SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

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1 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, A small pin contains mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample contains 4.70 x 10-4 mol of gold. How many atoms of gold are in the sample? 3. How many formula units are contained in 0.21 mol of Magnesium Nitrate 4. A litre of water contains 55.6 mol of water. How many molecules of water are in the sample? 5. A typical bottle of nail polish remover contains 2.5 mol of ethyl acetate (C 4 H 8 O 2 ). a. How many molecules are in the bottle? b. How many atoms are in the bottle? c. How many carbon atoms are in the bottle? 6. Consider a mol sample of sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) a. How many formula units are in the sample? b. How many sodium ions are in the sample? 7. A sample of Al 2 O 3 contains 7.71 x molecules. How many moles is there? 8. A vat of cleaning solution contains 8.03 x molecules of NH 4. How many moles of ammonia are in the vat? 9. A sample of cyanic acid, HCN, contains 3.33 x atoms. How many moles of cyanic acid are in the sample? HINT: Find the number of molecules of HCN first. 10. A sample of pure acetic acid, CH 3 COOH, contains 1.40 x carbon atoms. How many moles of acetic acid are in the sample? 11. How many atoms make up the following compounds? a. MgF 2 b. Al(OH) 3 c. Pb 3 (PO 4 ) 4 d. (NH 4 ) 2 SO Find the Molar Mass of each compound a. NH 3 b. C 6 H 12 O 6 c. K 2 Cr 2 O 7 d. Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 e. SrSO Calculate the mass of each sample. a. 103 moles of Mo b x 10 4 moles of NaCl c moles of MgO d moles of H 2 O

2 14. How many moles of compound are in each sample? a g of SiO 2 b g of HNO 2 c x 10 5 g of CF 4 d x 10-3 g of C 8 H 9 I 15. Sodium Chloride can be used to melt snow. How many moles of sodium chloride are in a 10 kg bag? 16. Octane, C 8 H 18, is a principal ingredient in gasoline. Calculate the number of moles in a 20.0 kg sample of octane. 17. Determine the mass of each sample. a x formula units of ZnCl 2 b x formula units of Pb 3 (PO 4 ) 2 c x molecules of C 15 H 21 N 3 O 15 d x molecules of N 2 O Express the mass of a single atom of Ti in grams. 19. Vitamin B 2, C 12 H 20 N 4 O 6, is also called riboflavin. What is the mass, in grams, of a single molecule of riboflavin? 20. Determine the number of molecules or formula units in each sample. a g of water b g of methanol, CH 3 OH c g of disulphur dichloride, S 2 Cl 2 d g of lead (II) phosphate, Pb 3 (PO 4 ) How many atoms of hydrogen are in 5.3 x 10 4 molecules of sodium glutamate, NaC 5 H 8 NO 4? 22. How many molecules are in a 64.3 mg sample of tetraphosphorous decoxide, P 4 O 10? 23. a) How many formula units are in a 4.35 x 10-2 g sample of potassium chlorate, KClO 3? b) How many oxygen atoms are in this sample? 24. A sample of a compound is analyzed and found to contain 0.90 g of calcium and 1.60 g of chlorine. The sample has a mass of 2.50 g. Find the percent composition of the compound. 25. Find the percent composition of a pure substance that contains 7.22 g nickel, 2.53 g phosphorous, and 5.25 g oxygen only. 26. A 650 mg sample of a compound is analyzed and found to contain 257 mg C and 50.4 mg H and an unknown element. What is the percentage composition?

3 27. A scientist analyses a 50.0 g sample and finds that it contains 13.3 g of potassium, 17.7 g of chromium, and another element. What is the mass percent of potassium in this compound? 28. Calculate the mass percent of Nitrogen in each compound: a. N 2 O b. Sr(NO 3 ) 2 c. NH 4 NO 3 d. HNO Sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4, is an important acid in laboratories and industries. Determine the percent composition. 30. Potassium nitrate, KNO 3, is used to make fireworks. What is the mass percent of oxygen in potassium nitrate? 31. A compound consists of 17.6 % hydrogen and 82.4% nitrogen. Determine the empirical formula of the compound. 32. Find the empirical formula of a compound that is 46.3% lithium and 53.7% oxygen. 33. What is the empirical formula of a compound that is 15.9% boron and 84.1% fluorine? 34. Determine the empirical formula of a compound made up of 52.51% chlorine and 47.48% sulfur. 35. An oxide of chromium is made up of 68.4% chromium and 31.6% oxygen. What is the empirical formula of this oxide? 36. Phosphorous reacts with oxygen to give a compound that is 43.7% phosphorous and 56.4% oxygen. What is the empirical formula of the compound? 37. An inorganic salt is composed of 17.6% sodium, 39.7% chromium, and 42.8% oxygen. What is the empirical formula of this salt? 38. The empirical Formula of butane is C 2 H 5. In an experiment, the molar mass of butane was determined to be 58 g/mol. What is the molecular formula? 39. Oxalic acid has the empirical formula CHO 2. Its molar mass is 90 g/mol. What is the molecular formula of oxalic acid? 40. The empirical formula of codeine is C 18 H 21 NO 3. If the molar mass of codeine is 299 g/mol, what is its molecular formulas? 41. A 1.00 mol sample with a mass of g contains g Li and g of O. What is the molecular formula? 42. A compound s molar mass is g/mol. Its percent composition is 75.0% carbon, 5.05% hydrogen, and 20.0% oxygen. What is the compound s molecular formula?

4 43. A fat used in making soap contains 76.5% carbon, 12.2% hydrogen and 11.3% oxygen. Determine the molecular formula if the fat s molar mass is g/mol. 44. A substance contains 26.65% potassium, 35.33% chromium and 38.02% oxygen. Its molar mass is g/mol. Determine the molecular formula of the compound. 45. The percent composition of nicotine is 74.0% carbon, 8.7% hydrogen and 17.3% nitrogen. Its molar mass is g/mol. What is the molecular formula? 46. Compound X contains 69.9% carbon, 6.86% hydrogen and 23.3% oxygen. Determine the empirical formula of compound X. 47. Consider the following reaction: 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) 2H 2 O (l) a) Write the all the mole ratios b) How many moles of O 2 are required to react with 100 moles of H 2? c) How many moles of water are formed when 2478 moles of O 2 react? d) How many moles of H 2 are required to react completely with 6.02 x moles of O 2? 48. Aluminum bromide can be prepared by reacting small pieces of aluminum foil with liquid bromine at room temperature. The reaction is accompanied by flashes of red light. a) Write a balanced chemical equation of the above reaction. b) How many moles of bromine are needed to produce 5 mol of aluminum bromide? c) How many moles of aluminum are needed to react? 49. Ammonium sulfate, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4, is used as a source of nitrogen in some fertilizers. It reacts with sodium hydroxide to produce sodium sulfate, water and ammonia. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4(s) + 2NaOH (aq) Na 2 SO 4(aq) + 2NH 3(g) + 2H 2 O (l) What mass of sodium hydroxide is required to react completely with 15.4 g of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4? 50. Iron (III) oxide, also known as rust, can be removed from iron by reacting it with hydrochloric acid to produce iron (III) chloride and water. Fe 2 O 3(s) + 6HCl (aq) FeCl 2(aq) + H 2(g) What mass of hydrogen chloride is required to react with 1.00 x 10 2 g of rust? 51. Iron reacts slowly with hydrochloric acid to produce iron (II) chloride and hydrogen gas. Fe (s) + 2HCl FeCl 2(aq) + H 2(g) What mass of HCl is required to react with 3.56 g of iron? 52. Dinitrogen pentoxide is a white solid. When heated it decomposes to produce nitrogen dioxide and oxygen. 2N 2 O 5(s) 4NO 2(g) + O 2(g) How many grams of oxygen will be produced in this reaction when 2.34 g of NO 2 are made? 53. Powdered zinc reacts rapidly with powdered sulfur in the following reaction: 8Zn (s) + S 8(s) 8ZnS (s) What mass of zinc sulfide is expected when 32.0 g of S 8 reacts?

5 54. Aluminum carbide is a yellow powder that reacts with water to produce aluminum hydroxide and methane. Al 4 C 3(s) + 12H 2 O (l) 4Al(OH) 3(s) + 3CH 4(g) What mass of water is required to completely react with 25.0 g of aluminum carbide? 55. Nitrogen gas is produced in an automobile air bag. It is generated by the decomposition of sodium azide: 2NaN 3(s) 3N 2(g) + 2Na (s) To inflate the air bag on the driver s side of a certain car, 1.72 x molecules of N 2 are required. What mass of NaN 3 is needed to produce this many molecules of N 2? 56. The following balanced chemical equation shows the reaction of aluminum with copper(ii) chloride. If 0.25 g of aluminum reacts with 0.51 g of copper(ii) chloride, determine the limiting reactant. 2Al (s) + 3CuCl 2(aq) 3Cu (s) + 2AlCl 3(aq) 57. Hydrogen fluoride is a highly toxic gas. It is produced by the double displacement reaction of calcium fluoride with concentrated sulfuric acid. CaF 2(s) + H 2 SO 4(l) 2HF (g) + CaSO 4(s) Determine the limiting reactant when 10.0 g of CaF 2 reacts with 15.5 g of H 2 SO g of zinc reacts with 8.93 x molecules of hydrogen chloride. Which reactant is limiting? 59. Use the following equations to answer the questions below: 6ClO 2(g) + 3H 2 O (l) 5HClO 3(aq) + HCl (aq) a) If g of ClO2 is mixed with g of water, what is the limiting reactant? b) What mass of HClO 3 is expected in part a)? c) How many molecules of HCl are expected in part a)? 60. A student performs the following reaction with 1.23 g of MnI 2 and 25.0 g of F 2. 2MnI 2(s) + 13F 2(g) 2MnF 3(s) + 4IF 5(l) What mass of MnF 3 is expected? 61. A student mixes 5.3 g of barium chloride and 6.9 g of sodium sulphate. What mass of barium sulphate is produced? g of HBrO 3 is reacted with excess HBr. HBrO 3(aq) + 5HBr (aq) 3H 2 O (l) + 3Br 2(aq) a) What is the theoretical yield of Br 2? b) If 47.3 g of Br 2 is produced, what is the percentage yield for this reaction? 63. Barium sulphate forms as a precipitate in the reaction between barium nitrate and sodium sulphate. When 35.0 g of barium nitrate is reacted with excess sodium sulphate, 29.8 g of precipitate is recovered. a) Calculate the theoretical yield b) Calculate the percentage yield 64. Yeast can act on sugar to produce alcohol in the following reaction: C 6 H 12 O 6(aq) 2C 2 H 5 OH (l) + 2CO 2(g)

6 If 223 g of alcohol are recovered after 1.63 kg of sugar react, what is the percentage yield? 65. The following reaction proceeds with a 70% yield: C 6 H 6(l) + NNO 3(aq) C 6 H 5 NO 2(l) + H 2 O (l) Calculate the mass of C 6 H 5 NO 2 expected if 12.8 g of C 6 H 6 reacts with excess NNO Marble is made primarily of calcium carbonate. When calcium carbonate reacts with hydrogen chloride, it reacts to form calcium chloride, carbon dioxide and water. If this reaction occurs with 81.5% yield, what mass of carbon dioxide will be collected if 15.7 g of calcium carbonate is added to sufficient hydrogen chloride? g of copper (II) chloride react in a single displacement reaction with 19.3 g of magnesium metal. If the reaction has a 54.3% yield, how much copper metal will be recovered? Unit 2 Problem Set Answers X10 22 atoms 17c) 89.1 g 43. C 45 H 85 O x atoms 17d) 2.15 x 10 7 g 44. K 2 Cr 2 O x fu x g 45. C 10 H 14 N x molecules x g 46. C 12 H 14 O 3 5a) 1.5 x molecules 20a) 3.34 x molecules 47b) 50 mol 5b) 2.1 x atoms 20b) 9.84 x molecules 47c) 4956 mol 5c) 6.0 x atoms 20c) 1.05 x molecules 47d) 1.20 x mol 6a) 4.99 x fu 20d) 7.42 x fu 48b) 7.5 mol 6b) 9.98 x ions x 10 5 atoms 48c) 5 mol mol x molecules g x 10 3 mol 23a) 2.14 x fu g mol 23b) 6.42 x atoms g mol 24. Ca=36%, Cl=64% g 11a) 3 atoms 25. Ni=48.1%, P=16.9%, O=35% g 11b) 7 atoms 26. C=39.5%, H=7.75%, g Unknown=52.8% 11c) 23 atoms % g 11d) 15 atoms 28a) 2.27% 56. CuCl 2 12a) g/mol 28b) 13.2% 57. CaF 2 12b) g/mol 28c) 35.0% 58. Zn 12c) g/mol 28d) 22.2% 59a) ClO 2 12d) g/mol 29. H=2.1%, S=32.7%, O=65.3% 59b) g 12e) g/mol % 59c) 1.05 x molecules 13a) 9.88 x 10 3 g 31. NH g 13b) 7.71 x 10 5 g 32. Li 2 O g 13c) 27.7 g 33. BF 3 62a) 74.4 g 13d) 1.01 x 10 3 g 34. SCl 62b) 63.6% 14a) mol 35. Cr 2 O 3 63a) 31.3 g 14b) mol 36. P 2 O 5 63b) 95.2% 14c) 1.76 x 10 3 mol 37. Na 2 Cr 2 O % 14d) 3.49 x 10-5 mol 38. C 4 H g x 10 2 mol 39. C 2 H 2 O g mol 40. C 18 H 21 NO g 17a) 1.36 x 10 3 g 41. Li 2 O 17b) 9.95 g 42. C 15 H 12 O 3

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