# Degree Reduction of Interval SB Curves

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1 International Journal of Video&Image Processing and Network Security IJVIPNS-IJENS Vol:13 No:04 1 Degree Reduction of Interval SB Curves O. Ismail, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract Ball basis was introduced for cubic polynomials by Ball, and was generalized for polynomials of higher degree by Said. An algorithmic approach to degree reduction of interval Said-Ball (SB) curve is presented in this paper. The four fixed Kharitonov's polynomials (four fixed SB curves) associated with the original interval SB curve are obtained. These four fixed SB curves are transformed into four fixed Bezier curves. The degree of the four fixed Bezier curves is reduced based on the matrix representations of the degree reduction process. The process of degree reductions times are applied to the four fixed Bezier curves of degree to obtain the four fixed Bezier curves of degree without changing their shapes. The four fixed reduced Bezier curves are converted into SB curves of the same degree. Finally the reduced interval SB control points are obtained from the four fixed reduced SB control points. An illustrative example is included in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Index Term Image processing, CAGD, degree reduction, interval Said-Ball (SB) curve, interval Bezier curve. I. INTRODUCTION In 1974, Ball [1],[2], and [3] defined a set of basis functions for cubic curves. In 1989, Said [4] generalized the Ball model to higher degrees and developed the recursive algorithms for two generalized Ball curves. In image processing and visualization, comparing two bitmapped images needs to be compared from their pixels by matching pixel-by-pixel. Consequently, it takes a lot of computational time while the comparison of two vectorbased images is significantly faster. Sometimes these raster graphics images can be approximately converted into the vector-based images by various techniques. After conversion, the problem of comparing two raster graphics images can be reduced to the problem of comparing vector graphics images. Hence, the problem of comparing pixel-bypixel can be reduced to the problem of polynomial comparisons. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), the vector graphics images are the composition of curves and surfaces. Curves are defined by a sequence of control points and their polynomials. In internet applications, there are many popular search engines such as Google, Yahoo and MSN. These search engines have provided efficient mechanisms in searching for the relevant media or documents from a given set of keywords. Nevertheless, comparisons can only be accomplished. Although some pictures can be matched to the given keywords, the comparisons are attained by matching from the information provided in those pictures. However, there are several multimedia depicted in the forms of pictures, figures or images. Thus, it is interesting to introduce the algorithms for seeking for these kinds of information. The author is with Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Typically, images can be classified into two categories: raster graphics and vector graphics images. A raster graphics image is represented by a rectangular grid of pixels as vector graphics image is defined by a set of mathematical equations representing the geometric objects, e.g., points, lines, polygons, curves, and surfaces. The information contained in the raster graphics image is a collection of pixel attributes: the coordinates and colors. Comparing two images, one needs to compare pixel-bypixel, coordinate-by-coordinate or even color-by-color. Consequently, comparing two large images, e.g., photographic image in the Internet or in the image banks, it is inevitably needed to compare a plenty of images. Moreover, seeking for a simple geometric object composed in a bitmap image is concerned as a complicated task. In vector-based images, each element is represented in terms of the mathematic formula and its attributes. There are many properties of those geometric primitives that can make the image comparison easier. Using the relevant properties instead of computing the whole image can reduce the computational time. Fortunately in some particular applications, raster graphics images can be converted into the vector-based images. It is reasonable to transform raster graphics images into vector graphics images and compares those vector graphics images. In computer aided geometric design(cagd), a vector graphics image is an aggregation of curves and surfaces. Curves and surfaces can be modeled in various techniques. One of those methods that has been commonly used is the polynomial curve and surface representation. There are several kinds of polynomial curves in CAGD, e.g., Bezier, Said-Ball, and Wang-Ball curves. These curves have some common and different properties. All of them are defined in terms of the sum of product of their blending functions and control points. They are just different in their own basis polynomials. In order to compare these curves, we need to consider these properties. The common properties of these curves are control points, weights, and their number of degrees. Control points are the points that affect to the shape of the curve. Weights can be treated as the indicators to control how much each control point influences to the curve. Number of degree determines the maximum degree of polynomials. In different curves, these properties are not computed by the same method. To compare different kinds of curves we need to convert these curves into an intermediate form. The curve modeling plays an important role in geometric modeling because it can be generalized into the development of surfaces and solids. Typically, a curve construction is based on a sequence of the given control points that approximates the shape of this curve. In other words, the specified control points influence the appearance of the curve. Besides, this curve will pass through the first and the last endpoints but does not pass through every interior point. In addition, these polynomial curves can also

2 International Journal of Video&Image Processing and Network Security IJVIPNS-IJENS Vol:13 No:04 2 be differently specified according to their blending functions (polynomials), e.g., Ball [1], [2], [3], Said-Ball [4], Bezier, and B-Spline curves [5]. The models of these curves are also dissimilar from their different polynomial formulations. Hence, these transformations will be taken into account for the curve comparisons. A lot of research [6-18] effort has gone into curves and surfaces in the last 30 years because of these reasons. Many sophisticated curve methods are known today-some are specialized and others are general purpose. In this work, the degree reducing matrix for the four fixed Bezier curves will be used to obtain the degree reduction of the four fixed SB curves associated with the original interval SB curve. First, the relationships between Bezier and SB fixed control points were used for converting SB fixed control points into Bezier fixed control points of degree. The degree of the four fixed Bezier curves will then be reduced by one using the degree reduction algorithm. Finally, the -degree four fixed Bezier curves can be readily transformed into the four fixed SB curves of degree, and reduced interval SB control points can be obtained from the four fixed reduced SB control points. This paper is organized in the following sections. Section describes interval Bezier curves, and section includes interval Said-Ball curves as section provides interval Said-Ball degree reduction, and section presents a numerical example, while the final section offers conclusions. II. INTERVAL BEZIER CURVES Bezier curve provides a simple model of constructing a parametric curve. A parametric equation of Bezier curve can be defined by the linear combination of the Bernstein polynomials and its interval control points. The interval control points can also be used for determining the shape of curve. Although, the curve does not pass through its interval control points except the first and the last interval endpoints, it passes closely to its interval control points. Let be a given set of interval control points which defines the interval Bezier curve: of degree are Bernstein polynomials formed by: The degree reduction of interval Bezier curve [20] is a method used for reducing a vertex from the given interval control points but the shape of the curve remains the same. In this work, interval Bezier degree reduction will be used for interval SB degree reduction process. The vertices of the new four fixed Kharitonov's polygon (four fixed Bezier polygon), denoted by for can be computed from the original fixed control points, by the following proposition: Proposition 1. The degree reduction for the four fixed Bezier curves of degree into can be expressed in terms of the matrix representation. defined by: is the degree reduction matrix that can be which can be created from a square matrix as shown in the equation. and is number of reducing degree reduction. The decreasing vertices of Bezier polygon in one process can reduce loops for calculating the new set of vertices of degree. The Bezier degree reduction can be rewritten in term of transformation matrix as the following proposition. Proposition 2. The four fixed Bezier curves multiple degree reduction of degree into can be written as: and is a binomial coefficient. The four fixed Kharitonov's polynomials (four fixed Bezier curves) associated with the original interval Bezier curve are: is the multiple degree reduction matrix of that can be defined by:

3 International Journal of Video&Image Processing and Network Security IJVIPNS-IJENS Vol:13 No:04 3 Equation is used for creating the square matrix ( is the positive integer). III. INTERVAL SAID-BALL CURVES Let be a given set of interval control points which defines the interval Said-Ball curve: of degree are the Said-Ball basis functions defined as following: which can be created from a square matrix as shown in the equations and. is odd. is even. is even. The four fixed Kharitonov's polynomials (four fixed Said-Ball curves) associated with the original interval Said-Ball curve are: is odd. The conversion from Bezier into SB control points of the same curve can be rewritten from the equation of the conversion from SB into Bezier control points. Thus, the relationship can be shown in the following proposition. Proposition 4. The SB control points associated with the four fixed Bezier curves of degree can be defined in terms of Bezier control points and an conversion matrix by: The relationships between fixed Bezier and fixed SB curves can be defined and proved in similar way by polar form approach in [21]. The Bezier fixed control points, for associated with the four fixed Said-Ball curves provided in terms of the transformation matrix as shown in the following proposition. Proposition 3. The Bezier control points associated with the four fixed Said-Ball curves of degree can be given in terms of the multiplication of the SB control points and an conversion matrix by: is the conversion matrix from Said-Ball control points associated with four fixed Said-Ball curves into Bezier control points associated with four fixed Bezier curves that can be defined by: IV. INTERVAL SB DEGREE REDUCTION In order to find the resulting matrix of the SB degree reduction, some of the intermediate steps of the transformations are needed to be computed. Interval SB degree reduction can be created by the following steps: Algorithm for the interval SB Degree Reduction 1. Transform the SB control points associated with four fixed Said-Ball curves of degree into the Bezier control points of the same curve equation. 2. Reduce degree of the four fixed Bezier curves equation. 3. Convert the four fixed Bezier control points of degree into the fixed SB control points of the same degree equation.

4 y International Journal of Video&Image Processing and Network Security IJVIPNS-IJENS Vol:13 No: The reduced interval SB control points can be obtained from the four fixed reduced SB control points as follows: VI. CONCLUSIONS In this paper, the interval SB curve degree reduction algorithm is proposed using conversion matrices between Bezier and SB curves and Bezier degree reduction matrix. The four fixed Kharitonov's polynomials (four fixed SB curves) associated with the original interval SB curve are obtained. These four fixed SB curves are transformed into four fixed Bezier curves. The degree of the four fixed Bezier curves is reduced based on the matrix representations of the degree reduction process. The process of degree reductions times are applied to the four fixed Bezier curves of degree to obtain the four fixed Bezier curves of degree without changing their shapes. The four fixed reduced Bezier curves are converted into SB curves of the same degree. Finally the reduced interval SB control points are obtained from the four fixed reduced SB control points. Comparing two bitmapped images in image processing and visualization needs to be compared from their pixels by matching pixel-by-pixel. Consequently, it takes a lot of computational time while the comparison of two vectorbased images is significantly faster. Sometimes these raster graphics images can be approximately converted into the vector-based images by various techniques. After conversion, the problem of comparing two raster graphics images can be reduced to the problem of comparing vector graphics images. Hence, the problem of comparing pixel-bypixel can be reduced to the problem of polynomial comparisons. [ ] and 3.5 Fig.1:The original and reduced Said-Ball envelopes. V. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE 3 Consider the interval Said-Ball curve defined by five interval control points: It is required to reduce the degree of the given interval Said-Ball curve defined by them to 3 without changing its shape. The reduced interval vertices of the given interval Said-Ball curve are obtained after applying the algorithm explained in section as follows: Simulation results in Figure (1) shows the envelopes of the original interval SB curve and the reduced interval SB curve, respectively o Original Said-Ball Curve. x Reduced Said-Ball Curve x REFERENCES [1] A. A. Ball, CONSURF Part 1: Introduction to conic lofting tile, Computer Aided Design, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp , [2] A. A. Ball, CONSURF Part 2: Description of the algorithms, Computer Aided Design, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp , [3] A. A. Ball, CONSURF Part 3: How the program is used, Computer Aided Design, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 9 12, [4] H. B. Said, "A generalized Ball curve and its recursive algorithm", ACM. Transaction on Graphics, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp , [5] G. Farin, Curves and surfaces for CAGD: A practical guide, Morgan Kaufman, [6] R. T. Farouki, and V. T. Rajan, "Algorithms for polynomials in Bernstein form", Comput. Aided Geometric Des., vol. 5, pp. 1-26, [7] R. T. Farouki, " Legendre-Bernstein basis transformations ", J. Comput. Appl. Math., Vol. 119, pp , [8] A. R. Forrest, "Interactive interpolation and approximation by Bézier polynomials", Comput. J., vol. 15, pp , [9] J. Gallier, Curves and surfaces in geometric modeling: Theory and algorithms, Morgan Kaufman, [10] J. Hoscheck, "Approximate conversion of spline curves", Comput. Aided Geometric Des., vol. 4, pp , [11] J. Hoschek, and D. Lasser, Fundamentals of computer aided geometric design, Wesley, MA: AK Peters, [12] J. Hoschek, and M. Schneider, "Interpolation and approximation with developable surfaces", in Curves and Surfaces with Applications in CAGD, A. Le Méhauté, C. Rabut and L. L. Schumaker, Eds., Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville (TN), pp , [13] O. Ismail, "Robust interval control points computation on cubic subdivision interval curves for computer graphics", Proc., IEEE 2nd International Conference on Information & Communication Technologies: from Theory to Applications - ICTTA'06', Damascus, [14] O. Ismail, "Robust subdivision of cubic uniform interval B- spline curves for computer graphics", 'Proc., Fourth Saudi Technical Conference and Exhibition', Riyadh, K.S.A., [15] O. Ismail, "Degree elevation of rational interval Bézier curves". 'Proc., The Third International Conference of E-Medical Systems, Fez, Morocco, [16] O. Ismail, "Degree elevation of interval Bezier curves using Legendre-Bernstein basis transformations". International Journal of Video & Image Processing and Network Security (IJVIPNS), Vol. 10, No.6, 6-9. [17] O. Ismail, " Degree reduction of interval Bezier curves using Legendre-Bernstein basis transformations". The 1st Taibah

5 International Journal of Video&Image Processing and Network Security IJVIPNS-IJENS Vol:13 No:04 5 University International Conference on Computing and Information Technology (ICCIT 2012), [18] O. Ismail, "Degree elevation of interval Bezier curves", International Journal of Video & Image Processing and Network Security (IJVIPNS), Vol. 13, No.2, pp. 8-11, [19] V. L. Kharitonov, "Asymptotic stability of an equilibrium position of a family of system of linear differential equations", Differential 'nye Urauneniya, vol. 14, pp , [20] O. Ismail, "Degree reduction of interval Bezier curves that are Used in Computer Graphics Software", Research Journal of Aleppo University, Engineering Science Series, No.110, [21] H. L. Tien, "Further developments on Ball curves and surfaces", Ph.D Dissertation, Asian Institute of Technology School of Advanced Technologies, Bangkok, Thailand, O. Ismail (M 97 SM 04) received the B. E. degree in electrical and electronic engineering from the University of Aleppo, Syria in From 1987 to 1991, he was with the Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering of that university. He has an M. Tech (Master of Technology) and a Ph.D. both in modeling and simulation from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, in 1993 and 1997, respectively. Dr. Ismail is a Senior Member of IEEE. His main fields of research include computer graphics, computer aided analysis and design (CAAD), computer simulation and modeling, digital image processing, pattern recognition, robust control, modeling and identification of systems with structured and unstructured uncertainties. He has published more than 60 refereed journals and conferences papers on these subjects. In 1997 he joined the Department of Computer Engineering at the Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in University of Aleppo, Syria. In 2004 he was with Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Taibah University, K.S.A. as an associate professor for six years. He has been chosen for inclusion in the special 25th Silver Anniversary Editions of Who s Who in the World. Published in 2007 and Presently, he is with Department of Computer Engineering at the Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in University of Aleppo.

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