Biomass Gasification

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1 Biomass Gasification Table of Contents A Report by NexantThinking s Process Evaluation/Research Planning (PERP) Program PERP Report 2013S11 Published November Section Page 1 Executive Summary TECHNOLOGY ECONOMICS Power Generation Fischer-Tropsch Liquids Dimethyl Ether Hydrogen STRATEGIC CONSIDERATIONS Introduction OVERVIEW DEFINITION OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION Power Generation Combined Heat and Power Chemicals and Fuels Production DRIVERS FOR BIOMASS GASIFICATION Broader Applicability and Feasibility Long Term Oil Price Forecast Rural Development National Balance of Payments Sustainable Economics

2 3 Biomass Feedstocks BIOMASS TYPES FOR GASIFICATION Agricultural Wastes Energy Crops Forest Products and Byproducts Animal Waste and Manure Municipal Solid Waste BIOMASS CHARACTERISTICS Ash and Slagging Characteristics of Biomass Material Handling BIOMASS SUPPLY AND LOGISTICS Supply of Biomass and Facility Capacity Logistics Biomass Gasification Technologies PROCESS OVERVIEW TYPES OF GASIFIERS Moving-bed Gasifiers Fluidized Bed Gasifiers Entrained Flow Gasifiers Plasma Gasification Other COMMERCIAL STATUS Commercially Available Technologies Developing Technologies BIOMASS SYNGAS CLEANING, CONDITIONING Ammonia, Alkali, and Other Contaminants Particulate Removal Tar Removal Wet Scrubbers Catalytic Tar Reforming Acid Gas Removal

3 5 Power and CHP Technologies SYNGAS FOR DIRECT STEAM AND POWER GENERATION SYNGAS FOR GAS TURBINES Microturbine Systems SYNGAS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES COMBINED HEAT AND POWER APPLICATIONS Fuels and Chemicals from Bio-Syngas OVERVIEW SYNGAS TO METHANOL AND DIMETHYL ETHER HYDROGEN FROM SYNGAS FISCHER-TROPSCH LIQUIDS FROM SYNGAS Environmental Considerations for Biomass Gasification EMISSIONS FROM GASIFICATION WATER CONSUMPTION AND LIQUID WASTE SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL Biomass Gasification Economics COSTING BASIS Investment Basis Cost of Production Basis Feedstock Capacity and Plant Sizing Feedstock Characteristics Catalysts and Other Chemicals PROCESS ECONOMICS Power Generation Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline and Diesel Products Dimethyl Ether (DME) Hydrogen Glossary References

4 Appendix Page A Definitions of Capital Cost Terms Used in Process Economics... A-1 B Definitions of Operating Cost Terms Used in Process Economics... B-1 C PERP Program Title Index ( )... C-1 4

5 Figure Page 1.1 Cost of Production Sensitized to Biomass Gasification Plant Scale CAPEX Breakdown for Biomass Gasification Based Power Generation Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Cost of Production with ROCE Levelized Cost of Energy Benchmark, United States CAPEX Breakdown of Biomass Gasification based Fischer-Tropsch Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline and Diesel Cost of Production Regional Comparison DME Cost of Production Regional Comparison Hydrogen Cost of Production Regional Comparison CHP Block Diagram Chemicals and Fuels from Syngas U.S. Regional Production of Corn Stover, County-level Corn Stover Availability at Different Prices Geographic Distribution of Biomass in China Map of Annual Switchgrass Yields, as of Hybrid Poplar Yield versus Tree Age MSW to RDF Sorting and Pelletizing Process Biomass Cost-Quantity Exclusion Model for Corn Stover Generic Gasification Process Train Schematic Diagram of an Updraft Reactor Schematic Diagram of a Downdraft Reactor Schematic Diagram of a Cross-draft Reactor Schematic Diagram of BFB Reactor Schematic Diagram of CFB Reactor Schematic Diagram of an Entrained-flow Reactor Flow Diagram of MSW Processing Using Plasma Gasification Rentech FERCO SilvaGas Process Flow Diagram Carbo-V Process Flowsheet Schematic of Carbona (Andritz) Low Pressure BFB Pulse Enhanced Steam Reformer Pulsed Heater Flue Gas-Biomass Gasification Heat Transfer

6 4.14 Flow Diagram of InEnTec PEM Gasifier Process Alter NRG Plasma Gasifier Solena Gasification Reactor SPGV in Integrated Plasma Gasification Combined Cycle (IPGCC) Principle of Barrier Filters Typical Amine System Flow Diagram Typical Physical Solvent System Typical LO-CAT System Flow Diagram Direct Steam Generation from Gasification Syngas Direct Steam Generation and Steam Cycle Simple Cycle Gas Turbine Schematic Combined-Cycle Gas Turbine Schematic Microturbine-based CHP System Gas Turbine Combined Cycle CHP IC Engine CHP Carbona Skive Gasification CHP Värnamo, Sweden Biomass-IGCC Plant Routes from Syngas to Chemicals, Fuels Simplified Methanol and DME Upstream Value Chain Block Flow Diagram of Hydrogen via Steam Methane Reforming Hydrogen Yield versus Oxygen Content of Various Feedstocks Anderson-Schulz-Flory Distribution Gasification Emission and Liquid/Solid Discharge Pathways Cost of Production Sensitivity to Crop Yield RDF Cost of Production Sensitivity to Tipping Fee Discounted Cash Flow of Catalyst Costs Bio-Gasification Power Generation Plant Model Basis CAPEX Breakdown for Biomass Gasification Based Power Generation Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Cost of Production with ROCE Levelized Cost of Energy Benchmark, United States Cost of Production Sensitized to Biomass Gasification Plant Scale

7 8.9 Bio-Gasification to Fischer-Tropsch Plant Model Basis CAPEX Breakdown of Biomass Gasification based Fischer-Tropsch Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline and Diesel Cost of Production Regional Comparison F-T Liquid from Wood Waste Cost of Production Sensitivity to Feedstock Price, U.S. Midwest Bio-Gasification to DME Plant Model Basis CAPEX Breakdown of Biomass Gasification based DME Synthesis DME Cost of Production Regional Comparison Biomass Gasification derived Hydrogen Production CAPEX Breakdown of Biomass Gasification based Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Cost of Production Regional Comparison

8 Table Page 1.1 Commercial Status of Various Gasification Technologies Selected Biomass Feedstock for Gasification Composition of Wheat Straw Top Five Wheat Straw Producing Countries in the World, 2011/ Top Sugar Cane Bagasse Producing Countries in the World, 2011/ Top Sugar Cane Field Trash Producing Countries in the World, 2011/ SWOT Analysis of Grasses as a Biomass Feedstock Typical MSW Composition Proximate Analysis for Selected Biomass Feedstock Ultimate Analysis for Selected Biomass Feedstock Typical Metrics of Various Gasifier Types Commercial Status of Various Gasification Technologies SilvaGas Syngas Composition and HHV Carbo-V Syngas Composition and HHV (for Oxygen fed) Foster Wheeler CFB Syngas Composition and HHV EPI BFB Syngas Composition and HHV Pollutants in Syngas and Controlling Mechanisms Bio-Derived Syngas-Fed Internal Combustion Engine Performances Power and CHP Technology Comparison Comparison of CHP Systems Compositions of Commercial Methanol Catalysts Hydrogen Yield per Catalyst, Feedstock, and Gasification Reactor Type Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst Comparison Estimated Regional Addressable Biochar Market in the United States Prices of Raw Materials, Products, Utilities, and Labor Feedstock Properties and Value Cost of Production Regional and Product Cases Cold Gas Efficiencies and Product Yield Overall Efficiencies and Yield of Bio-gasification Based Power Generation

9 8.6 Cost of Production Estimate for: Electricity Generation, U.S. Midwest (Wood Waste, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Energy Generation, U.S. Midwest (Corn Stover, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Energy Generation, U.S. Midwest (Switchgrass, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Energy Generation, Western Europe (Wood Waste, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Energy Generation, Western Europe (Wheat Straw, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Energy Generation, China (Corn Stover, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Energy Generation, Brazil (Sugarcane Trash, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Energy Generation, Plasma Gasification, U.S. Midwest (MSW, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Energy Generation, Plasma Gasification, Western Europe (MSW, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Energy Generation, Plasma Gasification, China (MSW, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: F-T Gasoline & Diesel, U.S. Midwest (Wood Waste, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: F-T Gasoline & Diesel, U.S. Midwest (Corn Stover, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: F-T Gasoline & Diesel, Western Europe (Wood Waste, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: F-T Gasoline & Diesel, Western Europe (Wheat Straw, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: F-T Gasoline & Diesel, China (Corn Stover, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: F-T Gasoline & Diesel, Brazil (Sugarcane Trash, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: DME, U.S. Midwest (Wood Waste, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: DME, U.S. Midwest (Corn Stover, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: DME, Western Europe (Wood Waste, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: DME, Western Europe (Wheat Straw, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: DME, China (Corn Stover, 2013)

10 8.27 Cost of Production Estimate for: DME, Brazil (Sugarcane Trash, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Hydrogen, U.S. Midwest (Wood Waste, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Hydrogen, U.S. Midwest (Corn Stover, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Hydrogen, Western Europe (Wood Waste, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Hydrogen, Western Europe (Wheat Straw, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Hydrogen, China (Corn Stover, 2013) Cost of Production Estimate for: Hydrogen, Brazil (Sugarcane Trash, 2013)

11 NexantThinking The NexantThinking s Process Evaluation/Research Planning (PERP) program is recognized globally as the industry standard source for information relevant to the chemical process and refining industries. PERP reports are available as a subscription program or on a single report basis. Contact Details: New York: Marcos Nogueira Cesar, Vice President, Consulting Phone: , New York: Heidi Junker Coleman, Global Programs Support Manager Phone: , Shanghai: Dr. Y. Larry Song, General Manager, Nexant China Phone: , Nexant, Inc. ( is a leading management consultancy to the global energy, chemical, and related industries. Nexant has helped clients increase business value through assistance in all aspects of business strategy, including business intelligence, project feasibility and implementation, operational improvement, portfolio planning, and growth through M&A activities. Nexant has its main offices in San Francisco (California), White Plains (New York), and London (UK), and satellite offices worldwide. Copyright by Nexant Inc All Rights Reserved. 11

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