LIQUID ROCKET PROPULSION

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1 CVA Summer School Roma July 8, 2011 LIQUID ROCKET PROPULSION 1 Christophe ROTHMUND SNECMA Space Engines Division

2 CONTENTS Part 1 : LIQUID ROCKET ENGINES Part 2 : NEAR TERM PROPULSION SYSTEMS Part 3 : ELECTRIC PROPULSION Part 1 : LIQUID ROCKET ENGINES Part 2 : ANATOMY OF A ROCKET ENGINE Part 4 Part : ANATOMY 3 : TEST FACILITIES OF A ROCKET ENGINE Part 4 : NUCLEAR PROPULSION Part 5 : ADVANCED PROPULSION 2

3 Part 1 LIQUID ROCKET ENGINES 3

4 LIQUID ROCKET ENGINE TYPES SOLID GRAIN NUCLEAR THERMAL FUEL NUCLEAR REACTOR 4

5 LIQUID PROPELLANTS MONOPROPELLANTS : Hydrazine, Hydrogen peroxyde BIPROPELLANTS : FUELS : OXIDIZERS : Kerosine, ethanol Liquid hydrogen, UDMH, MMH, Hydrazine Liquid oxygen, N2O4, Hydrogen peroxyde 5

6 HYBRID PROPELLANTS liquid propellant : oxidizer - solid propellant : fuel (solid oxidizers are problematic and lower performing than liquid oxidizers) oxidizers : gaseous or liquid oxygen nitrous oxide. fuels : polymers (e.g.polyethylene), cross-linked rubber (e.g.htpb), liquefying fuels (e.g. paraffin). Solid fuels (HTPB or paraffin) allow for the incorporation of highenergy fuel additives (e.g.aluminium). 6

7 Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) : H2N N (CH3)2 (l)+ 2 N2O4 (l) - > 3 N2 (g) + 4 H2O (g) + 2 CO2 (g) Hydrazine hydrate (N2H4,H2O) : 2 (N2H4,H2O) (l) + N2O4 (l) - > 3 N2 (g) + 6 H2O (g) Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) : 4 H2N NHCH3 (l) + 5 N2O4 (l) - > 9 N2 (g) + 12 H2O (g) + 4 CO2 (g) Kerosene (CH2 is the approximate formula ) with hydrogen peroxide : CH2 + 3H2O2 CO2 + 4H2O Kerosene and liquid oxygen (LOX) CH O2 CO2 + H2O Hydrogen and oxygen (liquids) : 2 H2 (g)+ O2 (g) - > 2 H2O (g) MONOPROPELLANTS Hydrogen peroxyde (H2O2) H2O2 (l) - > H2O (l) + 1/2 O2 (g) Hydrazine (N2H4) N2H4 (l) - > N2 (g) + 2 H2 (g) 7 CHEMICAL REACTIONS BIPROPELLANTS

8 Specific impulse of various propulsion technologies Engine type Jet engine Solid rocket Bipropellant rocket Ion thruster VASIMR Specific impulse 300 s 250 s 450 s 3000 s s 8

9 PROPULSION BASICS Pressure-fed cycle Pros : -Simplicity -Low complexity -Cons : -Low performance -Oldest and simplest cycle, -Rarely used nowadays on launch vehicles, -Powered France s Launch vehicle family Diamant. 9

10 Gas-generator cycle Pros : -Higher presssures -Lowerturbine temperatures -Highest performance -Cons : -Moderate performance -Most widely used cycle in the western world, 10

11 Preburner cycle Pros : -Higher presssures -Lowerturbine temperatures -Highest performance -Cons : -High complexity -Used on the Shuttle and the H-2A main engine 11

12 Expander cycle Pros : -Thermally challenging -Highest performance -Cons : -For cryogenic engines only -Limited power therefore not suited for high thrusts -Oldest cryogenic engine in service (RL-10) -Used in Japan and Europe 12

13 Full flow staged combustion rocket cycle Pros : -Higher presssures -Lowerturbine temperatures -Highest performance -Cons : -Very high complexity -Never flown, -Demonstration only (IPD) so far 13

14 Hybrid rocket cycle Pros : - Higher performance than solids - Lower complexity than liquids Cons : - Lower performance than liquids - Higher complexity than solids 14

15 Nuclear thermal rocket cycle Pros : -Highest performance -Cons : -Very high complexity -Radiations -Never flown, -Demonstration only so far 15

16 16 NOZZLES

17 THRUST CHAMBER ASSEMBLY Chamber Characteristics: Combustion High pressure High temperature Very low net fluid velocity GIMBAL INJECTOR COMBUSTION CHAMBER Exit Characteristics: Flow expands to fill enlarged volume Reduced pressure Reduced temperature Very high fluid velocity NOZZLE EXTENSION 17

18 18 Thrust chamber cooling methods

19 Nozzle design challenges Structural factors Physical Weight, Center of Gravity Service Life Running time, Number of starts Duty Cycle/Operating Range Continuous operation at one power level Throttled operation Materials Compatibility Strength, Heat transfer capability Structural concerns Loads Testing Flight Altitude Simulation or Sea Level Sideloads Lift off, shut down, restart Sideloads Transportation Temperature 19 June 16, 1997

20 KEY REQUIREMENTS FOR SAFE NOZZLE OPERATION Sea level : - stable operation on ground -high performance Vacuum : - high vacuum performance - low package volume Bell nozzle Advanced concepts with altitude adaptation Dual-bell nozzle 20 Extendible nozzle Plug nozzle ( Aerospike )

21 Conical Nozzle Nozzle Types Simple cone shape - easy to fabricate Rarely used on modern rockets Bell Nozzle Bell shape reduces divergence loss over a similar length conical nozzle Allows shorter nozzles to be used Annular Nozzles (spike or pug) Altitude compensating nozzle Aerospike is a spike nozzle that uses a secondary gas bleed to fill out the truncated portion of the spike nozzle 21

22 Nozzle extension cooling systems Laser welded jacket to liner Materials : stainless steel, copper, nickel, copper/nickel Brazed tubes inside jacket Brazed jacket to liner 22

23 AEROSPIKE NOZZLES Linear aerospike Rocketdyne XRS-2200 Rocketdyne AMPS s Annular aerospike 23 World s first aerospike flight, September 20, 2003 (California State Univ. Long Beach)

24 Part 2 ANATOMY OF A ROCKET ENGINE 1 Gas generator cycle : F-1 and Vulcain engines 2 Staged combustion cycle : SSME 3 Expander cycle : Vinci 4 Linear aerospike XRS Nuclear : NERVA/RIFT 24

25 25 Rocketdyne F-1

26 26 Engine flow diagram Rocketdyne F-1

27 Engine characteristics Rocketdyne F-1 Thrust (sea level): Burn time: Specific impulse: Engine weight dry: Engine weight burnout: Height: Diameter: Exit to throat ratio: Propellants: Apollo 4, 6, and MN 150 s 260 s t t 5.79 m 3.76 m 16 to 1 LOX & RP-1 Apollo 9 on 6.77 MN 165s 263 s t t 27 Mixture ratio: 2.27:1 oxidizer to fuel

28 28 Engine components Rocketdyne F-1

29 TESTS AND LAUNCHES 100 m 1000 m 29

30 30 VULCAIN 2

31 31 VULCAIN 1 TO VULCAIN 2 EVOLUTION

32 Engine characteristics VULCAIN 2 Vulcain 1 Vulcain 2 Vacuum thrust 1140 kn 1350 kn Mixture ratio 4,9 to 5,3 6,13 Vacuum specific 430 s 434 s impulse Dry weight 1680 kg 2040 kg Chamber pressure 110 bar 116 bar Expansion ratio Design life 6000 s 20 starts 5400 s 20 starts 32

33 33 Vulcain 2 Flow diagram VULCAIN 2

34 Thrust chamber VULCAIN 2 34

35 Hydrogen turbopump VULCAIN rpm, 11,3 MW

36 Oxygen turbopump VULCAIN rpm, 2,9 MW

37 37 Space Shuttle Main Engine

38 Engine characteristics SSME Propellants Vacuum thrust at 109 % SSME LOX LH kn Mixture ratio 6 Vacuum specific impulse Dry weight Chamber pressure 452 s 3527 kg 206,4 bar Expansion ratio 69 Throttle range 67 % % Design life 38 7,5 hours 55 starts

39 SSME Flow schematic SSME 2,07 bar 190,3 bar 6,9 bar 29,1 bar 511,6 bar 450 bar 206,4 bar 296,5 bar 39

40 Fuel Preburner SSME Powerhead Oxidizer Preburner SSME Main chamber Hydrogen 40 Oxygen

41 F1 vs. SSME test comparison SSME Last Planned SSME Test : July 29, 2009 Duration : 520 sec, NASA Stennis 41

42 42 VINCI

43 FLOW DIAGRAM VINCI 43

44 Engine characteristics VINCI Propellants Vacuum thrust Vinci LOX LH2 180 kn Mixture ratio 5,80 Vacuum specific impulse Chamber pressure 465 s 60 bar Expansion ratio

45 VINCI Hydrogen turbopump 45

46 Oxygen turbopump VINCI 46

47 Combustion chamber VINCI 122 co-axial injection elements 228 cooling channels 47

48 Nozzle extension VINCI 48

49 49 Vinci test facility with altitude simulation

50 TYPICAL SMALL ENGINES MONOPROPELLANT BIPROPELLANT Typical applications : Attitude control Roll control Soft landings (Moon, Mars, ) 50

51 51 SPACESHIPONE HYBRID ENGINE

52 52 AMROC (USA)

53 LIQUID ROCKET ENGINE TEST FACILITIES 53

54 54 Major elements of a test program

55 PF52 Vulcain powerpack test facility Vulcain 1 hydrogen TP test 55

56 56 Vinci test facility with altitude simulation

57 PF50 and P5 Vulcain engine test stands LOX Tank Engine 57

58 NASA A-3 J-2X altitude simulation engine test stand 59 m Ø 7 m 58 simulated altitude : approximately 30 km

59 BEWARE OF HYDROGEN IMPURITIES - Avoid risky configurations (e.g. low points,...) - Define and integrate the cleansing constraints - Easily accessible equipment after commissioning, - Rapid reaction instrumentation (e.g. fast pressure sensors,...) 59

60 60 HYBRID ENGINE TEST FACILITY

61 Part 4 NUCLEAR PROPULSION 61

62 INTEREST OF NUCLEAR THERMAL PROPULSION Energy! 1 kg of fissionable material (U235) contains times more energy, as 1 kg of chemical fuel. Consequences : -Higher specific impulse - higher useful load fraction - No oxidizer required! 62

63 Nuclear - thermal propulsion Isp = s F = kn Size of 1972 Vintage 350 kn NERVA Engine Tc = 2700 K m = 5.7 t 63

64 American nuclear rockets of the 1960 s Photo courtesy of National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office Engine and reactor in Engine Test Stand One (Nevada Test Site) KIWI A MW kn KIWI B MW kn Phoebus MW kn Phoebus MW kn 64

65 UPPER STAGE COMPARISON Departure mass Dry mass Thrust Duration Isp S-IV B t 12.2 t 91 kn 475 s 4180 m/s NERVA t t kn 1250 s 7840 m/s 65 Payload 39 t 54.5 t For Saturn V

66 66 NERVA ultimate goal : manned Mars flight

67 67 ANY QUESTIONS?

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