# Dhiren Bhatia Carnegie Mellon University

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1 Dhiren Bhatia Carnegie Mellon University

2 University Course Evaluations available online Please Fill! December 4 : In-class final exam Held during class time All students expected to give final this date Alternate final date: December 16 th :- 10:00 am-11:30 am Must get Prof. Pollard s permission by Dec 2 nd

3 Project 4 - Due Dec 6 th No late days! Final grade break-down Midterm 15% Final 25% Homework 20% Projects P1: 7% P2: 10% P3: 15% P4: 8%

4 Closed book No cheat sheet Everything covered so far in the semester Review HWs and Lecture Reviews

5 Explicit: y=f(x), y=mx+c Implicit: f(x,y)=0, x 2 +y 2 =r 2 Parametric: (x,y)=(f(u), g(u)) (x,y)=(cos(u),sin(u))

6 An n-th degree polynomial fits a curve to n+1 points Cons: Change to any control point affects the entire curve

7 A spline is a piecewise polynomial many low degree polynomials are used to interpolate the control points Most common: Cubic piecewise polynomials

8 C 0, C 1 continuity: C 0 continuity: Continuous in positions C 1 continuity: Continuous in positions and tangent vectors (first differential)

9 Each P and C k is a column vector From control information (points or tangents) Goal to determine cubic polynomial form

10 Hermite: Two points on the curve and two tangents Bezier: Two points on the curve and two points outside of the curve

11 Linear Transformations T(v 1 +v 2 )=T(v 1 )+T(v 2 ) T(αv)=αT(v) Rotation Scaling Translation

12 Key Idea: [outgoing]=[emitted]+[reflected]+[transmitted] Don t forget how to connect this with Radiosity equation

13 ρ(p,ω,ω 0,λ) in the rendering equation is the BRDF, which gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry.

14 Local rendering models Object illuminations are independent No light scattering between objects No real shadows, reflection, transmission Global rendering models Ray tracing (highlights, reflection, transmission) Radiosity (surface interreflections)

15 Local Illumination model Sum of three components: Diffuse reflection + Specular reflection + Ambient term

16 Graphics pipeline: for each object, render (online) Ray tracing: for each pixel, determine color (off-line) Radiosity: for each two surface patches, determine diffuse interreflections (off-line)

17 Forward ray tracing follows the photon in direction that light travels from the source Con: Only a tiny fraction of rays actually reach the image

18 Backward ray tracing starts the image and follow the ray until the ray finds (or fails to find) a light source

19 Eye rays: originate at the eye Shadow rays: from surface point to the light source Reflection rays: from surface point in mirror direction Transmission rays: from surface point in refracted direction

20 n 1 is the refractive index of the first material n 2 is the refractive index of the second material Key Idea: The ratio of the sinusoids of the angles of incidence and of refraction is a constant depending on the media n 1 sin(θ 1 )=n 2 sin(θ 2 )

21 Ray-Sphere intersection Ray-Polygon intersection Ray-Quadric intersection

22 Good data structures greatly speed up ray tracing Up to 10x or even 100x! You need to know: Hierarchical bounding volumes Grids Octrees K-d trees and BSP trees

23 Wrap complex objects in simple ones Does ray intersect with the bounding box? Yes: Calculate intersection with enclosed objects No: Does not intersect enclosed objects Effectiveness depends on: Probability that ray hits bounding volume, but not enclosed objects Expense to calculate intersections with bounding volume and enclosed objects

24

25

26 Quadtree is the 2-D generalization of binary trees Node is a square Recursively split into four equal sub-squares Octree is 3-D analog of Quadtree

27 K-Dimensional (K-D tree) Split only one dimension at a time along the coordinate axis Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) tree Permits splits with any line In 2-D space split with lines 3-D space split with places K-D space split with k-1 dimensional hyperplanes

28

29 Both are global illumination compared with the Phong model (local illumination) Ray Tracing: Realistic specular reflection/transmission Radiosity: Realistic diffuse reflection Know the differences

30 Unknown: radiosity B i Known: emission E i, form factor F ij, reflectivity R i Know how to calculate form factor Know the matrix formulation to solve equation

31 Photon mapping First pass: construction of the photon map Second pass: rendering equation is used to estimate the radiance of every pixel.

32 Overview not comprehensive! Must study all the material outside these notes Good luck for finals week!

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