Psychodynamic Workbook

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1 Psychodynamic Workbook Name: Group: Exam Dates: King Edward VI Psychology Department 1

2 Contents Specification... 3 Psychodynamic Approach... 5 Content Personality... 8 Content Psychosexual development Content Gender Development Studies in detail Freud (1909) Studies in detail: Other study (choice) Key issue Methodology Methodology Case Studies Methodology Correlational design Evidence of Practice: short analysis task Past Paper Questions King Edward VI Psychology Department 2

3 Specification 1 Definition of the approach 1a: Define the psychodynamic approach showing understanding that it is about the influence of unconscious processes on behaviour, and the importance of early childhood. 1b: Define and use psychological terminology accurately and appropriately including: i id, ego, superego, ii stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital), iii repression, iv Oedipus complex, v defence mechanisms, vi conscious, preconscious, unconscious. 2 Methodology/How Science Works 2a: Describe and evaluate the case study as a research method used in psychology and as used in the psychodynamic approach. 2b: Describe, assess and apply issues of reliability, validity, subjectivity, objectivity and generalisability in the analysis of qualitative data. 2c: Evaluate Freud s theory in terms of credibility (eg Masson, 1989). 2d: Describe, assess and apply the terms cross-sectional and longitudinal as applied to research methods. 2e: Describe, assess and apply issues of ethics and issues of credibility with regard to using personal data from methods such as case studies (eg should such data be in the public domain?). 2f: Describe and evaluate the correlational method/design. 2g: Identify, describe and apply a positive and a negative correlation, and a strength (eg +0.87) of correlation. 2h: Identify, describe and apply different sampling techniques including random sampling, stratified sampling, volunteer and self-selected sampling, and opportunity sampling, including advantages and disadvantages of each technique. 3 - Content 3a: Describe and evaluate Freud s theory of psychosexual development, including the five stages of development, the Oedipus complex, and the parts of personality associated with the first three stages, and including focusing on the explanation of gender development/behaviour. 3b: Describe defence mechanisms including repression, and one other. Suitable examples: displacement, denial, projection and regression. 3c: Evaluate Freud s theory as an explanation of gender development/behaviour, including comparison with explanations from the Biological and Learning Approaches. 4 Studies in detail King Edward VI Psychology Department 3

4 4a: Describe and evaluate two studies in detail relating to Freud s theory. One study must be Freud s study of Little Hans (1909) and one other study. This must be selected from the following: Axline V (1964/1990) Dibs: Personality Development in Play Therapy Bachrach et al (1991) Effectiveness of psychoanalytic therapies Cramer P (1997) Identity, personality and defence mechanisms 5 Key issue 5a: Describe one key issue of relevance to today s society and apply concepts, theories, and/or research (as appropriate) from the Psychodynamic Approach to explain the issue. Suitable examples: effectiveness of psychoanalysis in treating abnormal and normal clients debate concerning the issue of false memory and repression debate concerning relationship of early childhood experience to later sexual orientation debate about whether dreams have meaning. Note: in the examination paper, students may be given stimulus material from a key issue to explain using concepts, theories and/or research (as appropriate) from the Psychodynamic Approach. 6 - Evidence of practice: short analysis task 6a: Devise and conduct one practical, which must be use a correlational design, using two rating scales and self-report data. Class data collection is acceptable. Suitable examples: collection of self-reports of own tidiness and own parent strictness self-reports using other sets of data such as obstinacy, orderliness and parsimony. 6b: Draw a scattergram of the results. 6c: Carry out a Spearman s test on the data and interpret the finding (eg is a strong correlation). Note: with regard to inferential tests, no calculations will have to be carried out in the examinations and formulae do not have to be learnt. 6d: Write a short report of the procedure, sample, apparatus and results. 6e: Assess the correlation as a research tool in terms of advantages and limitations. Note: students must be prepared to answer examination questions focused on practical work, which will include questions about the practical exercises themselves and questions about the general methodological issues that are specified for this particular unit. This will include the following requirement. a Identify, describe and apply: i self-report, ii scattergram, iii correlation, iv positive and negative correlation, v procedure, vi rating scales, vii Spearman s test, viii cross-sectional and longitudinal. King Edward VI Psychology Department 4

5 Psychodynamic Approach What is the Psychodynamic approach? What are the assumptions of the psychodynamic approach? History of the psychodynamic approach: Applications of the psychodynamic approach: King Edward VI Psychology Department 5

6 Glossary of terms Id Ego Superego Oral stage Anal stage Phallic stage Latency stage Genital stage Repression Oedipus complex Defence mechanisms Conscious Preconscious Unconscious Complete the table with the definitions of the words listed and add any other words as you learn more about the psychodynamic approach. King Edward VI Psychology Department 6

7 Sigmund Freud Who was Sigmund Freud? Carl Jung King Edward VI Psychology Department 7

8 Content Personality Id: Superego: Ego: Conscious: Preconscious: Unconscious: Describe Freud s theory of personality. (5 marks). King Edward VI Psychology Department 8

9 Personality Defence Mechanisms What are defence mechanisms? Why do we have them? Repression Example: Displacement Example: Denial Example: Projection Example: Regression Example: Evaluation of Freud s theory of personality Strengths Weaknesses King Edward VI Psychology Department 9

10 Content Psychosexual development What is Freud s theory of psychosexual development? Stages Oral Description Personality Anal Phallic Latency Genital Evaluation of Freud s theory of psychosexual develeopment Strengths Weaknesses King Edward VI Psychology Department 10

11 Content Gender Development Psychodynamic approach as an explanation for gender development The story of Oedipus Oedipus Complex Electra Complex King Edward VI Psychology Department 11

12 Evaluation of the psychodynamic approach as an explanation for gender development Strengths Weaknesses Comparison with biological explanation Comparison with learning explanation King Edward VI Psychology Department 12

13 Studies in detail Freud (1909) Case study of Little Hans Aim Procedure Findings Conclusions King Edward VI Psychology Department 13

14 Evaluation of Freud (1909) GRAVE Generalisability Reliability Application Validity Ethics King Edward VI Psychology Department 14

15 Studies in detail: Other study (choice) Name: Aim Procedure Findings Conclusions King Edward VI Psychology Department 15

16 Evaluation of other study (choice). Name: GRAVE Generalisability Reliability Application Validity Ethics King Edward VI Psychology Department 16

17 Key issue Suitable examples from the spec: effectiveness of psychoanalysis in treating abnormal and normal clients, debate concerning the issue of false memory and repression, debate concerning relationship of early childhood experience to later sexual orientation, debate about whether dreams have meaning. Describing the issue One key issue from the psychodynamic approach is... What exactly is this issue all about? Who does this issue impact upon? Where this is issue most relevant? Why should we care?! Why is this important to society? King Edward VI Psychology Department 17

18 Methodology Longitudinal study What is a longitudinal study? Example: Evaluation of longitudinal studies Strengths Weaknesses King Edward VI Psychology Department 18

19 Cross-sectional study What is a cross-sectional study? Example: Evaluation of cross-sectional studies Strengths Weaknesses King Edward VI Psychology Department 19

20 How science works Inferential statistics Levels of measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Statistical significance Definition Levels Link to hypotheses King Edward VI Psychology Department 20

21 Chi-squared Types of inferential statistics Spearman Mann-Whitney U When? When? When? Definition Critical value table Critical value Observed value Link to hypotheses King Edward VI Psychology Department 21

22 Methodology Case Studies What is a case study? Qualitative data Analysis of qualitative data Evaluation of case studies Strengths Weaknesses King Edward VI Psychology Department 22

23 Freud s use of case studies Dream analysis What is the difference between the manifest content and the latent content? Free association Slips of the tongue King Edward VI Psychology Department 23

24 Evaluation of Freud s case studies Strengths Weaknesses Credibility King Edward VI Psychology Department 24

25 Methodology Correlational design What is a correlational design? Positive correlation Example: +ve Negative correlation Example: -ve Positive correlation (graph) Negative correlation (graph) King Edward VI Psychology Department 25

26 Evaluation of correlational design Strengths Weaknesses King Edward VI Psychology Department 26

27 Spearman s Rank What is the equation used in the spearman s rank statistical test? What level(s) of data can be used in this test? Practice King Edward VI Psychology Department 27

28 Evidence of Practice: short analysis task You must complete a correlation. You must collect your data through the use of self reports, using rating scales. Introduction: Title and background research: Research aim: Variables: 1 2 Alternative hypothesis (one or two-tailed): Null hypothesis: Sample (including target population & sampling method with justification): Examples of rating scales used: King Edward VI Psychology Department 28

29 Results of pilot study and solutions: Controls: Ethical considerations: Procedure: King Edward VI Psychology Department 29

30 Results: Scatter graph: Conclusion: Link to aim and theory: King Edward VI Psychology Department 30

31 Evaluation of analysis task. Title: GRAVE Generalisability Reliability Application Validity Ethics King Edward VI Psychology Department 31

32 Past Paper Questions 1 Robyn has just studied Freud in her psychology class. She realises her friend Liz may be stuck in one of Freud s stages as Liz bites her nails, smokes and is cynical. Which stage might Liz be fixated in? A The oral stage. B The anal stage. C The phallic stage. D The latency period stage. 2 Repression is a defence mechanism that A directs hatred at someone else B acts in a way to make a person look good C motivates us to forget D expresses the opposite of what we really feel 6 While at school Thomas noticed an increase in aggressive behaviour at break time when more people were outside. This is an example of A negative correlation B no correlation C positive correlation 12 Researchers carried out a correlational study to see if there was a relationship between eating breakfast and students scores on a maths test. They carried out a Spearman s rho test on the data and found that the observed value of rho was , N = 20. Table to show the critical values for Spearman s test. p 0.05 p N = (The observed/calculated value of rho must be equal to or greater than the critical/table value to be significant.) (a) What is meant by the term p 0.05?(2) (b) (i) State whether the researchers would reject their null hypothesis.(1) (ii) Explain your answer to (b)(i).(2) 13 Oedipus was a man who had been raised by foster parents and did not know his real parents. He killed his father during a battle, and, as the victor, married his mother. King Edward VI Psychology Department 32

33 (a) Describe Freud s theory of how boys develop through the Oedipus Complex. (4) (b) Evaluate Freud s theory of psychosexual development. (5) You may find it helpful to include: application to real life comparison with other explanations methodology research evidence. *17 For part of your course you will have carried out a practical in the Psychodynamic Approach using a correlation. When evaluating your practical you may look at: validity reliability credibility generalisability. Describe the procedure of your practical, and evaluate your practical. Title of your investigation (10) King Edward VI Psychology Department 33

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