What is this thing we call psychology? Science of the mind; Science of behavior. Biological mechanisms and psychological phenomena

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1 Psychology Introduction What is psychology? The range and major schools Disciplines Conclusion Department of Epileptology University of Bonn Medical Centre, Germany * Bonn, What is this thing we call psychology? Science of the mind; Science of behavior Biological mechanisms and psychological phenomena Brain stimulation response (behavioral and/or sensory) Chicken or the egg: nature or nurture? Goal: what holds true for all humankind 1

2 The Range Ambiguity Reversible figures Gleitman, H., Fridlund, A.J., & Reisberg, D. (2000). Basic Psychology, 5 th Ed. W.W. Norton & Company: New York, NY The Range Previous experiences Gleitman, H., Fridlund, A.J., & Reisberg, D. (2000). Basic Psychology, 5 th Ed. W.W. Norton & Company: New York, NY 2

3 The Range Biological equipment Depth perception Gleitman, H., Fridlund, A.J., & Reisberg, D. (2000). Basic Psychology, 5 th Ed. W.W. Norton & Company: New York, NY The Range Communication and social behavior 3

4 The Range Multi-sided contributions Psychologists Physicists Anthropologists Philosophers Biologists Sociologists Computer Scientists Psychiatrists Physicians Neurologists Linguists Schools-Mechanics Rene Descartes Brain as a machine Action: response to outside world Reflex Central switchboard Cogito ergo sum

5 Schools-Empiricism John Locke Blank slate Knowledge acquired by experience Primary and secondary qualities Wilhelm Wundt Schools-Experimental Psychology The founding father Leipzig laboratory (1879) Völkerpsychologie

6 Pragmaticism William James Belief and truth Stream of consciousness James-Lange theory of emotion Schools-Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov Pavlov s dog Salivary response Conditioned reflex: US (food) UR (salivation) CS (bell) No response Training: CS + US CS (bell) CR (salivation) Example: drug addiction

7 Schools-Behaviorism Edward Thorndike Puzzle Box Response Latency Law of effect John B. Watson Analysis of behavior: Evolutionary Continuism Reductionism Determinism Empiricism Little Albert Schools-Behaviorism Pre-programming infants

8 B.F. Skinner Radical Behaviorism Schools-Behaviorism Operant Behavior/Instrumental conditioning Skinner Box Reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement: Ratio reinforcement Interval reinforcement Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis Id, Ego, Superego Defense mechanisms: Displacement Reaction formation Rationalization Schools-Psychodynamic theory Projection Isolation Stages of development

9 Comparative Schools-Behaviorism vs. Psychoanalysis Gleitman, H., Fridlund, A.J., & Reisberg, D. (2000). Basic Psychology, 5 th Ed. W.W. Norton & Company: New York, NY Other big names Schools-Psychodynamic theory Carl Jung Collective Unconscious Alfred Adler Inferiority Complex Erik Erikson Psychosocial Development 9

10 Schools-Psychodynamic theory Erikson s Psychosocial stages of Development Trust vs. Mistrust (0 12 months) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 3 years) Initiative vs. Guilt (3 5 years) Industry vs. Inferiority (6 10 years) Identity vs. Role Confusion (11 18 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation (18 34) Generativity vs. Stagnation (35 60 years) Ego Integrity vs. Dispair (60 years death) Berlin School Schools-Cognitive psychology (Gestalt) Max Wertheimer Wolfgang Köhler Kurt Koffka The whole is greater than the sum of it s parts 10

11 Berlin School cont. Schools-Gestalt Psychology Emergence Reification Invariance Multistability Reversible figures Schools-Gestalt Psychology 11

12 Berlin School cont. Schools-Gestalt Psychology Law of Similarity Law of Closure Law of symmetry Law of Proximity Berlin School cont. Schools-Gestalt Psychology Law of Continuity Law of Common Fate Law of prägnanz 12

13 Schools-Cognitive Psychology Jean Piaget Child development Four stages of intellectual growth: Sensory-motor (object permanence): 0-2 years Preoperational (conservation and egocentrism): 2-7years Concrete-operational: 7-11 years Formal (abstract thoughts): 11-adulthood Schools-Cognitive Psychology Jean Piaget-Object permanence 13

14 Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs Schools-Humanistic Psychology Self-actualization Esteem Love Safety Physiology Disciplines Some definitions Abnormal psychology Biological psychology Cognitive neuroscience Developmental psychology Forensic psychology Industrial organizational psychology Personality psychology Social Psychology 14

15 Disciplines Psychometrics-IQ tests Stanford-Binet Wechsler (WAIS) Alfred Binet David Wechsler Disciplines Psychometrics-other assessments Beck Depression Inventory Personality assessments: The Big 5 MMPI Rorschach inkblots 15

16 Disciplines Rorschach example Work group: Christian Hoppe Jelena Stojanovic Christian E. Elger Department of Epileptology University of Bonn Medical Centre, Germany * Funded by Karg-Stiftung für Hochbegabtenförderung (Frankfurt/M.) 16

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