3 Stoichiometry - The study of quantities of materials consumed and produced in chemical reactions. p Counting by Weighing
4 3-2 Atomic Masses p78 Mass Mass Mass of C C 13 C ( )(12 amu) amu Average atomic mass Exact number by definition Elements occur in nature as mixtures of isotopes Carbon = 98.89% 12 C; 1.11% 13 C; <0.01% 14 C Carbon atomic mass = 98.89% of 12 amu 1.11% of amu (0.9889)(12 amu) (0.0111)( amu) amu p79
5 Schematic Diagram of a Mass Spectrometer p78 Figure 3.1
6 Ex 3.1 The Average Mass of an Element P81 When a sample of natural copper is vaporized and injected into a mass spectrometer, the results shown in Fig. 3.3 are obtained. Use these data to compute the average mass of natural copper. (The mass values for 63 Cu and 65 Cu are amu and amu, respectively.) Solution:
7 3-3 The Mole p82 The number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure 12 C. 1 mole of anything = x units of that thing.
8 P83 Ex 3.2 Determining the Mass of a Sample of Atoms Americium is an element that does not occur naturally. It can be made in very small amounts in a device known as a particle accelerator. Compute the mass in grams of a sample of americium containing six atoms. Solution:
9 Ex 3.4 Calculating Numbers of Atoms P85 A silicon chip used in an integrated circuit of a microcomputer has a mass of 5.68 mg. How many silicon (Si) atoms are present in the chip? Solution:
10 Ex 3.5 Calculating the Number of Moles and Mass Cobalt (Co) is a metal that is added to steel to improve its resistance to corrosion. Calculate both the number of moles in a sample of cobalt containing atoms and the mass of the sample. Solution: P85
11 3.4 Molar Mass p86 Molar mass: The mass in grams of one mole of the compound.
12 Ex 3.6 Calculating Molar Mass Juglone, a dye known for centuries, is produced from the P86 husks of black walnuts. It is also a natural herbicide (weed killer) that kills off competitive plants around the black walnut tree but does not affect grass and other noncompetitive plants. The formula for juglone is C 10 H 6 O 3. (a) Calculate the molar mass of juglone. (b) A sample of 1.56 x 10-2 g of pure juglone was extracted from black walnut husks. How many moles of juglone does this sample represent?
13 Solution: p86
14 P88 Ex 3.8 Molar Mass and Number of Molecules Isopentyl acetate (C 7 H 14 O 2 ) is the compound responsible for the scent of bananas. A molecular model of isopentyl acetate is shown in the margin below. Interestingly, bees release about 1 μg ( g) of this compound when they string. The resulting scent attracts other bees to join the attack. How many molecules of isopentyl acetate are released in a typicalbee sting? How many molecules of isopentyl acetate are released in a typical bee sting? How many atoms of carbon are present?
15 Solution: P88
16 Ex 3.9 Calculating Mass Percent Carvone is a substance that occurs in two forms P89 having different arrangements of the atoms but the same molecular formula (C 10 H 14 O) and mass. One type of carvone gives caraway seeds their characteristic smell, and the other type is responsible for the smell of spearmint oil. Compute the mass percent of each element in carvone.
18 3-5 Percent Composition of Compounds p89 Mass percent of an element: For iron in iron (III) oxide, (Fe 2 O 3 ) mass % Fe % %
19 CH 3 CH 2 OH
20 React 1 Now Try This Calculate the number of copper atoms in a g sample of copper.
21 React 2 Consider separate gram samples of each of the following: H 2 O, N 2 O, C 3 H 6 O 2, CO 2 Rank them from greatest to least number of oxygen atoms.
22 3-6 Determining the Formula of a Compound p91 Analyzing for Carbon and Hydrogen
23 CO 2 p92 H 2 O % C % H
24 Find the formula p92 CH 5 N C 2 H 10 N 2 C 3 H 15 N 3
25 Formulas molecular formula = (empirical formula) n [n = integer] molecular formula = C 6 H 6 = (CH) 6 empirical formula = CH
26 Ex 3.11 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas P93 Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound that gives the following percentages upon analysis (in mass percents): 71.65% Cl, 24.27% C, 4.07% H. The molar mass is known to be g/mol.
27 Solution: Dividing each mole value by (the smallest number of moles present), we obtain the empirical formula ClCH 2. This substance is composed of molecules with the formula Cl 2 C 2 H 4.
28 Ex 3.13 Determining a Molecular Formula P95 Caffeine, a stimulant found in coffee, tea, and chocolate, contains 49.48% carbon, 5.15% hydrogen, 28.87% nitrogen, and 16.49% oxygen by mass and has a molar mass of g/mol. Determine the molecular formula of caffeine.
29 Solution: Rounding the numbers to integers gives the molecular formula for caffeine: C 8 H 10 N 4 O 2.
31 Molecular Formula Determination p96 Method One
32 Method 2 p96
33 3-7 Chemical Equations p97 CH4 O 2 CO2 H 2O reactants products Balancing a chemical equation
34 p98 Chemical Equation A representation of a chemical reaction: C 2 H 5 OH(l) + 3O 2 (g) 2CO 2 (g) + 3H 2 O(g) reactants products
35 The Meaning of a Chemical Equation p98
36 3-8 Balancing Chemical Equations p98 C 2 H 5 OH(l) + 3O 2 (g) 2CO 2(g) + 3H 2 O(g) 2 C atoms 2 C atoms 6 H atoms 6 H atoms 7 O atoms 7 O atoms The equation is balanced. 1 mole of ethanol reacts with 3 moles of oxygen to produce 2 moles of carbon dioxide and 3 moles of water.
37 Balancing Chemical Equations
38 React 3 Which of the following are true concerning balanced chemical equations? There may be more than one true statement. The number of molecules is conserved. The coefficients tell you how much of each substance you have. Atoms are neither created nor destroyed. The coefficients indicate the mass ratios of the substances used. The sum of the coefficients on the reactant side equals the sum of the coefficients on the product side.
39 Notice The number of atoms of each type of element must be the same on both sides of a balanced equation. Subscripts must not be changed to balance an equation. A balanced equation tells us the ratio of the number of molecules which react and are produced in a chemical reaction. Coefficients can be fractions, although they are usually given as lowest integer multiples. Trial and error is a valid method to balance a chemical equation.
41 Ex 3.14 Balancing a Chemical Equation P100 Chromium compounds exhibit a variety of bright colors. When solid ammonium dichromate, (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7, a vivid orange compound, is ignited, a spectacular reaction occurs, as shown in the two photographs on the next page. Although the reaction is actually somewhat more complex, let s assume that the products are solid chromium (III) oxide, nitrogen gas (consisting of N 2 molecules), and water vapor. Balance the equation for this reaction.
42 Solution: p100
43 3-9 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactions and Products p102
45 Ex 3.16 Chemical Stoichiometry I p105 Solid lithium hydroxide is used in apace vehicles to remove exhaled carbon dioxide from the living environment by forming solid lithium carbonate and liquid water. What mass of gaseous carbon dioxide can be absorbed by 1.00 kg of lithium hydroxide? Solution:
46 3-10 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reagent p106
47 Limiting Reactants
48 Mixture of CH 4 and H 2 O Molecules
49 Methane and Water Reacting p107
50 Notice We cannot simply add the total moles of all the reactants to decide which reactant mixture makes the most product. We must always think about how much product can be formed by using what we are given, and the ratio in the balanced equation.
51 React 4 The limiting reactant is the reactant a) for which you have the lowest mass in grams. b) that has the lowest coefficient in the balanced equation. c) that has the lowest molar mass. d) that is left over after the reaction has gone to completion. e) none of the above.
52 Ex3.18 Limiting Reactant p110 Nitrogen gas can be prepared by passing gaseous ammonia over solid copper (II) oxide at high temperature. The other products of the reaction are solid copper and water vapor. If a sample containing 18.1 g of NH 3 is reacted with 90.4 g of CuO, which is the limiting reactant? How many grams of N 2 will be formed?
54 Ex 3.19 Calculating Percent Yield Methanol (CH 3 OH), also called methyl alcohol, is the p111 simplest alcohol. It is used as a fuel in cars and is a potential replacement for gasoline. Methanol can be manufactured by combination of gaseous carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Suppose 68.5 kg CO(g) is reacted with 8.60kg H 2 (g). Calculate the theoretical yield of methanol. If 3.57 x 10 4 g CH 3 OH is actually produced, what is the percent yield of methanol?
3.4 Molar Mass A chemical compound is a collection of atoms. The mass of 1 mole of methane can be found by summing the masses of carbon and hydrogen present: Mass of 1 mole C 12.01 g Mass of 4 mole H 4
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