(1) (1) Why are transition metal compounds added to glazes for pottery? (1) (Total 3 marks)

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1 Q. The properties of transition metals make them useful elements. (a) Why is copper used for electrical wiring? () (b) Why is iron used for girders in buildings? () (c) Why are transition metal compounds added to glazes for pottery? () (Total 3 marks) Page of 2

2 Q2. Limestone is used for statues and buildings. Limestone contains calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ). (a) Figure shows a limestone quarry. Figure Henryk Sadura/iStock/Thinkstock (i) Suggest one problem quarrying limestone will cause for people living nearby. () Suggest one benefit of quarrying limestone for people living nearby. () (iii) Why are limestone statues and buildings damaged by rain? () Page 2 of 2

3 (b) A student investigated what happens when limestone is heated, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 This is the method the student used: measure the mass of limestone before heating measure the mass of solid product after heating repeat the experiment two more times. The student s results are shown in the table below. Experiment Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Mass of limestone before heating in g Mass of solid product after heating in g Mass lost in g.4.6 (i) Calculate the mass lost in experiment 3. Mass lost =... g () Calculate the mean mass lost in the three experiments. Mean mass lost =... g () (iii) Suggest one reason why the mass lost was not the same for the three experiments. () Page 3 of 2

4 (c) The word equation for the reaction when calcium carbonate is heated is: calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide (i) Complete the sentence. The reaction when calcium carbonate is heated is called thermal.... () Heating 5.0 g of calcium carbonate produces 2.8 g of calcium oxide. Calculate the mass of carbon dioxide produced. Mass of carbon dioxide =... g () (iii) Describe how to test a gas to show that it is carbon dioxide. Test... Result... (Total 0 marks) Q3. Metals are extracted from their ores. Many copper ores contain only 2% of copper compounds. (a) Copper is now extracted from ores containing a low percentage of copper compounds. Suggest two reasons why. Page 4 of 2

5 (b) Chalcocite, an ore of copper, contains copper sulfide. The flow diagram shows how copper metal is extracted from chalcocite. (i) Suggest one reason why it is difficult to dispose of the waste rock. () The reaction in the furnace could cause environmental pollution. Explain how. (iii) The extraction of pure copper is expensive. Give one reason why. () Page 5 of 2

6 (iv) Pure copper is produced by electrolysis of copper sulfate solution. Which electrode do the copper ions move towards? Give a reason for your answer. (v) Large areas of land are contaminated with copper compounds. Phytomining can be used to remove these copper compounds from the land. What is used in phytomining to remove copper compounds from the land? () (Total 9 marks) Q4. This question is about oil reserves. (a) Diesel is separated from crude oil by fractional distillation. Describe the steps involved in the fractional distillation of crude oil. (3) Page 6 of 2

7 (b) Diesel is a mixture of lots of different alkanes. What are alkanes? (c) In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Petroleum products, such as petrol, are produced from crude oil. The graph shows the possible future production of petroleum products from crude oil and the expected demand for petroleum products. Page 7 of 2

8 Canada s oil sands hold about 20% of the world s known crude oil reserves. The oil sands contain between 0 to 5% of crude oil. This crude oil is mainly bitumen. In Canada the oil sands are found in the ground underneath a very large area of forest. The trees are removed. Then large diggers and trucks remove 30 metres depth of soil and rock to reach the oil sands. The oil sands are quarried. Boiling water is mixed with the quarried oil sands to separate the bitumen from the sand. Methane (natural gas) is burned to heat the water. The mixture can be separated because bitumen floats on water and the sand sinks to the bottom of the water. The bitumen is cracked and the products are separated by fractional distillation. Use the information given and your knowledge and understanding to suggest the advantages and disadvantages of extracting petroleum products from oil sands. (6) (Total marks) Page 8 of 2

9 Q5. Aluminium has many uses. (a) An aluminium atom has 3 electrons. (i) Draw the electronic structure of an aluminium atom. () Name the two sub-atomic particles in the nucleus of an aluminium atom.... and... () (iii) Why is there no overall electrical charge on an aluminium atom? () (b) Rail tracks are made from steel. Molten iron is used to weld rail tracks. The reaction of aluminium with iron oxide is used to produce molten iron. (i) Balance the chemical equation for the reaction. () Why does aluminium react with iron oxide? () (Total 5 marks) Page 9 of 2

10 Q6. In the UK, railway sleepers were made from wood. They are now often made from concrete. A scientist was asked to find the best concrete mixture to use so that railway sleepers would not break easily.the scientist made: a mould to make small models of concrete sleepers concrete mixtures using crushed rock, sand, cement and water the equipment shown to add 0. kg masses until the model sleeper broke. The scientist s results are shown in the table. Concrete mixture in % by volume Total mass added to break the model sleeper in kg Cement Sand Crushed rock Test Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Mean (a) Calculate the mean total mass added to break the model sleeper that has 20 % cement by volume. Mean =... kg Page 0 of 2

11 (b) State one conclusion that the scientist could make from these results. () (c) The scientist sent the results in a report to a company that makes full-size concrete railway sleepers. (i) Suggest two other factors that the company should take into consideration before deciding which mixture to use to make a full-size concrete railway sleeper. The scientist s report claimed that using concrete sleepers instead of wooden sleepers would have less environmental impact. Do you agree with the scientist s claim? Use your knowledge and understanding to justify your answer. Remember to compare using concrete with using wood for the sleepers. (4) (Total 9 marks) Page of 2

12 Q7. There has been research into fuels for car engines. Fuel Content Melting point in C Flashpoint in C Energy released in MJ per litre Ethanol C 2 H 5 OH Diesel hydrocarbons About Petrol hydrocarbons About Rapeseed oil fats About The flashpoint is the lowest temperature a fuel vapour ignites in air. (a) The melting point of ethanol is precise but the other melting points are approximate. Suggest why. (b) Ethanol is produced by fermentation of sugar cane. Rapeseed oil is produced by pressing rapeseeds. Waste plant material from both processes is used to feed animals. (i) Describe how the process of fermentation is done. Carbon neutral fuels do not increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Suggest why using a biofuel, such as ethanol or rapeseed oil, is thought to be carbon neutral. Page 2 of 2

13 (c) When any fuel from the table is used in a car engine, the exhaust gases contain nitrogen oxides. Explain why. (d) Evaluate replacing petrol with ethanol as a fuel for cars. To gain full marks you should give a justified conclusion. Use the information from the table and your knowledge to answer this question. (4) (Total 2 marks) Page 3 of 2

14 M. (a) (good)conductor of electricity conductor of electricity and heat (+/ ) = 0 accept can be drawn into wires or ductile ignore flexible (b) strong accept tough or hard or high tensile strength (c) reference to colour [3] M2. (a) (i) any one from: destruction of habitats fewer plants / trees to absorb carbon dioxide dust / noise / air / visual (pollution) allow breathing problems more traffic any one from: provides employment local business make more profit new transport links ignore future use of quarry (iii) (rain water is) acidic (b) (i).2(g).4(g) allow ecf from (b)(i) (iii) any one from: temperature of the flame varied allow flame was too hot or not hot enough different purity of the limestone incorrect measurement of mass heated for different times (c) (i) decomposition Page 4 of 2

15 2.2(g) (iii) limewater test must be correct to gain second mark turns cloudy allow turns milky or white (precipitate) [0] M3. (a) any two from: copper / ores are running out / harder to find there are no / very small amounts of high-grade copper ores left copper metal is in demand copper is expensive now economical to extract copper from low-grade ores it = copper allow new methods of extraction e.g. bioleaching and phytomining allow high-grade ores are running out for 2 marks 2 (b) (i) large amounts / 98% of rock to dispose of as waste accept contains toxic (metal) compounds / bioleacher or waste rock takes up a lot of space (copper sulfide reacts with oxygen to) produce sulfur dioxide / SO 2 allow (sulfur reacts with oxygen to) produce sulfur dioxide / SO 2 that causes acid rain allow description of effects of acid rain or sulfur dioxide if no other mark awarded allow CO 2 produced which causes global warming or CO 2 produced by burning fuel or heating the furnace for mark Page 5 of 2

16 (iii) any one from: large amounts of fuels / energy used (for the furnace and electrolysis) allow large amounts of electricity needed ignore high temperature / electrolysis unqualified (the extraction has) many steps / stages / processes allow (extraction) is a long process / takes a lot of time large amounts of ore / material have to be mined allow ores contain a low percentage of copper (iv) (copper ions move towards) the negative electrode / cathode because copper ions / Cu 2+ are positively charged or are oppositely charged or copper ions need to gain electrons allow because metal ions are positive or opposites attract (v) (growing) plants [9] M4. (a) heat to vaporise (the crude oil) do not accept cracking / burning vapours condense at different temperatures allow they have different boiling points (b) (alkanes) are hydrocarbons or are compounds of hydrogen and carbon only alkanes are saturated or have only (carbon-carbon) single bonds accept have no (carbon-carbon) double bonds accept general formula is C n H 2n+2 for 2 marks (c) Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response. 0 marks No relevant content. Level (-2 marks) There is a basic description of at least one advantage or one disadvantage of extracting petroleum products from oil sands. Page 6 of 2

17 Level 2 (3-4 marks) There is a clear description of an advantage and a disadvantage of extracting petroleum products from oil sands. Level 3 (5-6 marks) There is a detailed description of both advantages and disadvantages of extracting petroleum products from oil sands. Examples of the chemistry/environmental/economic/social points made in the response Advantages: the oil sands are needed because crude oil is running out this crude oil is needed because demand is increasing the oil sands contain a large amount of crude oil the oil sands could improve Canada s economy the oil sands provide employment for a lot of people the trees / forest are used for wood products / fuel Disadvantages: destruction of environment / habitats fewer trees / forests to absorb carbon dioxide specified pollution, for example, visual, noise, atmospheric (including dust), water (including river or drinking) with cause, e.g. gases / particulates from burning diesel large amounts of methane (natural gas) are used to provide energy energy / fuel needed for cracking and fractional distillation burning fuel releases carbon dioxide crude oil / natural gas contains locked up carbon crude oil is non-renewable 6 [] M5. (a) (i) any sensible symbol can be used to represent an electron proton(s) and neutron(s) both needed for the mark Page 7 of 2

18 (iii) number of protons is equal to number of electrons allow positive and negative charges cancel out allow same amount of protons and electrons (b) (i) 2 Al + Fe 2 O 3 2 Fe + Al 2 O 3 equation must be balanced aluminium is more reactive (than iron) it = aluminium accept converse accept aluminium displaces iron accept aluminium is higher in the reactivity series (than iron) [5] M6. (a) 2.5 correct answer with or without working gains 2 marks if answer incorrect 2.6 / / 2.62 / 2.63 or recognise 3.0 as anomalous gains mark accept answer in table ignore units 2 (b) as the percentage of cement increases the mass needed to break the sleeper increases allow 50% cement is the strongest or 30% sand is the strongest or the highest amount of cement is the strongest or as the percentage of sand increases the mass needed to break the sleeper decreases (c) (i) any two from: availability of materials cost (of materials) time needed (for the concrete mixture) to set/harden compression strength (of the concrete) accept weight of the train testing full size (concrete railway sleepers) accept any test on full size sleepers accept how well it would last / weather 2 Page 8 of 2

19 any four from: maximum of 3 marks if no comparison made ignore yes or no negative concrete: allow converse statements for wood more fossil fuel / energy / heat (needed to produce cement / concrete) cement / concrete resources / limestone not renewable whereas wood is renewable quarrying limestone destroys landscapes / habitats whereas growing wood improves landscapes / habitats allow quarrying causes noise pollution / dust / etc. making cement / concrete releases carbon dioxide / greenhouse gases whereas growing wood absorbs carbon dioxide / greenhouse gases / is carbon neutral allow making cement / concrete causes global warming / climate change whereas growing wood reduces global warming / climate change ignore loss of trees / deforestation (and resultant effects such as an increase in CO 2 ) positive concrete: (less resources are needed because) cement / concrete sleepers last longer or wood rots / needs replacing ignore strength / ease of breaking ignore weathering / effects of acid rain 4 [9] M7. (a) ethanol is made up of only one type of molecule or ethanol is a compound allow ethanol is pure diesel / petrol / rapeseed oil are mixtures accept composition of diesel / petrol / rapeseed oil varies / changes allow different hydrocarbons have different melting points ignore diesel, petrol and rapeseed oil are impure (b) (i) sugar is mixed with / dissolved in water accept sugar cane for sugar Page 9 of 2

20 yeast (is added) allow enzymes are added if no other mark awarded, allow correct word or chemical equation for mark (growing sugar cane / rapeseed) plants absorbs carbon dioxide accept carbon for carbon dioxide accept carbon dioxide is used for photosynthesis which is released (when the biofuel burns) do not accept no carbon dioxide is released (when biofuels burn) (c) nitrogen / N 2 and oxygen / O 2 (in the air) do not accept fuels contain nitrogen react in the hot engine / at high temperature (d) any three from: ignore references to melting point 3 ethanol needs a higher temperature to burn than petrol or ethanol has a higher flashpoint than petrol ethanol releases less energy (per litre) than petrol sugar is renewable or crude oil is non-renewable / will run out sugar cane growth is unreliable / slow or crude oil is a reliable supply allow ethanol is not readily available or petrol is readily available ethanol is made by a batch / slow process or petrol is made by a continuous / fast process ethanol is carbon neutral or petrol contains locked up carbon dioxide sugar / sugar cane should be used for food not for fuels accept idea of food shortages a justified conclusion that adds value accept one additional point from the list above as long as one comparison of replacing petrol with ethanol is made [2] Page 20 of 2

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