Personality Theories

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1 Personality Theories Consistent or distinctive tendencies to behave in a certain way. Implies some consistency across situations Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 1

2 Psychoanalytic Theory Developed by Sigmund Freud Importance of instincts Sexual instinct Aggressive instinct Instincts must be balanced with social acceptability Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 2

3 Levels of Consciousness (Figure 12.1)

4 Psychoanalytic Theory: Structure of Personality Id Unconscious drives and instincts Follows the pleasure principle, instant gratification Ego Follows the reality principle Balancing id s demands with social approval Superego Moral guardian, conscience May impose self-punishment, guilt, shame Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 4

5 Psychosexual Stages of Development Oral: birth to months old Pleasure through sucking, mouthing, chewing Anal: months Ability to control elimination Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 5

6 Psychosexual Stages of Development Phallic: ages 3-6 Masturbation of penis or clitoris Boys: Oedipus complex, castration anxiety Girls: Electra complex, penis envy Latent: ages 6-12 Sexual impulses remain dormant Genital: puberty Attraction to opposite gender Sexual intercourse, marriage, child bearing Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 6

7 Psychoanalytic Theory: Personality Development Psychosexual stages of development Superego as a result of resolution of the Oedipal/Phallic conflict. Characterized by changes in libido, shifting location of erogenous zones Fixations may occur Personality traits characteristic of a certain stage Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 7

8 Psychoanalytic Theory: Defense Mechanisms Ego prevents anxiety by keeping troubling desires, memories from consciousness- Defense Mechanisms/Examples Repression Denial Reaction formation Rationalization Projection Sublimation Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 8

9 Projective Tests Unstructured or ambiguous stimuli to be interpreted Assume people project needs, drives, motives through responses Examples Rorschach test: inkblots Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Evaluating projective tests Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 9

10 Sample TAT Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

11 Rorschach Inkblot (Figure 12.6)

12 Other Psychodynamic Approaches Beyond Sigmund Freud: neo-freudians Lesser emphasis on sex and aggression Greater emphasis on social relationships, ego, concept of self Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

13 Trait Perspective Personality consists of traits Stable, enduring characteristics or dispositions Describe and predict behavior Focus on How people differ in traits Ways of measuring traits Organization of traits Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

14 Five-Factor Model of Personality Big Five model Neuroticism (anxiety vs. Stability) Extraversion- outgoingness or social adaptability Openness- willingness to adjust to new situations Agreeableness- compatibility with others; ease of getting along with others Conscientiousness- responsible, hard working; consider others Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

15 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 The five-factor model of personality. Trait models attempt to analyze personality into its basic dimensions. McCrae and Costa (1985, 1987, 1997) maintain that personality can be described adequately with the five higher-order traits identified here, which are widely referred to as the Big Five. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

16 Genetic Basis of Traits Heredity plays important role in personality Neuroticism Shyness Aggressiveness Novelty-seeking Interactions of biology and environment Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

17 Traditional Behavioral View Watson, Skinner All behavior is learned Classical conditioning Operant conditioning History of reinforcements and punishments shapes behavior Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

18 Social-Cognitive Theory Personality is based on learning Going beyond traditional behaviorism Importance of Cognitive aspects of behavior Expectancies Social aspects of behavior Imitation Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

19 Social-Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura Reciprocal determinism Cognitions, behaviors, environmental factors influence each other Observational learning Efficacy expectations Self-efficacy Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

20 Reciprocal Determinism (Figure 12.4) Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

21 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective Benefits Understanding of behavior and environmental factors Behavior therapy Broadening of learning theory Cognitive-behavioral therapy Criticisms Fails to include unconscious influences, heredity Little focus on subjective experience Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

22 Humanistic Perspective Central features Conscious choice Personal freedom Free will, choices Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

23 Humanistic Perspective Carl Rogers Self-theory Self-actualization Self-concept Self-esteem Unconditional positive regard Conditional positive regard Self-ideals Client-centered therapy Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

24 Humanistic Perspective Abraham Maslow Emphasis on self-actualization Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

25 Measuring Personality Today Two major categories Self-report personality inventories Projective tests Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

26 Self-Report Personality Inventories Objective tests Scored objectively Limited response options Based on research Example: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Standard scores Evaluating self-report tests Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

LO 13.7 Trait theories THEORIES OF PERSONALITY. LO 13.8 Biology, heredity & culture. What is personality FREUD & PSYCHODYNAMICS

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