (t)=[cos(t),sin(t)], t [-π/2,0] C C 2 (t)=[cos(t),sin(t)], t [0,π/2] 2, C 3 C 3 (t)=[cos(2t),sin(2t)], t [0,π/4] " C 1 (t) & C 2 (t) are C 1 (& G 1 ) continuous " C 1 (t) & C 3 (t) are G 1 continuous (not C 1 C ) 1 13 Polynomial Bases Monomial basis {1, x, x 2, x 3, } " Coefficients are geometrically meaningless " Manipulation is not robust Number of coefficients = polynomial rank We seek coefficients with geometrically intuitive meanings Polynomials are easy to analyze, derivatives remain polynomial, etc. Other polynomial bases (with better geometric intuition): " Lagrange (Interpolation scheme) " Hermite (Interpolation scheme) " Bezier (Approximation scheme) " B-Spline (Approximation scheme) 14 Cubic Hermite Basis Set of polynomials of degree k is linear vector space of degree k+1 The canonical, monomial basis for polynomials is {1, x, x 2, x 3, } Define geometrically-oriented basis for cubic polynomials h i,j (t): i, j = 0,1, t [0,1] Has to satisfy: Hermite Cubic Basis The four cubics which satisfy these conditions are Obtained by solving four linear equations in four unknowns for each basis function Prove: Hermite cubic polynomials are linearly independent and form a basis for cubics Hermite Cubic Basis (cont d) Lets solve for h 00 (t) as an example. h 00 (t) = a t 3 + b t 2 + c t + d must satisfy the following four constraints: Hermite Cubic Basis (cont d) Let C(t) be a cubic polynomial defined as the linear combination: Then C(0) = P 0, C(1) = P 1, C (0) = T 0, C (1) = T 1 Four linear equations in four unknowns. To generate a curve through P 0 & P 1 with slopes T 0 & T 1, use " Page 3

4 Parametric Splines Fit spline independently for x(t) and y(t) to obtain C(t) Cubic Splines Standard spline input set of points {P i } i=0, n " No derivatives specified as input Interpolate by n cubic segments (4n DOF): " Derive {T i } i=0,..,n from C 2 continuity constraints " Solve 4n linear equations in 4n unknowns Cubic Splines Have two degrees of freedom left (to reach 4n DOF) Options " Natural end conditions: C 1 ''(0) = 0, C n ''(1) = 0 " Complete end conditions: C 1 '(0) = 0, C n '(1) = 0 " Prescribed end conditions (derivatives available at the ends): C 1 '(0) = T 0, C n '(1) = T n " Periodic end conditions C 1 '(0) = C n '(1), C 1 ''(0) = C n ''(1), Bezier curve is an approximation of given control points Denote by γ (t): t [0,1] Bezier curve of degree n is defined over n+1 control points {P i } i=0, n Bezier Curves Question: What parts of C(t) are affected as a result of a change in P i? De Casteljau Construction Select t [0,1] value. Then, γ (1/3) 23 Page 4

5 Algebraic Form of Bezier Curves Bezier curve for set of control points {P i } i=0, n : Algebraic Form of Bezier Curves where {B in (t)} i=0, n Bernstein basis of polynomial of degree n " why? Curve is linear combination of basis functions Curve is affine combination of control points Cubic case: Properties of Bezier Curves γ (t) is polynomial of degree n γ (t) CH(P 0,,P n ) (contained inside the convex hull) γ (0) = P 0 and γ (1) = P n γ '(0) = n(p 1 -P 0 ) and γ '(1) = n(p n -P n-1 ) γ (t) is intuitive to control via P i and it follows the general shape of the control polygon γ '(t) is a Bezier curve of one degree less Questions: " What is the shape of Bezier curves whose control points lie on one line? " How can one connect two Bezier curves with C 0 continuity? C 1? C 2? 27 B-Spline Curves Idea: Generate basis where functions are continuous across the domains with local support For each parameter value only a finite set of basis functions is non-zero The parametric domain is subdivided into sections at parameter values called knots, {τ i }. The B-spline functions are then defined over the knots The knots are called uniform knots if τ i - τ i-1 = c, constant. WLOG, assume c = Uniform Cubic B-Spline Curves Definition (uniform knot sequence, τ i - τ i-1 = 1): Uniform Cubic B-Spline Curves For any t [3, n]: (prove it!) For any t [3, n] at most four basis functions are non zero Any point on a cubic B-Spline is a convex combination of at most four control points Page 5

6 Boundary Conditions for Cubic B-Spline Curves B-Splines do not interpolate control points " in particular, the uniform cubic B-spline curves do not interpolate the end points of the curve. " Why is the end points interpolation important? Two ways are common to force endpoint interpolation: " Let P 0 = P 1 = P 2 (same for other end) " Add a new control point (same for other end) P -1 = 2P 0 P 1 and a new basis function N -13 (t). Question: " What is the shape of the curve at the end points if the first method is used? " What is the derivative vector of the curve at the end points if the first method is used? 31 Local Control of B-spline Curves Control point P i affects γ (t) only for t (τ i, τ i+4 ) 32 Properties of B-Spline Curves For n control points, γ (t) is a piecewise polynomial of degree 3, defined over t [3, n) γ(t) is affine invariant γ(t) follows the general shape of the control polygon and it is intuitive and ease to control its shape Questions: " What is γ (τ i ) equal to? " What is γ '(τ i ) equal to? " What is the continuity of γ (t)? Prove! 33 From Curves to Surfaces A curve is expressed as inner product of coefficients P i and basis functions Treat surface as a curves of curves. Also known as tensor product surfaces Assume P i is not constant, but are functions of a second, new parameter v: 34 From Curves to Surfaces (cont d) Then or Surface Constructors Construction of the geometry is a first stage in any image synthesis process Use a set of high level, simple and intuitive, surface constructors: " Bilinear patch " Ruled surface " Boolean sum " Surface of Revolution " Extrusion surface " Surface from curves (skinning) " Swept surface 36 Page 6

7 Bilinear Patches Bilinear interpolation of 4 3D points - 2D analog of 1D linear interpolation between 2 points in the plane Given P 00, P 01, P 10, P 11 the bilinear surface for u,v [0,1] is: Questions: " What does an isoparametric curve of a bilinear patch look like? " When is a bilinear patch planar? Ruled Surfaces Given two curves a(t) and b(t), the corresponding ruled surface between them is: S(u,v) = v a(u) + (1-v)b(u) a(u) b(u) " The corresponding points on a(u) and b(u) are connected by straight lines Questions: " When is a ruled surface a bilinear patch? " When is a bilinear patch a ruled surface? Boolean Sum Given four connected curves α i i=1,2,3,4, Boolean sum S(u, v) fills the interior. Boolean Sum (cont d) S(u,v) interpolates the four α i along its boundaries. For example, consider the u = 0 boundary: Then 41 Question: Must α i be coplanar? 42 Page 7

8 Surface of Revolution Rotate a, usually planar, curve around an axis Consider curve β(t) = (β x (t), 0, β z (t)) and let Z be the axis of revolution. Then, Extrusion of a, usually planar, curve along a linear segment. D Consider curve β(t) and vector Extrusion Then S(u,v) = β(u) + v D Sweep Surface Rigid motion of one (cross section) curve along another (axis) curve: The cross section may change as it is swept Question: Is an extrusion a special case of a sweep? a surface of revolution? 45 Page 8

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