STRUCTURALISM: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener

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1 STRUCTURALISM: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener Wilhelm Wundt ( ) Wilhelm Wundt ( ): Established first first Psychology Lab Lab in in Germany. Defined psychology as as the the science of of human mind mind and and consciousness. Used the the method of of objective introspection to to identify the the basic basic mental elements. Edward Titchener ( ): Transferred Wundt s ideas ideas to to America.

2 FUNCTIONALISM William James William James ( ) William James ( ): Published Principles of of Psychology in in The The book book covers a wide wide range of of topics, opening up up the the field field of of psychology. Opposed Wundt s elemental approach, believed that that consciousness is is a constant flow. Believed that that psychology should focus on on the the usefulness (or (or functions) of of mental (learning and and perceptual) abilities functionalism.

3 BEHAVIORISM: John B. Watson John B. Watson ( ) John B. Watson ( ): Argued strongly against structuralism and and contended that that psychology should focus focus only only on on measurable and and observable behavior behaviorism. Defined psychology as as the the science of of behavior. The The task task of of psychologists is is to to establish the the laws laws of of behavior: S (stimulus) R (response). Believed in in the the dominant influence of of learning and and environment as as opposed and and heredity.

4 BEHAVIORISM: B. F. Skinner B. F. F. Skinner ( ): A A strong believer of of behaviorism. Contributed enormously in in the the area area of of operant conditioning --learning by by the the consequences of of behavior. Emphasized the the roles roles of of reinforcement and and punishment in in shaping and and modifying behavior. B. F. Skinner ( )

5 PSYCHOANALYSIS: Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( ) Founder of of Psychoanalysis --a personality theory and and an an approach to to psychotherapy. Stressed the the importance of of unconscious motives. Emphasized the the roles roles of of early early childhood experience (psychosexual stages). Sigmund Freud ( )

6 GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY: Max Wertheimer Max Wertheimer ( ) Max Wertheimer ( ) Focused on on perception and and how how perception influences thinking and and problem solving. Gestalt means means whole, configuration, pattern, and and Gestalt psychologists illustrated how how we we tend tend to to perceive separate pieces pieces of of information as as integrated wholes. Opposed Wundt s approach in in searching for for basic basic mental elements, because the the whole whole is is more more than than the the sum sum of of its its parts.

7 HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY: Carl Rogers Carl Rogers ( ) Carl Rogers ( ): Founder of of client-centered or or person-centered therapy. Believed that that human nature nature is is innately good. good. Emphasized the the uniqueness of of human, growth potential, and and human s capacity for for choice and and health. Emphasized the the importance of of each each person s subjective experience and and perception of of the the world.

8 HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY: Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow ( ) A. Maslow ( ): Proposed a a hierarchy of of human needs, needs, from from the the lowest level level of of physiological needs needs to to the the highest level level of of self-actualization need. need. Studied individuals who who exemplified selfactualization --who who used used their their talents and and self- abilities to to their their fullest. Believed each each person s potential in in selfactualization. self-

9 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: Computer Revolution Computer Revolution Cognitive Psychology: Computer Revolution advanced psychology in in the the study study of of thinking, mental processes, and and problem solving. Cognitive psychologists apply apply informationprocessing approach to to the the study study of of human cognition. Cognitive psychologists believe that that computer can can serve serve as as a a useful useful model model for for understanding how how human processes information.

10 History of Psychology Time Span Pioneer / Main Event School of Thought Wilhelm Wundt Structuralism 1910 William James Functionalism Edward Titchener Structuralism John B. Watson Behaviorism Max Wertheimer Gestalt Psychology Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis B. F. Skinner Behaviorism 1970 Carl Rogers & A. Maslow Humanistic Psychology Present Computer Revolution Cognitive Psychology Brain Research and Imaging Physiological Psychology

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