Chapter Five Socialization. Human Development: Biology and Society. Social Isolation

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1 Chapter Five Socialization Socialization is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identify and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society. The content of socialization differs greatly from society to society. Human Development: Biology and Society Every human being is a product of biology, society, and personal experiences, or heredity and environment. Sociobiology is the systematic study of how biology affects social behavior Social Isolation Social environment is a crucial part of an individual s socialization; people need social contact with other in order to develop properly. Researchers have attempted to demonstrate the effects of social isolation on non-human primates that are raised without contact with other of their own species 1

2 Social Isolation Isolated children illustrate the importance of socialization The most frequent for of child maltreatment t t is child neglect Social Psychological Theories Freud and the Psychoanalytical Perspective Human behavior and personality originate from subconscious forces within the individual At this time biological explanations for human behavior were prevalent An era of extreme sexual repression and male dominance Social Psychological Theories Freud and the Psychoanalytical Perspective Freud s theory based on the notion that people have two basic tendencies The urge to survive The urge to procreate 2

3 Social Psychological Theories Freud and the Psychoanalytical Perspective Human Development Occurs in three states that reflect different levels of personality The id is the component of the personality that includes all of the individual s basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratifications The ego is the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of the id The superego, or conscience consists of the moral and ethical aspects of personality Social Psychological Theories Piaget and Cognitive Theory of Human Development In each state of human development children s activities iti are governed by their perceptions of the world around them When age appropriate tasks are complete, new mental abilities allow the the transition the the next stage 3

4 Social Psychological Theories Piaget and Cognitive Theory of Human Development Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor (0-2) children develop object permanence Preoperational (2-7) children develop ability to use words are mental symbols and to form mental images Concrete Operational (7-11) children learn to reason and take the role of the other Formal Operational (12-adolescence) children develop the ability to think in highly abstract thought Social Psychological Theories Piaget and Cognitive Theory of Human Development Criticisms of Piaget s Theory Does not address individual differences Says little about cultural differences Does not address how gender impacts cognitive development 4

5 Social Psychological Theories Kohlberg and stages of Moral Development Presented subjects with moral dilemmas to learn about moral reasoning Preconventional (7-10) punishment and obedience Conventional (10-adulthood) peer approval and conformity to rules Postconventional (few adults reach this stage) individual and human rights that transcend government and laws Social Psychological Theories Kohlberg and stages of Moral Development Criticisms of Kohlberg s Theory Some Challenge the universality of his stages Use of moral dilemmas too abstract for children Social Psychological Theories Gilligan s View on Gender and Moral Development Her theory is based on a critical response to Kohlberg s methodology and findings Kohlberg used men in his study production biased results 5

6 Social Psychological Theories Gilligan found differences in the ways that men and women think about moral problems Female Moral Development in three stages Motivated by selfish concerns Recognizes responsibility in others Makes decisions based on desire to do good for herself and others Sociological Theories of Human Development Cooley and the Looking Glass Self sense of self is developed from the perceptions of others through a three step process We imagine how our personality and appearance will look to other people We imagine how other people judge the appearance and personality we think we represent We develop a self-concept 6

7 Sociological Theories of Human Development George Herbert Meade linked the idea of self-concept to role-taking the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that person s point of view Sociological Theories of Human Development G. H. Meade Significant Others are those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired d and who are most important the the development of the self; these individuals are extremely important in the socialization process Sociological Theories of Human Development G. H. Meade Mead divided the self into the I and me I is the subjective element of the self that represents the spontaneous and unique traits of each person me is the objective element of self, which is composed of he internalized attitudes and demands of other members of society and the individual s awareness of those demands 7

8 G. H. Meade outlined three stages of selfdevelopment Preparatory stage children largely imitate the people around them Play stage (3-5) children learn to use language and other symbols, thus making it possible for them to pretend to take the roles of specific people Game stage children understand not only their own social position but also the positions of those around them. At this time the child develop a generalized other an awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child s subculture. Sociological Theories of Human Development Interactionist theories such as Meade s and Cooley s contribute to how the self develops.but These theories do not take into account differences in people s experiences based on race, ethnicity, class, religion, gender or other social factors Self-Concept and Child Maltreatment Child maltreatment occurs when there is an extreme imbalance in positive and negative social interactions Dynamic interplay between social factors related to past events and present situations 8

9 Agents of Socialization Agents of socialization are the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society. These are the most pervasive agents of socialization in childhood The Family as an Agent of Socialization The family is the most important agent of socialization in all societies. Functionalists emphasize that families are the primary locus of procreation and socialization of children, as well as the primary source of emotional support To a large extent the family is where we acquire our specific social positions in society Conflict theorist stress that socialization reproduces class structure in the next generation 9

10 Schools as Agents of Socialization Schools have played an increasingly important role in the socialization process as the amount of specialized technical and scientific knowledge has expanded rapidly Schools teach specific knowledge and skills and they also have a profound effect on a child s self-image, beliefs and values 10

11 Schools as Agents of Socialization From a functionalist perspective schools are responsible for: Socialization teaching students to be productive members of society Transmission of culture Social control and personal development The selection, training, and placement of individuals on different rungs in society Schools as Agents of Socialization According to Conflict Theorists much of what happens at schools is a hidden curriculum Working class and low income children learn to be neat, on time, wait their turn, and remain attentive to work These are attributes that make them more easily manipulated in the workforce Peer Groups as Agents of Socialization A peer group is a group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social positions, and (usually) a similar age Peer groups function as agents of socialization by contributing to our sense of belonging and our feelings of self-worth Individuals must earn their acceptance with their peers by meeting the group s demands for high level of conformity to its own norms, attitudes, speech, and dress codes 11

12 Mass Media as an Agent of Socialization The mass media function as socialization agents for children and adults in several ways: They inform us about events They introduce us to a wide variety of people They provide an array of viewpoints on current issues They make us aware of products and services that if we purchase them, supposedly will help us to be accepted by others They entertain us by providing the opportunity to live vicariously Mass Media as an Agent of Socialization Television is the most pervasive form of media 98% of all homes in the U.S. have at least on television set. There is some evidence that t television i is potentially harmful to: Literacy Rampant consumerism Increases in violence and violent crime Gender, Race, and Ethnicity Socialization Gender socialization is the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female of male in a specific group or society Families, Schools, and sports tend to reinforce traditional gender roles 12

13 Gender Socialization Gender Socialization Gender Socialization 13

14 Gender, Race, and Ethnicity Socialization Racial Socialization is the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one s racial or ethnic status as it relates to: Personal and group identity Inter-group and inter-individual relationships Position in social hierarchy Socialization Throughout the Life Course Socialization is a lifelong process, each time we experience a change in status, we learn a new set of rules, roles, and relationships Even before we enter a new status, we often participate i t in anticipatory i t socialization the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles. The most common categories of age are infancy, childhood, adolescences, and adulthood (young, middle, old) 14

15 Socialization Throughout the Life Course During infancy and early childhood, family support and guidance are crucial to a child s developing selfconcept Some families reflect the discrepancy between cultural ideals and reality where children grow up in settings of fear, danger and risks that are created by parental neglect, emotional maltreatment, or premature economic and sexual demands Socialization Throughout the Life Course Anticipatory socialization for adult roles often is associated with adolescence, however, some young people may plunge in adult responsibilities at this time Socialization Throughout the Life Course In early adulthood (until about 40) people work toward their won goals of creating meaningful relationships with others, finding employment, seeking personal fulfillment. Occupational Socialization has 4 phases: Career choice Anticipatory socialization Conditioninign and commitment Continous commitment 15

16 Socialization Throughout the Life Course Between the ages of 40 & 60 people enter middle adulthood and many begin to compare their accomplishments with their earlier expectations. In older adulthood d some people are quite happy and content, other are not: Difficult changes in attitudes and behavior may occur in the last years of life when people experience decreased physical ability and social devaluation Late adulthood is a time when many people experience ageism, prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age Negative images contribute to the view that women are older ten or fifteen years sooner than men Many buffer themselves against ageism by continuing to view themselves as being in middle adulthood It is important to note that everyone does not go through these passages or stages and that race, ethnicity, class and gender strongly influence these stages 16

17 Resocialization Resocialization is the process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values,and behaviors from the ones previously held. Voluntary Resocialization occurs when we enter a new status of our own free will Involuntary Resocialization occurs against a persons wishers an generally takes place within a total institution Socialization in the Future Families are likely to remain the institution that most fundamentally shapes and nurtures personal values and self-identity Parents increasingly feel overburdened by this responsibility, especially without t societal support, such as high-quality day care and some education on parenting skills A central issue facing parents and teachers as they socialize children is the growing dominance of the media and other forms of technology. 17

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