# 1 Development of the Atomic Theory

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3 THOMSON S PLUM PUDDING MODEL Thomson concluded that cathode rays must be made of tiny particles that come from atoms. Since the particles are attracted to a positively charged metal plate, the particles must have a negative charge. Remember that opposite charges attract each other. These negatively charged particles are called electrons. Thomson s experiment showed that atoms contain electrons, but it did not show where electrons are located within an atom. Thomson suggested that electrons might be scattered throughout the atom. This new model of the atom was called the plum pudding model. It was named after a popular dessert at the time. Today, we would probably call this a chocolate chip ice cream model of the atom. How Did Rutherford Study the Atom? In 1909, one of Thomson s students wanted to test the theory that electrons are scattered throughout the atom. Ernest Rutherford decided to shoot a beam of tiny, positively charged particles at a thin sheet of gold foil. Rutherford guessed that atoms are soft blobs of matter with electrons and positively charged particles scattered throughout. He thought that most of the particles would pass right through the gold atoms. Particles that hit other particles would stop or bounce to the side. When Rutherford performed the experiment, he found that most of the positively charged particles did pass through the gold foil. Some were deflected sideways, just as he expected. What surprised him was that some particles bounced straight back. 5. Identify What type of electrical charge does an electron have? 6. Identify What did Rutherford shoot at the gold foil in his experiment? Rutherford s Gold-Foil Experiment a Tiny particles with a positive charge came from an element such as radium. e Strangely, a few particles bounced straight back. b A beam of particles was aimed at a thin sheet of gold foil. d Some of the particles bounced off to the side. c Most of the particles passed straight through the gold foil. 7. Compare What happened to most of the particles that were shot at the gold foil? Interactive Textbook 201 Introduction to Atoms

4 8. Describe What is the nuclear model of the atom? What Was Rutherford s Atomic Model? The plum pudding model did not explain what Rutherford saw. He reasoned that there was only one way that the positively charged particles could bounce straight back. That was if they hit a very dense part of the atom that had a positive charge. Remember that identical charges repel. He concluded that most of the matter in the atom must be in a very small part of the atom. Based on the results of his experiment, Rutherford proposed a new model of the atom, called the nuclear model. In his model, the center of the atom is a tiny, dense, positively charged area called the nucleus. The electrons move outside the nucleus in mostly empty space. Nucleus Electron In Rutherford s model, the atom contains a nucleus. Electrons move around the nucleus. Math Focus 9. Make Comparisons If an atom had a nucleus 1 ft in diameter, what would be the diameter of the atom, in miles? Show your work. Round to the nearest mile. (1 mi 5,280 ft) 10. Describe According to Bohr s theory, how do electrons move around the nucleus? Rutherford concluded that the nucleus must be very small but very dense in order to deflect the fast-moving particles. He used his observations to calculate the diameter of an atom. It was about 100,000 times greater than the diameter of its nucleus. The atom is mostly empty space. What Did Bohr Discover about the Atom? In 1913, Niels Bohr, a Danish scientist, studied the way that atoms react to light. He made a slight change to Rutherford s model, based on his observations. Bohr proposed that electrons move around the nucleus in definite paths, or orbits, called energy levels. In Bohr s model, electrons could not exist between these levels. Think of the levels as rungs on a ladder. You can stand on the rungs of a ladder, but not between the rungs. However, the electrons could jump from one level to another as they gained or lost energy. Once again, the atomic theory was changed to account for new data. Interactive Textbook 202 Introduction to Atoms

5 Bohr Model of the Atom In the Bohr model, electrons move around the nucleus like planets around the sun. 11. Identify Label the nucleus and the electrons in the figure. What Is the Modern Atomic Theory? Atomic theory has changed over the past 100 years. Scientists such as Erwin Schrödinger from Austria and Werner Heisenberg from Germany have done important work. They have made observations that show that the Bohr model is not quite right. Scientists still think that electrons are moving constantly around the nucleus. However, they now know that electrons do not orbit the nucleus like planets orbit the sun. In fact, no one can predict the exact path an electron will follow as it moves around the nucleus. However, scientists can predict where electrons are likely to be found. In the modern atomic model, the locations of electrons are described with electron clouds. Electron clouds are regions where electrons are most likely to be found. The figure below shows this model. 12. Define What are electron clouds? In the current model of the atom, electrons move around the nucleus in electron clouds. No one can say exactly where a particular electron is at any particular time. Interactive Textbook 203 Introduction to Atoms

6 Section 1 Review SECTION VOCABULARY atom the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge electron cloud a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found nucleus in physical science, an atom s central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons 1. Describe How does the diameter of an atom compare with the diameter of the nucleus? 2. Recall Finish the table below to summarize some of the advances in the development of atomic theory and those responsible for them. Scientist Idea that was added to the atomic theory Each element is made of a different type of atom. Thomson Rutherford Electrons are found in specific energy levels. Modern scientists 3. Apply How did the discovery of electrons show that there are also positively charged parts of the atom? 4. Evaluate What would cause scientists to change or replace the modern atomic theory? 5. Explain Describe Thomson s plum pudding model of the atom. Interactive Textbook 204 Introduction to Atoms

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