Treatment: Healing Actions, Healing Words

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1 Treatment: Healing Actions, Healing Words 15 :

2 Insight-Oriented Therapy Psychoanalysis (p.687) First use of a talking cure Developed by Sigmund Freud Identify unconscious motivations Free association Dream analysis

3 Insight-Oriented Therapy (p.686) Psychodynamic therapy Similar to psychoanalytic therapy Less frequent sessions Less emphasis on sexual and aggressive drives Techniques (p.688) Interpretation Resistance / Transference (countertransference

4 Insight-Oriented Therapy Humanistic therapy (p.689) Carl Rogers Client-centered therapy Incongruence Real self Ideal self

5 Insight-Oriented Therapy Client-centered therapy techniques(p.689) Reflection Empathy Unconditional positive regard

6 Evaluating Insight-Oriented Therapies Difficult to evaluate Who benefits from them?(p.691) Healthy Articulate Interested in motives

7 Behavior Therapy A type of therapy based on learning principles that focuses on changing observable, measurable behaviors The ABCs(p.692) Antecedents Behavior Consequences

8 Behavior Therapy Techniques based on classical conditioning Exposure (p.693) Imaginable exposure In vivo exposure Virtual reality exposure Stimulus control Systematic desensitization p.695 Progressive muscle relaxation

9 Behavior Therapy Techniques based on operant conditioning Behavior modification Primary and secondary reinforcers Token economies p.696 Self-monitoring techniques p.696 Observational learning

10 Cognitive Therapy A type of therapy that focuses on thoughts rather than feelings or behaviors Cognitive distortions Psychoeducation

11 Common Cognitive Distortions p.698 Dichotomous thinking Mental filter Mind reading Catastrophic exaggeration Control beliefs

12 Cognitive Therapy Techniques Albert Ellis s rational-emotive behavior therapy REBT Activating event (p.699) Beliefs Consequences Dispute Effect Further action

13 Cognitive Therapy Techniques Beck s cognitive therapy p.699 Cognitive restructuring Daily record of dysfunctional beliefs (p.700) Identify automatic thoughts Identify rational responses

14 Biomedical Therapies Psychopharmacology p.702 Electroconvulsive therapy ECT p.705 Transcranial magnetic stimulation p.706

15 Psychopharmacology: Schizophrenia Antipsychotic medications Target positive symptoms Tardive dyskinesia(td) Atypical antipsychotics Newer Target positive and negative symptoms Early treatment

16 Psychopharmacology: Mood Disorders Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) Food interactions Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil Serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) - Serzone, Effexor St. John s wort Lithium

17 Psychopharmacology: Anxiety Disorders Benzodiazepines(BZD) Xanax, Valium Often for short periods Antidepressants TCAs SSRIs SNRIs

18 Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Used when medication and therapy is ineffective Depression Fell out of favor Abuse Movie, One Flew Over the Cuckoo s Nest Regaining popularity Memory loss

19 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)p706 New technique 100- to 200- microsecond bursts of highintensity magnetism May replace ECT

20 Modalities (p707) Individual therapy Group therapy Family therapy Systems therapy Paradoxical intention Reframing Validation Self-help therapies Support groups Bibliotherapy

21 Innovations in Psychotherapy (p.710) Psychotherapy integration Technical eclecticism Managed care Financial concerns Therapy protocols Brief therapy Cybertherapy

22 Prevention (p.713) Universal preventive interventions Target all members of a group Selective preventive interventions Target high-risk subgroups Indicated preventive interventions Target those with symptoms but not disorder

23 Researching Psychotherapy Challenges in psychotherapy research Common factors Specific factors Allegiance effect Control group Confounds

24 Researching Psychotherapy Randomized controlled trials Random assignment Specific disorders and exclusion criteria Reducing confounds Generalizability Outcome measures Drop-outs Follow-ups

25 Which Treatment for Which Disorder? Empirically supported treatments Evidence-based treatments Therapy, medication, or both? Depression Anxiety disorders Other disorders

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