General aviation & Business System Level Applications and Requirements Electrical Technologies for the Aviation of the Future Europe-Japan Symposium

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1 General aviation & Business System Level Applications and Requirements Electrical Technologies for the Aviation of the Future Europe-Japan Symposium 26 March MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD. All Rights Reserved. MAY NOT, WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF MITSUBISHI

2 Features of Rotorcraft Lift Fixed Wing Lift Rotary Wing Thrust Thrust Engine Engine Airplane (fixed-wing) Type Rotorcraft (rotary-wing) By engine Thrust By rotary wing By fixed wing and vehicle s forward speed Lift By rotary wing High Speed Low Long Range Short Not available Hover VTOL Available Airport with a runway Infrastructure Airport is not necessary Jet plane, Propeller plane Aircraft Helicopter, Tilt rotor 2015 MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD. All Rights Reserved. 1 MAY NOT, WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF MITSUBISHI

3 Rotorcraft Activities Commercial airlines General aviation (airplane) General aviation (rotorcraft) Airliner SST Personal Jet Air taxi Air taxi Isolated islands Rescue Observation, Guard Rotorcrafts are multi role aircrafts because of their hovering and VTOL capability. 2

4 Rotorcraft Market Rotorcraft market size is not large even though it is multi role aircraft. Total registration 400,745 Number of General Aviation Aircraft (2013) 2013 General Aviation Statistical Databook & 2014 Industry Outlook 3

5 Rotorcraft Market Forecast 2013 General Aviation Statistical Databook & 2014 Industry Outlook 20,000 Number of registration 10, Although rotorcraft market size is currently small, constant annual growth is expected. 4

6 Prospect of Rotorcraft Future Rotorcrafts are multi role aircrafts because of its hovering and VTOL capability. Although rotorcraft market is currently smaller, market growth is expected in next 20 years. To support and accelerate the market growth, what technology is desired? Cost (price, fuel burn ) Environment (Low noise, emissions ) Easy to Control (user friendly) 5

7 A Pilot works hard during flight Keep Green rotor speed Attitude, Velocity, Altitude Torque, Pressure, Temperature Fuel, Oil torque temp Engine/Rotorcraft condition alt Mission Wind, Weather Communication Corrective Pitch and Throttle Coordination is a big pilot work load 1Throttle control =Engine torque 2Collective pitch control =Thrust & Lift 4Cyclic pitch control =Pitch & Roll 3Tail rotor pitch control =Yaw Main Rotor Engine Tail Rotor 6

8 Current technology to reduce work load A FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) 2Increase throttle Automatic throttle control 3Torque generated Engine 1To prevent rotor speed drop 4Torque = drag keep rotor speed 4Quick response limited (over temp. & flow instability) Normal increase drag 5Torque delay < drag rotor speed over drop Snap increase Need more lift / thrust VIEW A Main Rotor motion schematic( rotating direction) drag 6Pitch angle must be reduced = lift / thrust decrease Pilot delicate work load (corrective pitch control) still required 7

9 Electric power is expected Engine (current typical) Gas Turbine Fuel Limited over temp., flow instability Limited flame out 5kW/kg (+reduction gearbox, controller, oil system, others) 12 kwh/kg vs Basic Configuration Torque Snap increase Torque Snap decrease Power weight ratio (Engine/Motor) Energy density (Fuel/Battery) Electric power (current champion) Motor Battery no restriction no restriction 4kW/kg (+reduction gearbox, controller) 0.13 kwh/kg Too much difference 8

10 Weight of All Electric Power Rotorcraft Current Engine System Engine 150 kg X 2 (5kW/kg class) Total rotorcraft weight : 4t class Engine : 750kW class Flight : 2hours replace All Electric Power System Motor 200 kg X 2 (4kW/kg class) Fuel 550kg (12kWh/kg class) Battery kg (0.13kWh/kg class) Total 850kg Can Not Fly Total 10100kg 9

11 Weight reduction is required Current Motor Battery Total Total rotorcraft weight : 4t class Engine : 750kW class Flight : 2hours Power System Weight (kg) t class helicopter total weight equivalent to current engine system X 2 Short term 5-10 years X 4 X 7 Mid term years Long term 15- years 2.5times beyond current Long term estimation 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Weight Reduction Target 10

12 Still electrical power possibility is attractive To get electrical power benefit before battery weight reduction technology (high energy technology) is ready for electric rotorcraft flight, Another weight reduction rotorcraft fuselage, engine and every other structures Gas Turbine + Fuel & Motor + Battery work together 11

13 Work Together Team = Hybrid System Main Rotor Electric Motor Trans mission Engine Quick Response Battery Assist (as required) Integrated Controller Work Together Main Drive (base load) Fuel High Power Weight Ratio 12

14 Hybrid technology possibly provides electric power benefit immediately Current technology level can compromise with power system weight. equivalent to current engine system Total rotorcraft weight : 4t class Flight : 2hours Weight (kg) Battery Motor Fuel Engine Engine only Current Short Term Mid Term Long Term Twin Engine : 750kW class Power Distribution(Motor : Engine) = 20% : 80% 13

15 Additional weight reduction & fuel savings available 1800 Battery Motor Fuel Engine Total Total helicopter weight : 4t class Flight : 2hours Technology level : Long term Weight (kg) Power distribution optimization possibly provides additional weight reduction and fuel savings. sht13 100% % -19% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Engine Only Electrification Rate All Electric 14

16 System Integration Study Required Electric Motor Trans mission Engine Battery Integrated Controller Fuel Not only rotor quick response but also smooth / natural power assist and no shock is desired. Study required New control logic New transmission Dynamic simulation Technical demonstration 15

17 Summary Electric Technology Prospect All electrical powered rotorcraft needs technical growth. Electrical technology is ready for hybrid power system. Benefit of Hybrid Power System Quick response = Improved rotorcraft controllability = Reduce pilot work load Fuel savings Lighter power system = additional payload or range + Electrical Power Action for researchers and engineers Battery weight reduction still required to make the system more worth. Electric researcher and engineer Dynamic response study of the system is required. Aircraft & Engine researcher and engineer 16

18 MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD. All Rights Reserved.

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