PERSONALITY PSYCHOANALYTIC TRAIT HUMANISTIC SOCIAL-COGNITION. Individual s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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1 PERSONALITY PSYCHOANALYTIC TRAIT HUMANISTIC SOCIAL-COGNITION Individual s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

2 PSYCHOANALYTIC Zeitgeist Spirit of the Times Sigmund Freud Brain is the physical energy Mind is the mental energy Libido psychological/human energy

3 PSYCHOANALYTIC Structure of Personality S U P E R E G O E G O ID Conscious Preconscious Unconscious

4 PSYCHOANALYTIC Two Types of Libidinal Energy - Eros sexual energy - Thanatos - energy to destroy and cause harm ID controls personality at birth EGO decides how to react and how to release the energy SUPEREGO reacts negatively to ID desires ALL BEHAVIOR IS MOTIVATED BY EITHER SEX OR AGGRESSION

5 PSYCHOANALYTIC Ego Personality Ego is trying to discharge the energy How does the ego get rid of the energy? Defense Mechanisms 1. Repression 2. Regression 3. Reaction Formation 4. Rationalization 5. Displacement 6. Projection 7. Sublimination

6 PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES Early childhood experience is CRUCIAL to our development as adults Identification 1. Oral Stage (0-18months) 2. Anal Stage (18-36months) 3. Phallic Stage (3-6years) - Oedipus/Electra 4. Latency Stage (6-puberty) 5. Genital Stage (Puberty-beyond)

7 PSYCHOANALYTIC Parapraxis - Freudian Slip - No Mistakes Methodology - Case Study - Past events affect current behavior Application - Free Association - Dream Interpretation - Release of dysfunctional libidinal energy - Sublimate work/love

8 PSYCHOANALYTIC CARL JUNG Structure of Mind Consciousness Two Systems - Persona mask for different situations, multiple personas - Ego energy discharged system Unconscious - Personal Unconscious - self - shadow - anima feminine archetype in the male - animus masculine archetype in the female - Collective Unconscious common bond shared by all humans - archetypes

9 PSYCHOANALYTIC Structure of Personality Libido energy mind Attitude - extrovert/introvert Function - abstract/concrete Reaction - thinker/feeler Doing - perceiver/judger

10 PSYCHOANALYTIC Alfred Adler Libidinal Energy mastery of superiority Infant s weakness, helplessness - organ inferiority Attempt to overcome feelings of inferiority - positive outcome social interest - inferiority complex

11 PSYCHOANALYTIC Need to strive towards personal mastery or goals Fictional Finalism - value is the pursuit not the attainment of the goals Psychological Health Occupation Social Interests Love

12 PSYCHOANALYTIC KAREN HORNEY Libido basic anxiety, fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile world Child-Rearing Experiences - loved/secure - indifferent/harshness/overprotection Womb Envy

13 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Gordon Allport Biological Mathematical BIG FIVE THEORY

14 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Trait Approach attempt to label, measure and classify people in order to describe and compare their psychological attributes and make sense of them Types Categories - introvert/extrovert - neuroticism - psychoticism Traits Continuous and Situational - friendliness - outgoing

15 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL GORDON ALLPORT Traits neuropsychic structures that affect our perception of the world, drive our behavior, and show consistency across time and situations - located in the brain traits Three Types of Traits Cardinal Central Secondary Disposition

16 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Friendliness STIMULI Meeting with a Stranger Working with Peers Visiting Family Dating Someone RESPONSES Outgoing, Pleasant Helpful, Encouraging Warm, Interested Attentive, Thoughtful Your trait determines how you respond to the stimuli Each trait operates in unique ways in each person

17 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL HANS EYSENCK Personality physically exists within each of us - conscious - measurable - hierarchically organized

18 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL TYPE Trait Trait Trait Trait Habit Response Specific Response Type - Super Trait Trait - Various Types Habit Response - First Thought Specific Response - What You Actually Do

19 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Three Types/Super Traits Introversion/Extraversion - stimulus sensitivity Neuroticism - emotionality Psychoticism - sensitivity to understanding others Intelligence - brain response to stimuli

20 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL The Brain Optimal level of arousal (OLA) for brain activity Each person s OLA is different OLA changes throughout the day

21 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Introversion/Extroversion Biological Traits in Brain/ Neurological System - Ascending RAS - Excitation - brain waking up to be alert - Inhibition - brain calming itself down Behavioral System - Behavioral Activation System (BAS) - Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)

22 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Extrovert - strong biological inhibition - BAS active - ADHD Introvert - strong excitation inhibition - BIS active - alcohol

23 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Raymond Cattel Mathematical Model Traits converge or diverge - converge strong correlation 16 Source Traits Super Traits Surface Traits expressions/responses

24 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Source Traits Warmth Vigilance Reasoning Abstractedness Emotional Stability Privateness Dominance Apprehension Liveliness Openness to Change Rule-Consciousness Self-Reliance Sensitivity Tension Social Boldness Perfectionism

25 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Use factor analysis for Source Traits Three Types of Data Life Records Self-Ratings Objective Tests

26 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL BIG FIVE THEORY Five independent factors appeared consistently across several studies Five Traits(Dimensions) Neuroticism negative emotions Extraversion friendly, aloof Openness to Experience daring, unadventurous Agreeableness helpful, uncooperative Conscientiousness careless, careful

27 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Does It Work? 1. Replicated in research by diverse investigators using a variety of English speaking samples 2. Replicated in diverse languages, 3. Replicated in diverse cultures 4. Relatively stable in adults over long periods of time 5. Predictive validity for important life outcomes

28 TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL Person-Situation Controversy - Power of the Situation - Personality stabilizes over time - Personality traits are stable and potent If-Then Paradigm - if you are in a certain situation, then what will happen - exploring behaviors in situations

29 HUMANISM Humans possess an internal force - inner-directedness - subjective reality Two Humanists - Abraham Maslow - Carl Rogers

30 HUMANISM ABRAHAM MASLOW Importance of being in touch with one s true feelings Vast potential for growth and fulfillment, striving for actualization the basic quality of being human Goodness and decency Base selfish impulses, negative reaction to the stress, pain or deprivation in our lives

31 HUMANISM Hierarchy of Needs ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM LOVE SAFETY PHYSIOLOGICAL

32 HUMANISM Self-Actualization - recognition and expression of your potential - a person s fullest potential - you need and want it, not what others want - meta-motivation truth, beauty, unity Peak Experiences - ineffable - clarity of vision - not drug induced

33 HUMANISM CARL ROGERS Self Concept Ideal Self Conditional Positive Regard Unconditional Positive Regard Person-Centered Therapy Concern with the present, not the future

34 SOCIAL-COGNITIVE Behavior as influenced by the interaction between people s traits, cognition and their environment Individuals x Situations ALBERT BANDURA Reciprocal Determinism - behavior - cognition - environment Self Efficacy - perception of being capable of achieving one s goal

35 SOCIAL-COGNITION JULIAN ROTTER How do people perceive their environment? - External Locus of Control - Internal Locus of Control Learned Helplessness - no control over repeated bad events - feel helpless because of it

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