1 Important Question with Answer Q1. What do you mean by computer graphics? Ans. The branch of science and technology concerned with methods and techniques for converting data to or from visual presentation using computers. Q2.What are the applications of computer graphics? Ans. 1. Computer Aided Design 2. Graphical User Interface 3. Entertainment 4. Simulation and Training 5. Education and Presentation 6. Computer Generated Art 7. Scientific Visualization 8. Image Processing 9. Virtual reality 10. Cartography Q3.What do you mean by interactive computer Graphics? Ans. Interactive computer Graphics like a website, it is only useful if it is browsed by a visitor and no two visitors are exactly alike. It means the website must support the interaction of users with a variety of skills, interests and end goals. Interactive computer graphics involves the user s interaction. Q4. What do you mean by GUI? Ans. GUI stands for Graphical user interface. A major component of a GUI is a window manager that allows a user to display multiple-window areas. To make a particular window active we simply click in that window using an interactive pointing device. Interfaces also display menus and icons for fast selection of processing options or parameter values. Q5. What does it mean by RGB? Ans. The RGB is a color model, it is an additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue. The main purpose of the RGB color model is for the sensing, representation, and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography.
2 Q6. Define VDU? Ans. A monitor or display (sometimes called a visual display unit) is a piece of electrical equipment which displays images generated by devices such as computers, without producing a permanent record. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry, and an enclosure. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD), while older monitors use a cathode ray tube (CRT). Q7. Define persistence in terms of CRT Phosphorous. Persistence is the one of the major property of phosphorous used in CRT s. It means how long they continue to emit light after the electron beam is removed. Q8. Define resolution. The maximum number of points that can be displayed without overlap on a CRT is referred to as the resolution. Q8. What do you mean by an aspect ratio? Aspect ratio is a number which gives the ratio of vertical points to horizontal points necessary to produce equal length lines in both directions on the screen. An aspect ratio of ¾ means that a vertical line plotted with three points has same length as a horizontal line plotted with 4 points. Q9.What are the different properties of phosphorus? 1. Color 2. Persistence Q10. Differentiate raster and random scan displays. Ans. In a raster scan displays the electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time from top to bottom. Contrasting in random scan displays the electron beam is directed to the parts of the screen where a picture is to be drawn. Q11.Define refresh buffer/frame buffer? Picture definition is stored in a memory area called the refresh buffer or frame buffer. This memory area holds the set of intensity values for all the screen points. Q12. Define Pixel. Ans. Each screen point is referred to as a pixel or pel.
3 Q13. Define bitmap. Ans. On a black and white system with one bit per pixel, the frame buffer is commonly known as a bitmap. Q14. What do you mean by retracing? Define horizontal as well as vertical retracing. Ans. At the end of each scan line, the electron beam returns to the left side of the screen to begin displaying the next scan line. The return to the left of the screen, after refreshing each scan line is called the horizontal retrace. And at the end of each frame, the electron beam returns to the top left corner of the screen to begin the next frame is called the vertical retrace. Q15.What do you mean by interlacing? Ans. It is the method of incrementally displaying a visual on a CRT. On some raster scan systems, each frame is displayed in two passes using an interlaced refresh procedure. In the first pass, the beam seeps across every other scan line from top to bottom. Then after the vertical retrace, the beam sweeps out the remaining scan lines. Q16. What is a Beam penetration method? Ans. This technique is used in random scan display systems. Two layers of phosphor (red and green) are coated onto the inside of the CRT screen, the displayed colors depends on how far the electron beam penetrates into the phosphors layers. A slow electron beam excites only the outer red layer. A very fast electron beam penetrates trough the red layer and hence excites the green layer. An average electron beam gives the combination of red and green color. That is yellow and orange. This technique only provides four colors. Q17. Define shadow masking. This technique is used in raster scan display devices. It gives much wider range of colors than a beam penetration method. A shadow Mask CRT has three phosphor color dots at each pixel location. One phosphor dot emits a red light, another emits green light and the last one emits a blue light. This type of CRT also has three electron guns one for each color dot. A shadow mask grid is installed just behind the phosphor coated screen. The three electron beams are deflected and focused as a group onto the shadow mask, which contains a series of very fine holes aligned with the phosphor dot patterns. When the three beams pass through a hole in the shadow mask, they activate a dot triangle, which appears as a small color spot on the screen.different colors can be obtained by varying the intensity levels. More than 17
4 million different colors can be obtained in a full color system. Q18. What are composite monitors? Ans. Composite monitors are the adaptations of TV sets that allow bypass of the broadcast circuitry. These display devices still require that the picture information be combined, but no carrier signal is needed. Picture information is combined into a composite signal and then separated by the monitor, so the resulting picture quality is still not the best attainable. Q19. What are advantages of DVST over CRT? Also list some disadvantages of DVST. Ans. Advantages: i. No refreshing is needed. ii. Very complex pictures can be displayed at very high resolution without flicker. Disadvantages: i. They ordinarily do not display color ii. Selected part of the picture can not be erased iii. The erasing and redrawing process can take several seconds for complex pictures. Q20. Differentiate emissive and non emissive displays. Ans. Emissive display displays are devices that convert electrical energy into light. Non-emissive displays use optical effects to convert sunlight or light from some other source into graphics patterns. Q21. List some 3D viewing devices. Ans. 1. Stereoscopic systems 2. Virtual reality systems Q22. What is the role of a video controller? Ans. It is the one of the component of an interactive raster scan system. It is used to control the operation of the display device by accessing the frame buffer to refresh the screen. Q23. Define Graphics controller /Display controller/display processor. Ans. The purpose of the display processor is to free the CPU from graphic chores. A major task of the display processor is digitizing a picture definition given in an application program into a set of pixel intensity values for storage in the frame buffer.
5 Q24. What do you mean by scan conversion? Ans. A major task of the display processor is digitizing a picture definition given in an application program into a set of pixel intensity values for storage in the frame buffer. This digitization process is called scan conversion. Q25. Explain the merits and demerits of Penetration techniques. Ans. The merits and demerits of the Penetration techniques are as follows;  It is an inexpensive technique  It has only four colors  The quality of the picture is not good when it is compared to other techniques  It can display color scans in monitors Q26. Explain the merits and demerits of DVST. Ans. The merits and demerits of direct view storage tubes [DVST] are as follows;  It has a flat screen  Refreshing of screen is not required  Selective or part erasing of screen is not possible  It has poor contrast  Performance is inferior to the refresh CRT. Q27. Explain the merits and demerits of Plasma panel display. ADVANTAGES:  Refreshing is not required  Produce a very steady image free of Flicker  Less bulky than a CRT. DISADVANTAGES:  Poor resolution of up to 60 d.p.i  It requires complex addressing and wiring  It is costlier than CRT. Q28.What is the difference between impact and non-impact printers? Impact printers press formed character faces against an inked ribbon on to the paper. A line printer and dot-matrix printer are examples.
6 Non-impact printer and plotters use Laser techniques, inkjet sprays, Xerographic process, electrostatic methods and electro thermal methods to get images onto the papers. Examples are: Inkjet/Laser printers. Q29. What is the features of Inkjet printers? Features: a] They can print 2 to 4 pages/minutes. b] Resolution is about 360d.p.i. Therefore better print quality is achieved. c] The operating cost is very low. The only part that requires replacement is ink cartridge. d] 4 colors cyane, yellow, majenta, black are available. Q30.What are the advantages of laser printers? Ans. 1] High speed, precision and economy. 2] Cheap to maintain. 3] Quality printers. 4] Lasts for longer time. 5] Toner power is very cheap. Q31.What is the advantages of electrostatic plotters? 1] They are faster than pen plotters and very high quality printers. 2] Recent electrostatic plotters include a scan-conversion capability. 3] Color electrostatic plotters are available. They make multiple passes over the paper to plot color pictures. Q32.Consider three different raster systems with resolutions of 640 x 480, 1280 x 1024, and 2560 x a) What size is frame buffer (in bytes) for each of these systems to store 12 bits per pixel? Ans. Because eight bits constitute a byte, frame-buffer sizes of the systems are as follows: 640 x 480 x 12 bits / 8 = 450KB; 1280 x 1024 x 12 bits / 8 = 1920KB; 2560 x 2048 x 12 bits / 8 = 7680KB; b) How much storage (in bytes) is required for each system if 24 bits per pixel are to be stored? Similarly, each of the above results is just doubled for 24 (12 2) bits of storage per pixel.
7 Q33.Consider two raster systems with the resolutions of 640 x 480 and 1280 x a) How many pixels could be accessed per second in each of these systems by a display controller that refreshes the screen at a rate of 60 frames per second? Ans. Since 60 frames are refreshed per second and each frame consists of 640 x 480 pixels, the access rate of such a system is (640 x 480) * 60 = x 107 pixels/second. Likewise, for the 1280 x 1024 system, the access rate is (1280 x 1024) * 60 = x 107 pixels/second. b) What is the access time per pixel in each system? Ans. According to the definition of access rate, we know that the access time per pixel should be 1/(access rate). Therefore, the access time is around 54 nanoseconds/pixel for the 640 x 480 system, and the access time is around 12.7 nanoseconds/pixel for the system. Q34. Consider a raster system with the resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels and the color palette calls for 65,536 colors. What is the minimum amount of video RAM that the computer must have to support the above-mentioned resolution and number of colors? Ans. Recall that the color of each pixel on a display is represented with some number of bits. Hence, a display capable of showing up to 256 colors is using 8 bits per pixels (i.e. 8-bit color ). Notice first that the color palette calls for 65,536 colors. This number is but 216, which implies that 16 bits are being used to represent the color of each pixel on the display. The display s resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels, which implies that there is a total of 786,432 ( ) pixels on the display. Hence, the total number of bits required to display any of 65,536 colors on each of the screen s 786,432 pixels is 12,582,912 (786,432 16). Dividing this value by 8 yields an answer of 1,572,864 bytes. Dividing that value by 1,024 yields an answer of 1,536 KB. Dividing that value by 1,024 yields an answer of 1.5 MB. Q35. Define resolution. Ans. The maximum number of points that can be displayed without overlap on a CRT is referred to as the resolution. Q36. How Many k bytes does a frame buffer nees in a 600 x 400 pixel? Ans. Given :- Resolution is 600 x 400
8 Suppose 1 pixel can store n bits Then, the size of frame buffer = Resolution X bits per pixel = (600 X 400) X n bits = n bits = n (as 1kb = 1024 bites) k bytes 1024 X 8 = n k bytes Q37. Find out the aspect ratio of the raster system using 8 x 10 inches screen and 100 pixel/inch. Ans. We know that, Aspect ratio = Width Height Aspect ratio = 4 : 5 = 8 x 100 = 4 / 5 10 x 100 Q38. How much time is spent scanning across each row of pixels during screen refresh on a raster system with resolution of 1280 X 1024 and a refresh rate of 60 frames per second? Ans: Here, resolution = 1280 X 1024 That means system contains 1024 scan lines and each scan line contains 128 pixels refresh rate = 60 frame/sec. So, 1 frame takes = 1/60 sec. Since resolution = 1280 X frame buffer consist of 1024 scan lines It means then 1024 scan lines takes 1/60 sec Therefore, 1 scan line takes, 1 60 X 1024 Sec = sec
9 Q 39. Suppose RGB raster system is to be designed using on 8 inch X 10 inch screen with a resolution of 100 pixels per inch in each direction. If we want to store 6 bits per pixel in the frame buffer, how much storage (in bytes) do we need for frame buffer? Ans. Here, resolution = 8 inch X 10 inch First, we convert it in pixel then Now resolution = 8 X 100 by 10 X 100 pixel = 800 X 1000 pixel 1 pixel can store 6 bits So, frame buffer size required = 800 X 100 X 6 bits = 800 X 100 X 6 8 Bytes = 6 x 10 5 bytes. = Q.40. A unit square is transformed by 2 x 2 transformation matrix. The resulting position vector are : , what is the transformation matrix? Ans: Suppose the unit square have coordinates (x, y) (x+1, y) (x+1, y+1) (x, y+1) and let the transformation matrix be a c So, = b a b d c d x x+1 x+1 x y y y+1 y+1 ax+cy a(x+1)+cy a(x+1)+c(y+1) 0 ax+c(y+1) bx+by b(x+1)+dy b(x+1)+d(y+1) 0 bx+d(y+1) 3 4 1
10 Now, ax+cy=0 and bx+cy=0 a(x+1)+cy=2 and b(x+1)+dy=3 a(x+1)+c(y+1) = 8 and b(x+1)+d(y+1) = 4 ax+c(y+1) = 6 and bx+d(y+1)=1 from this we get, a=2, b=3, c=6, d=1 Thus, the transformation matrix is Q41. a) Find the matrix that represents rotation of an object by 45 o about the origin. b) What are the new coordinates of the point P(2, -4) after the rotation? Ans. SOLVE IT BY YOURSELF Q42. A triangle is defined by Find the transformed coordinates after the following transformation (1) 90 o rotation about origin (2) Reflection about line y = -x. 1 Ans. SOLVE IT BY YOURSELF Q43. Translate the square ABCD whose co-ordinate are A(0,0), b(3,0), C(3,3), D(0,3) by 2 units in both direction and then scale it by 1.5 units in x direction and 0.5 units in y direction. Q44. Perform a 45 o rotation of a triangle A(0,0, B(1,1), C(5,2) 1) About the origin. 2) About the point p(-1,-1) Q45. Find the transformation matrix that transforms the square ABCD whose center is at (2,2) is reduced to half of its size, with center still remaining at (2,2). The coordinate of square ABCD are A(0,0), B(0,4), C(4,4) and D(4,0). Find the co-ordinate of new square. Ans. (HINT:- After scaling the square to half of its size, the new translated square will have center at (1,1) so, translate again the new square by (1,1), so that center again reach to (2,2).)
11 Q46. Consider the square A(1,0), B(0,0), C(0,1), D(1,1). Rotate the square ABCD by 45 o clockwise about A(1,0). Ans. HINT:- 1) First, translate the square by Tx= -1 and Ty=0. 2) Then rotate the square by 45 o. 3) Again translate the square by Tx=1 and Ty=0. Q.47. Magnify the triangle with vertices A(0,0), B(1,1) and C(5,2) to twice its size while keeping C(5,2) fixed. Ans. HINT:- 1) First, translate the triangle by Tx= -5 and Ty=-2 2) Then Magnify the triangle by twice its size 3) Again translate the triangle by Tx= 5 and Ty= 2. Q48. Prove that 2D rotation and scaling is commutative i.e R.S = S.R if 1.) Sx = Sy 2.) = n Q49. Show that the 2 X 2 matrix [T] = 1-t 2 2t 1-t t 2-2t 1-t2 1+t 2 1+t 2 represents pure rotation. Ans. We know that for pure rotational transformation determinant of the transformation matrix is always equal to 1. So, the determinant of [T] = 1-t t t2 1 + t2 2t 1 + t t2 1 + t2 = (1-t 2 ) 2 4t 2 + (1+t 2 ) 2 (1+t 2 ) 2 = (1-t 2 ) 2 +4t 2 1-2t 2 +t 2 +4t 2 (1+t 2 ) 2 = = = 1 (1+t 2 ) 2 (1+t 2 ) 2 (1+t 2 ) 2
12 Q 50. Prove that simultaneous shearing in both direction (X & y direction) is not equal to the composition of pure shear along x-axis followed by pure shear along y-axis. Ans:- We know the simultaneous shearing S h = 1 a b 1 Shearing in x direction is 1 a and in y direction is Therefore, 0 1 b 1 shearing in x direction followed by y direction is 1 a b 1 = 1 + ab a b 1 1 is not equal to S h. Q51. Prove that two 2D rotation above the origin commutative i.e R 1 R 2 =R 2 R 1. Ans :- Hint take R 1 be the rotation by the angle and R 2 be the rotation in same direction by the angle α. First perform matrix for R1.R2 then R2.R1 and prove. Q52. Prove that two scaling transformation are commutative i.e. S 1.S 2 = S 2.S 1 Ans. Hint take S 1 = and S 2 = m m n n Then solve S 1.S 2 and then S 2.S 1 and prove.
13 Q53. Use the Cohen Sutherland algorithm to clip line P1 (70,20) and p2(100,10) against a window lower left hand corner (50,10) and upper right hand corner (80,40). Ans: (50,40) ) P1 P1 (70,20) (80,40) ) (50,10) Given, P1(70,20) and p2(100,10) Window lower left corner = (50,10) Window upper right corner = (80,40) (80,10) ) P2 (100,10) Now, we assign 4 bit binary outcode. Point P1 is inside the window so the outcode of P1 = 0000 and the outcode for P2 = Logical AND operation will give, Slope of the line P1P2 is m= y2 y1 = = -10 = -1 X2 x We, have to find intersection of line P1 P2 with right edge of window i.e P2 (x,y). Here x=80, we have to find the value of y. We use the point P2(x2,y2) = P2(100,10)\ M = y y2 x x2-1/3 = y y-10 = 20 / 3 y=16.66 thus, the intersection point P3 = (80, 16.66) So, after clipping line P1P2 against the window, new line P1P3 with co ordinates P1(70, 20) and P3 (80, 16.66) (50,40) ) P1 (70,20) (80,40) ) P3 (80,16.66) (50,10) (80,10) ) P2 (100,10)
www.eazynotes.com Gursharan Singh Tatla Page No. 1 COMPUTER GRAPHICS (Short Answer type Questions) Q 1. Can you give some basic features of computer graphics? Ans. The salient feature of computer graphics
Graphics Systems Dr. S.M. Malaek Assistant: M. Younesi Overview Display Hardware How are images displayed? Overview (Display Devices) Raster Scan Displays Random Scan Displays Color CRT Monirors Direct
Comp 410/510 Computer Graphics Spring 2016 Introduction to Graphics Systems Computer Graphics Computer graphics deals with all aspects of creating images with a computer Hardware (PC with graphics card)
Display technology Graphical displays are generally of two types: vector displays and raster displays. Vector displays Vector displays generally display lines, specified by their endpoints. Vector display
Maria College of Engineering and Technology, Attoor Department of M.Sc SOFTWARE ENGINEERING Academic Year: 2013-2014 (Even) COMPUTER GRAPHICS (XCS 354) Two Mark Questions UNIT I 1. Define Computer graphics?
Raster Graphics and Color Greg Humphreys CS445: Intro Graphics University of Virginia, Fall 2004 Color models Color models Display Hardware Video display devices Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Liquid Crystal Display
Computer Graphics Spring 2015-2016 Outline 1 2 3 Displays To Do 1 Go to Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/ and read the pages on Colour Spaces (http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/colour_spaces), Optical Illusions
V.D.U. / Monitor glossary pg. 153 A display device is an output device that conveys text, graphics, and video information to the user. Information on a display device is called a soft copy because it exists
Computer Graphics Prof. Sukhendu Das Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 3 Section II CRT Display Devices Hello and welcome back to the lecture on
Computer Graphics Prof. Sukhendu Das Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 4 CRT Display Devices Hello everybody, and welcome back to the lecture on
Monitors and Graphic Adapters To the process of displaying the information a graphic adapter and monitor are involved. Graphic adapter: an element between a processor (and its I/O bus) and a monitor. They
Displays Semiconductor Elements 1 Cathode Ray Tube Basic applications Oscilloscope TV Old monitors 2 1 Idea of Electrostatic Deflection 3 Inside an Electrostatic Deflection Cathode Ray Tube Gun creates
Computer Aided Design Prof. Anoop Chalwa Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Lecture No. # 02 Input Output Devices, Raster Graphics Today we will be talking about
Prof. Dr. M. H. Assal AS 26/10/2014 Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that comprise a computer system Computer hardware can be classified as following: o Input devices o Output devices
Following are few of the important output devices which are used in Computer Systems Monitors Graphic Plotter Printer Monitors Monitor commonly called as Visual Display Unit (VDU) is the main output device
2.1 COLOR AND GRAYSCALE LEVELS Various color and intensity-level options can be made available to a user, depending on the capabilities and design objectives of a particular system. General purpose raster-scan
Mr.Jirat Sriammarin ID: 50110631 Major: Computer Science Burapha University international college Section 4 CRT Display Device Computer Graphic Dr.Sukhendu Das Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering
Computer Graphics 1. Derive the equation for the intercept form of the line. 2. Explain the frame buffer, point and pixels. 3. Describe the Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) for line drawing. 4. Explain
Standard Methods of Input Input device enables you to input information and commands into the computer. The Keyboard One of the first peripherals to be used with a computer and is still the primary input
INPUT OUTPUT 08 / IMAGE QUALITY & VIEWING In this section we will cover common image file formats you are likely to come across and examine image quality in terms of resolution and bit depth. We will cover
Computer Peripherals School of Computer Engineering Nanyang Technological University Singapore These notes are part of a 3rd year undergraduate course called "Computer Peripherals", taught at Nanyang Technological
B2.53-R3: COMPUTER GRAPHICS NOTE: 1. There are TWO PARTS in this Module/Paper. PART ONE contains FOUR questions and PART TWO contains FIVE questions. 2. PART ONE is to be answered in the TEAR-OFF ANSWER
Computer Graphics Prof. Sukhendu Das Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture-2 CRT Display Devices Welcome back everybody to the video lecture on Computer
1. Application of Computer Graphics Computer-Aided Design for engineering and architectural systems etc. Objects maybe displayed in a wireframe outline form. Multi-window environment is also favored for
LECTURE SCHEDULE 1 Introduction to Computers, Anatomy of Computers, Input and Output Devices In human affairs we have reached a point where the problems that we must solve are no longer solvable without
VALLIAMMAI ENGNIEERING COLLEGE SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603203. DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Year & Semester : III Year, V Semester Section : CSE - 1 & 2 Subject Code : CS6504 Subject
What Is Output? Output is data that has been processed into a useful form Discovering Computers 2012 Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Figure -1 Objectives Overview Describe the types of output
Monitors Monitors, commonly called as Visual Display Unit (VDU), are the main output device of a computer. It forms images from tiny dots, called pixels or picture elements that are arranged in a rectangular
CSE 126 Multimedia Systems Spring 2003 Lecture Note 2 (April 3) P. Venkat Rangan Media Data Types & Operations Images Images are defined as matrices where each element represents a pixel (picture element).
How many PIXELS do you need? by ron gibbs We continue to move forward into the age of digital photography. The basic building block of digital images is the PIXEL which is the shorthand for picture element.
1. Three-Color Light Chapter 1 Introduction to Three-Color Light Many of us were taught at a young age that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. Our early experiences with color mixing were blending
TH2. Input devices, processing and output devices http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/ Input devices allow us to enter raw data into a computer. The computer processes the data and then produces
REVISED JUNE 2011. PLEASE DISCARD ANY PREVIOUS VERSIONS OF THIS GUIDE. Graphic Style Guide 1 Introduction 2 Logo Fonts 4 Logo Color 6 Logo Size & Clear Space 8 Logo Composition 10 Logo Application 16 Corporate
What Is Hardware? Introduction To Computers: Hardware and Software A computer is made up of hardware. Hardware is the physical components of a computer system e.g., a monitor, keyboard, mouse and the computer
Chapter 9 Input/Output Devices Contents: I. Introduction II. Input Devices a. Keyboard,mouse,joystick,scanners,digital camera, bar code reader, touch Sreeen,Speech input device (microphone) III. Output
3M Digital Projectors 8514/A Glossary An earlier IBM high-resolution video standard of 1024 x 768 (interlaced). Active Matrix LCD A type of liquid crystal display (LCD) technology where each pixel is actively
Computer Peripherals Reading: Chapter 10 (except 10.6) Peripherals Devices that are separate from the basic computer Not the CPU, memory, or power supply Classified as input, output, and storage Connect
Visualization of 2D Domains This part of the visualization package is intended to supply a simple graphical interface for 2- dimensional finite element data structures. Furthermore, it is used as the low
AIIM: Association for Information and Image Management. Trade association and professional society for the micrographics, optical disk and electronic image management markets. Algorithm: Prescribed set
Printers Digital cameras Scanners Graphics Input/Output Considering How they work Production of quality colour input/output IT82: Multimedia 1 IT82: Multimedia 2 Printers Types of Printer Desirable features
6: Video Basics Mark Handley Analog TV: Inside a CRT A: Cathode B: Conductive Coating C: Anode D: Phosphor Coated Screen E: Electron Beams F: Shadow Mask From: howstuffworks.com 1 Basic Analog TV Vertical
Written by Jonathan Sachs Copyright 1996-1999 Digital Light & Color Introduction When using digital equipment to capture, store, modify and view photographic images, they must first be converted to a set
So you say you want something printed... Well, that s great! You ve come to the right place. Whether you re having us design and edit your work, or you fancy yourself a designer and plan to hand over your
Otis Photo Lab Inkjet Printing Demo Otis Photography Lab Adam Ferriss Lab Manager firstname.lastname@example.org 310.665.6971 Soft Proofing and Pre press Before you begin printing, it is a good idea to set the proof
Discovering Computers Technology in a World of Computers, Mobile Devices, and the Internet Chapter 7 Input and Output Objectives Overview Differentiate among various types of keyboards: standard, compact,
Fireworks CS4 Tutorial Part 1: Intro This Adobe Fireworks CS4 Tutorial will help you familiarize yourself with this image editing software and help you create a layout for a website. Fireworks CS4 is the
Computer Graphics Computer graphics deals with all aspects of creating images with a computer Hardware Software Applications Computer graphics is using computers to generate and display images based on
COMPUTER HARDWARE Input- Output and Communication Memory Systems Computer I/O I/O devices commonly found in Computer systems Keyboards Displays Printers Magnetic Drives Compact disk read only memory (CD-ROM)
Graphic Design Basics Shannon B. Neely Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Graphics and Multimedia Design Group The Design Grid What is a Design Grid? A series of horizontal and vertical lines that evenly
Computer Graphics Hardware An Overview Graphics System Monitor Input devices CPU/Memory GPU Raster Graphics System Raster: An array of picture elements Based on raster-scan TV technology The screen (and
Polygon Scan Conversion and Z-Buffering Rasterization Rasterization takes shapes like triangles and determines which pixels to fill. 2 Filling Polygons First approach:. Polygon Scan-Conversion Rasterize
Adobe Training Services Exam Guide ACE: Illustrator CC Exam Guide Adobe Training Services provides this exam guide to help prepare partners, customers, and consultants who are actively seeking accreditation
Hardware What s inside the box? Inside the case Motherboard CPU Hard Disk Memory Ethernet Card Optical Drive Power Supply Fan Video Card Sound Card http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-gqmtitmdas Motherboard
Elfring Fonts, Inc. PCL MICR Fonts This package contains five MICR fonts (also known as E-13B), to print magnetic encoding on checks, and six Secure Number fonts, to print check amounts. These fonts come
Designing Custom DVD Menus: Part I By Craig Elliott Hanna Manager, The Authoring House at Disc Makers DVD authoring software makes it easy to create and design template-based DVD menus. But many of those
FIZARA ALBUM DESIGNER USER GUIDE GETTING STARTED SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Windows OS: Windows XP and above, 512 MB RAM (1 GB recommended), 400 MB free disk space. Mac OS: Intel Platform. 512 MB RAM (1 GB recommended),
Computer Hardware HARDWARE Hardware: the collection of physical elements that comprise a computer system. Bülent Ecevit University Department of Environmental Engineering 1. Case and inside 2. Peripherals
A Short Introduction to Computer Graphics Frédo Durand MIT Laboratory for Computer Science 1 Introduction Chapter I: Basics Although computer graphics is a vast field that encompasses almost any graphical
White Paper April 2015 Advances in Imaging to Improve Output Quality The Xerox Versant and EFI Fiery Digital Front End Service Area On Demand Printing & Publishing Consulting Service Comments or Questions?
KS3 (Year 7 and 8) and KS4(Year 9) Key Terms in Computing Digital Literacy Files and Folders Email Subject line To, CC and BCC Attachments Online safety Cyberbullying Online grooming Personal data Netiquette
Chapter 3: Computer Hardware Components: CPU, Memory, and I/O What is the typical configuration of a computer sold today? The Computer Continuum 1-1 Computer Hardware Components In this chapter: How did
Image Formation CMPT 361 Introduction to Computer Graphics Torsten Möller Machiraju/Zhang/Möller Today Input and displays of a graphics system Raster display basics: pixels, the frame buffer, raster scan,
Graphic Design Active Layer- When you create multi layers for your images the active layer, or the only one that will be affected by your actions, is the one with a blue background in your layers palette.
ELFRING FONTS INC. MICR FONTS FOR WINDOWS This package contains ten MICR fonts (also known as E-13B) used to print the magnetic encoding lines on checks, and eight Secure Fonts for use in printing check
1 INTRODUCTION TO TELEVISION INTRODUCTION The aim of a television system is to extend the sense of sight beyond its natural limits and to transmit sound associated with the scene. The picture signal is
Plotting: Customizing the Graph Data Plots: General Tips Making a Data Plot Active Within a graph layer, only one data plot can be active. A data plot must be set active before you can use the Data Selector
A Seminar report On Computer Hardware Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree Of MCA SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: www.studymafia.org www.studymafia.org Preface I have
Flat Panel Displays When talking about computer monitors, the word on the street is that thin is in. For example, at this year s Comdex Fall '98, the computer industry's largest North American tradeshow,
Written by Jonathan Sachs Copyright 1996-1999 Digital Light & Color Introduction A scanner is a device that converts images to a digital file you can use with your computer. There are many different types
Scanning and Patching Certificates in Corel Photo-Paint 10 or later. Don t Give Up After the First Try! It will take a long time to patch together your first image. But the more you do it, the better you
Color CAMM PRO PC-60 APPLICATION SOFTWARE GUIDE CONTENTS Setting & Functions of Windows Driver How to Print from Adobe Illurstrator 7.01 (Basic Operation) How to Print from CorelDRAW 7 (Basic Operation)
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES Adobe Illustrator CS5 Part 1: Introduction to Illustrator Summer 2011, Version 1.0 Table of Contents Introduction...2 Downloading
Technical Information Scanned File Size Linotype-Hell Once you start scanning images and reproducing them as halftones, you find out very quickly that the file sizes can be enormous. It is therefore important
Correcting the Lateral Response Artifact in Radiochromic Film Images from Flatbed Scanners Background The lateral response artifact (LRA) in radiochromic film images from flatbed scanners was first pointed
Time and Frequency Synchronizations in Broadcast Video Introduction Synchronization has always been important in broadcast video. Even analog TVs relied on synchronization pulses embedded into analog video