Chapter 2. Communication & Identity

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1 Chapter 2 Communication & Identity

2 Communication & the Self Self-concept > stable perceptions about yourself Self-esteem > evaluation of self-worth Think well of others Doesn t guarantee interpersonal success High selfesteem Expect to be accepted Enables positive behaviors & interactions

3 Communication & the Self Cont. Disapprove of others Not defend self against negative comments Feel threatened by superior Low selfesteem Poor performance when watched Expect rejection Evaluate own performance less favorably

4 Self-esteem and Communication Behavior Figure 2.1

5 Communication & Self Cont. Biological & social roots of the self Personality part of our genetic makeup. - Is flexible, dynamic, & shaped by experience Willingness to communicate Verbal aggression Biological traits Extroversion Assertiveness Shyness

6 Communication & Self Cont. Socialization & self-concept > messages from others shape how we regard ourselves. Significant other individuals who hold a prominent position in our life and can affect our self-concept. Ego-boosters & ego-busters people or messages that can positively or negatively influence our self-concept. Reflected appraisal develop self-concept that reflects the way we believe others see us. - continues in life especially from significant others. - strong during adolescence Crucial factor - inclusion in or exclusion from peer groups

7 Communication & Self Cont. Social Comparison evaluating self as compared with others. Two types Comparison to reference groups Superior or Inferior Same or different

8 Communication & Self Cont. Characteristics of self-concept distorted evaluations can occur Obsolete information Social expectations Distortions Distorted feedback Emphasis on perfection

9 Communication & Self Cont. Self-concept resists change Cognitive conservatism Seek & attend to information that conforms to existing self-concept Most, reluctant to downgrade favorable impressions of self Suggestions for positive self-image Realistic perceptions of self Realistic expectations The will to change The skill to change

10 Communication & Self Cont. Culture shapes our self-concept - Individualistic strong I orientation - Collectivistic maintaining harmony - Co-cultural identity - degree of identity to co-culture

11 Communication & Self Cont. Sex & gender Sex biological Gender - learned - Male or female shapes others communication & our sense of self Self-esteem influenced by gender Sense of self > shaped by our communication with people & contexts

12 Communication & Self Cont. Self-fulfilling Prophecy a person s expectations and subsequent behavior make an event more likely to occur. [Pygmalion in the classroom] FOUR STAGES Holding an expectation (self or others) Reinforcing original expectation Behaving according to expectation Expectation comes to pass

13 Communication & Self Cont. Types of self-fulfilling prophecies Selfimposed I have to get an A in my class. I m bad at math. I m unpopular. Imposed by others Powerful force in shaping self-concept and behavior Must communicate belief I know how smart you are so you must get an A

14 Section 2

15 Communication as Identity Management Public & Private Selves Identity management communication strategies used to influence how others view us. Perceived self reflection of self-concept Presenting self how we want others to view us > Face

16 Communication & Identity Cont. Construct multiple identities ID management can be deliberate or unconscious Characteristics of Identity Management ID management is collaborative

17 Communication & Identity Cont. Start & manage relationships Explore new identities Reasons for ID management Gain compliance Save self or others face

18 Communication & Identity Cont. Face to face identity management Three ways Appearance Personal items we use to shape image Manner Words & nonverbal actions Setting Physical items we use to influence others

19 Communication & Identity Cont. Online impression management Advantage over f-t-f due to missing information. 1. More control over managing impressions 2. Allows demographic change age, sex, etc. 3. Viewing online presence as third party can be valuable - Reputation management

20 Communication & Identity Cont. Identity management and honesty A. Managing impressions doesn t make you a liar B. Each of us has a collection of faces C. Choosing best face for the situation = competent communicator

21 Self-disclosure in Relationships Self-disclosure process of deliberately revealing information about oneself a) Must be deliberate b) Must be significant c) Not known by others

22 Self-disclosure Cont. Models of self-disclosure Altman & Taylor Social Penetration Breadth wide range of information Depth amount, significance, and privacy of the information Metaphor => Onion

23 Self-disclosure Cont. Models of self-disclosure Luft & Ingham Johari Window Part I open area > known to all Part II blind area > unknown to us Part III Hidden area > known to us only Part IV Unknown area > unknown to all will develop through interactions Known to self Not known to self Known to others Open Blind Not known to others Hidden Unknown

24 Self-disclosure Cont. Benefits & risks of self-disclosure Privacy management choices made to reveal or conceal information about self Catharsis Social influence Benefits Reciprocity Selfclarification Selfvalidation

25 Self-disclosure Cont. Rejection Hurting the other person Risks Negative impression Loss of influence Decrease in relational satisfaction

26 Self-disclosure Cont. Importance of other person Moral obligation Reciprocal Guidelines for selfdisclosure Amount & type Reasonable risk Constructive effect

27 Self-disclosure Cont. Ethics of evasion: Best interest at heart? Best way to behave? Silence Hinting Alternatives to selfdisclosure Lying Equivocating (be vague) Benevolent lie

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