BUILDING THE BUSINESS CASE FOR LARGE-SCALE UTILIZATION OF FOREST RESIDUES AS FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ENERGY COMMODITIES:

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1 MOBILIZING FOREST RESIDUES BUILDING THE BUSINESS CASE FOR LARGE-SCALE UTILIZATION OF FOREST RESIDUES AS FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF ENERGY COMMODITIES: Power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Thermal energy Liquid, solid, gaseous fuels Geoff Whitfield Bio-GHG Management Program, Expert Advisory Committee 11/6/2014 1

2 HYDROTHERMAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES Liquefaction to produce bio-crude oil fungible with fossil carbon-based synthetic crudes and Drop-in fuels: Demonstration-ready: Alberta-based company, Steeper Energy Inc. Catalyzed gasification for the production of (for example) substitute natural gas (SNG): Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) licensee, Genifuel Corporation Carbonization hydrothermal torrefaction : Commercial production of bio-coal Conditioning biomass for slurry gasification Slurry gasification for power generation: With and without co-gasification of coals and/or petcoke 11/6/2014 2

3 CASE STUDY: MARKET PUSH PULL FOR POWER GENERATION Market push? Preparation + transportation co-fired NGCC Market pull? Objectives: Examine the market pull for power generation utilizing biomass gasification: with particular reference to co-fired natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) Examine the market push for supplying forest residues as fuel for power generation 11/6/2014 3

4 CO-FIRED NATURAL GAS COMBINED CYCLE (NGCC) The system for creating clean bio-gas will be discussed further 11/6/2014 4

5 GHG REGULATIONS IN RELATION TO POWER GENERATION CREATE MARKET PULL FOR UTILIZING BIOMASS (CCPC) Presentation to Wood Pellet Association of Canada, 20 November /6/2014 5

6 BIOMASS CO-FIRING MAY PROVIDE A WAY OF REDUCING OR AVOIDING COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH END-OF-PIPE APPROACHES TO MEETING GHG EMISSION STANDARD steam cycle biomass residue 15% heat input Gap Standard: 420 A Comparison of the Environmental Consequences of Power from Biomass, Coal, and Natural Gas, NREL (ca. 2000) 11/6/2014 6

7 PROJECTED AVOIDED GHG EMISSIONS COST DUE TO CO-FIRING OR REPOWERING WITH NATURAL GAS AT TWO COAL PRICES Presentation to Wood Pellet Association of Canada, 20 November 2013 natural gas heat rate: 10 GJ/MWh Fuel costs only Lower radiant heat per GJ delivered by natural gas impacts on boiler performance: Requiring significant boiler modifications: burner and pressure part (for example) 11/6/2014 7

8 CCPC STUDY OF FOREST RESIDUES CO-FIRING AT 70% RATE PROJECTS SIMILAR AVOIDED GHG EMISSIONS COSTS Natural gas pricing: 70% co-firing Domestic consumption and LNG exportation provides upward pressure on NG prices longer-term Competitively priced biomass provides a hedge against NG price volatility 11/6/2014 8

9 MARKET PULL MARKET PUSH? FPINNOVATIONS VALUATION OF FOREST RESIDUES ON BEHALF OF CCPC: Plant gate price projected to be commensurate with hog fuel transfer price: $65/ODt Truck transportation of low energy density fuel: $40/ODt over an average distance of 150 km Subtraction of estimated transportation costs generates a point of origin cost of $25/Odt: Corresponding a heavily discounted $1.25/GJ HHV Capital intensity of inside battery limits (ISBL) handling facilities, and operating costs associated with preparing fuel for combustion, combine to raise the price of the biomass at its source from to somewhere in excess of $5/GJ HHV at the point the fuel is combusted: Costs are associated with storage, sizing, drying 11/6/2014 9

10 PRICING FOREST RESIDUES TO CREATE MARKET PUSH Pricing the residues at $1.25/GJ HHV, would require owners of rights to harvest residues to: Allocate recovery costs to harvesting and collection operations associated with fibre to be transferred to their own value-adding operations Be satisfied with, at best, merely recovering costs associated with preparing residues through some form of grinding operation prior to shipment to the power plant gate: In effect, handing any profits to be made from supplying forest residues as fuel for power generation to the trucking companies. Companies unlikely to adopt transfer pricing as the basis for valuing a marketed commodity: A targeted margin added to costs of recovery and preparation Feasible basis for valuation of biomass as a power generation fuel may be to discount it by some amount relative to the natural gas price on an energy basis: Pricing biomass at $3.50/GJ HHV in today s market environment may account appropriately for higher costs associated with firing biomass relative to firing with natural gas 11/6/

11 SOME CONDITIONS TO BE MET FOR $3.50/GJ HHV PRICE AT THE POINT BIOMASS IS PROCESSED TO BE AN APPROPRIATE TARGET Significant reduction in transportation costs: Truck transportation distances of the order of 100 km to 150 km could amount to notionally 150% of costs of recovering and preparing the commodity Reduction in storage and handling capital and operating costs: [O] $200 million put at risk in order to retrofit biomass handling facilities inside the battery limits of a power plant with a bio-power capacity of nominally 200 MW e Drying is obviated: [O] $20 million required in order to retrofit biomass drying facilities at 200 MW e Truck transportation of biomass consumed in drying the biomass to be fired at a 70% co-firing rate could incur costs amounting to $8 million per annum Energy costs associated with drying could amount to [O] $13 million per annum: if the price of biomass consumed is pegged near the value of natural gas Cost-effective conversion of the feedstock into a clean, high energy density synthetic gas, liquids or solids meeting end-use specifications Merchantizing of forest residues as energy commodities feedstocks 11/6/

12 CHANGES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF FIBRE SUPPLY CHAIN LOGISTICS IN THE DIRECTION OF INCREASING THE MERCHANTIZING OF FIBRE IN THE WOODS Can integration of recovery and preparation of residues into existing supply chains systems drive costs out of logistics management: through significantly enhancing yields and productivity? This is not a Sustainability versus Profitability dichotomy: Enhanced capability to meet spatial and temporal reforrestation standards (for example): reduced disposal of debris by in-field combustion reduced tendency to treat debris as an externality increased silvicultural access Ecological roles of residuals preserved Outside the analytic boundary at this stage: Purpose harvesting Mill waste utilization 11/6/

13 OVERCOMING THE COST OF WET BIOMASS Deploying hydrothermal processing technologies enables pipeline transportation of biomass using water as the carrier fluid Slurry transportation of carbonaceous materials is known technology: The Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (PAPRICAN) was able to report on the hydraulic transportation of wood chips by pipeline at an international conference held in 1965 Substantial body of knowledge developed: seminal work on biomass slurry transportation carried out in Alberta by Amit Kumar The decision situation: When account is taken of avoided trucking costs and avoided capital and operating expenditures associated with handling wet biomass inside the power plant gate, can the capital associated with creating the upstream infrastructure for pipeline delivery to the plant gate be recovered at a rate which justifies putting the capital at risk? transportation of residues to the head of the pipeline is probably the critical factor determining the cost-effectiveness of pipeline transportation relative to trucking 11/6/

14 SLURRY GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS FOR POWER GENERATION Entrained flow: Siemens patent, US 2011/ A1 (Feb ): torrefied and milled biomass is introduced to the gasification process with a fluid as a slurry Co-gasification with petcoke: Leveraging GE patent, US 8,343,243 B2 (Jan. 1, 2013): incorporation of petcoke as a slurry meets gasification energy requirements 11/6/

15 HYDROTHERMAL CARBONIZATION AS AN BIOMASS UPGRADING TECHNOLOGY Co-production of electricity, heat and biocoal pellets from biomass: a techno-economic comparison with wood pelletizing, Technische Universität Berlin, Institute for Energy Engineering, Germany (2011) Pipelined from a satellite yard to a centralized processing facility? 11/6/

16 IMPACT OF BLENDING PETCOKE WITH BIOMASS ON HEATING VALUE Hydrocarbon fuels 100% biomass 66% 50% 33% % IFRF Handbook (2000) 06/11/

17 HYDROTHERMAL PRE-TREATMENT OF FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES Increasing substrate pre-treatment severity Sugar Beet Pulp AGRICULTURE Stover Softwoods Wheat straw FORESTRY Hardwoods Fit-for-purpose processing pathways: Biochemical processing Thermo- and/or bio-chemical processing: Thermochemical processing: Thermochemical liquefaction Torrefaction Gasification Liquefaction The ease with which substrates release sugars is a significant factor affecting the choice of biochemical or thermochemical processing pathway 11/6/

18 SUMMARY MARKET PULL: Natural gas not all it is cracked up to be as a substitute for coal as a fuel for power generation MARKET PUSH?: FPInnovations identified for CCPC existent principal barriers to achieving a market value of residues which: Warrant forestry and agricultural industry companies adding the business of supplying residues as feedstocks for production of energy commodities Make residues affordable to entities engaged in the business of supplying the energy commodities marketplace Current approaches to transporting and burning wet biomass overwhelm the business case for large-scale utilization of biomass for power generation: High costs of trucking wet low energy density biomass exerts significant pressure on returns that biomass suppliers can expect to earn Hydraulic transportation combined with hydrothermal processing may provide an affordable and environmentally effective approach to the large-scale utilization of biomass as a feedstock for the production of energy commodities power and heat, and fuels 11/6/

19 RECOMMENDATION Conduct preliminary feasibility analysis in support of decision-making as to whether to put demonstration of power generation based on slurry gasification of biomass on a proper project basis The Decision space: With particular attention paid to scalability Petcoke GE alternative Natural gas Siemens alternative Biomass 11/6/

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