I. Introduction: What Is Personality? A. Personality is an individual s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "I. Introduction: What Is Personality? A. Personality is an individual s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving."

Transcription

1 I. Introduction: What Is Personality? A. Personality is an individual s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. B. A personality theory is a theory that attempts to describe and explain similarities and differences in people s patterns of thinking, feeling, and behavior. C. Personality theories can be roughly grouped under four basic perspectives: 1. The psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes the importance of unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experience. 2. The humanistic perspective represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person s unique potential. 3. The social cognitive perspective emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation. 4. The trait perspective emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals. II. The Psychoanalytic Perspective on Personality Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was one of the most influential figures of the twentieth century. Psychoanalysis is the theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experience on later personality development. A. The Life of Sigmund Freud 1. Freud studied medicine, became a physician, and then proved himself an outstanding physiological researcher. Because prospects for an academic career in scientific research were very poor, especially for a Jew in Vienna, which was intensely anti-semitic at that time, Freud established a private practice in neurology to support his wife and six children. 2. Influences in the development of Freud s ideas a. An early influence on Freud was Joseph Breuer, a highly respected physician, who found that when patients were hypnotized and allowed to talk freely about a given symptom, forgotten memories of traumatic events would emerge. After patients freely expressed the pent-up emotions associated with the events, symptoms would disappear, a phenomenon Breuer called catharsis. b. Freud later dropped Breuer s method of using hypnosis and developed his own technique of free association to help patients uncover forgotten memories. Freud s patients would spontaneously report their uncensored thoughts, mental images, and feelings as they came to mind. c. Breuer and Freud described several of their case studies in their landmark book, Studies on Hysteria; its publication in 1895 marked the beginning of psychoanalysis.

2 d. In 1900, Freud published what many consider his most important work, The Interpretation of Dreams. In 1904, he published one of his most popular books, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. e. For the next 30 years, Freud continued to refine his theory, lecturing and publishing many books and articles. f. Freud came to focus on humanity s destructive tendencies; Freud wrote Civilization and Its Discontents, in which he applied his psychoanalytic perspective to civilization as a whole. The central theme is that human nature and civilization are in basic conflict a conflict that cannot be resolved. g. In 1939, Freud died in London at the age of 83. B. Freud s Dynamic Theory of Personality 1. Freud saw personality and behavior as resulting from a constant interplay between conflicting psychological forces that operate at three different levels of awareness. a. All the thoughts, feelings, and sensations that you are aware of at this particular moment represent the conscious level. b. The preconscious contains information of which you re not currently aware but is easily capable of entering your consciousness, such as childhood memories or your Social Security number. c. The bulk of Freud s psychological iceberg is made up of the unconscious, which lies submerged below the waterline of the preconscious and conscious. We are not directly aware of these submerged thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives, but the unconscious exerts an enormous influence on our conscious thoughts and behavior. d. Freud believed that unconscious material often seeps through to the conscious level in distorted, disguised, or symbolic forms. Dream analysis was particularly important to Freud. Beneath the surface images, or manifest content, of a dream lies its latent content, the true, hidden, unconscious meaning of the dream symbols. e. The unconscious can also be revealed in unintentional actions, such as accidents, mistakes, instances of forgetting, and inadvertent slips of the tongue, which are often referred to as Freudian slips. 2. The structure of personality Psychological energy evolves to form the three basic structures of personality the id, the ego, and the superego. These are distinct psychological processes. a. The id, the most primitive part of the personality, is entirely unconscious and present at birth. It is completely immune to logic, values, morality, danger, and the demands of the external world.

3 (1) Two conflicting instinctual drives fuel the id: the life instinct and the death instinct. The life instinct, which Freud called Eros, consists of biological urges that perpetuate the existence of the individual and the species hunger, thirst, physical comfort, and, most important, sexuality. Freud used the word libido to refer specifically to sexual energy or motivation. The death instinct, called Thanatos, is destructive energy that is reflected in aggressive, reckless, and life threatening behaviors, including self-destructive actions. (2) The id is ruled by the pleasure principle the relentless drive toward immediate satisfaction of the instinctual urges, especially sexual urges. Freud saw the pleasure principle as the most fundamental human motive. b. A new dimension of personality develops from part of the id s psychological energy the ego. (1) Partly conscious, the ego represents the organized, rational, and planning dimensions of personality. The mediator between the id s instinctual demands and the restrictions of the outer world, the ego operates on the reality principle. The reality principle is the capacity to postpone gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist in the external world. (2) The ego is the pragmatic part of the personality that learns various compromises to reduce the tension of the id s instinctual urges. If the ego cannot identify an acceptable compromise to satisfy an instinctual urge, it can repress the impulse or remove it from conscious awareness. c. Gradually, social values move from being externally imposed demands to being internalized rules and values. By about age five or six, young children develop an internal, parental voice that is partly conscious the superego. As the internal representation of parental and societal values, the superego evaluates the acceptability of behavior and thoughts, then praises or admonishes. 3. The ego defense mechanisms: Unconscious self-deceptions a. When the demands of the id or superego threaten to overwhelm the ego, anxiety results. b. If a realistic solution or compromise is not possible, the ego may temporarily reduce anxiety by distorting thoughts or perceptions of reality through processes Freud called ego defense mechanisms. By resorting to these largely unconscious selfdeceptions, the ego can maintain an integrated sense of self while searching for a more acceptable and realistic solution to a conflict between the id and superego.

4 (1) The most fundamental ego defense mechanism is repression, which is unconscious forgetting. Unbeknownst to the person, anxiety-producing thoughts, feelings, or impulses are pushed out of conscious awareness into the unconscious. (2) Displacement occurs when emotional impulses are redirected to a substitute object or person, usually one less threatening or dangerous than the original source of conflict. (3) Sublimation is a special form of displacement which involves displacing sexual urges toward productive, socially acceptable, nonsexual activities. Freud believed sublimation was largely responsible for the productive and creative contributions of people and even of whole societies. (4) Many psychologically healthy people temporarily use ego defense mechanisms to deal with stressful events; when they delay or interfere with our use of more constructive coping strategies, they can be counterproductive. C. Personality Development: The Psychosexual Stages 1. According to Freud, people progress through five psychosexual stages of development. The foundations of adult personality are established during the first five years of life, as the child progresses through the oral, anal, and phallic stages. The latency stage occurs during later childhood, and the fifth and final stage, the genital stage, begins in adolescence. 2. The psychosexual stages are age-related developmental periods in which sexual impulses are focused on different bodily zones and are expressed through activities associated with those areas. a. Oral stage: During the first year of life, the infant derives pleasure through the oral activities of sucking, chewing, and biting. b. Anal stage: Over the next two years, pleasure is derived through elimination and acquiring control over elimination. c. Phallic stage: Pleasure seeking is focused on the genitals. 3. Fixation: Unresolved developmental conflicts a. At each psychosexual stage, according to Freud, the infant or young child is faced with a developmental conflict that must be successfully resolved in order to move on to the next stage. b. If frustrated, the child will be left with feelings of unmet needs characteristic of that stage; if overindulged, the child may be reluctant to move on to the next stage. In either case, the result of an unresolved developmental conflict is fixation at a particular stage. 4. The Oedipus complex: A psychosexual drama Freud believed that the most critical conflict occurs during the phallic stage. The Oedipus complex is a child s unconscious sexual

5 desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward the same-sex parent. a. The little boy feels hostility and jealousy toward his father, but he realizes that his father is more physically powerful. The boy experiences castration anxiety. b. To resolve the Oedipus complex, the little boy ultimately joins forces with his former enemy by resorting to the defense mechanism of identification; that is, he imitates and internalizes his father s values, attitudes, and mannerisms. c. The little girl discovers that little boys have a penis and that she does not. She feels a sense of deprivation and loss that Freud termed penis envy. The little girl blames her mother and develops contempt for and resentment toward her; however, in her attempt to take her mother s place with her father, she also identifies with her mother. 5. The latency and genital stages a. Freud believed that because of the intense anxiety associated with the Oedipus complex, the sexual urges of boys and girls become repressed during the latency stage in late childhood. b. Final resolution of the Oedipus complex occurs in adolescence, during the genital stage. As incestuous urges start to resurface, they are prohibited by the moral ideals of the superego as well as by societal restrictions. c. In Freud s theory, a healthy personality and sense of sexuality result when conflicts are successfully resolved at each stage of psychosexual development. D. The Neo-Freudians: Freud s Descendants and Dissenters 1. In general, the neo-freudians disagreed with Freud on three key points. a. Freud s belief that behavior was primarily motivated by sexual urges. b. Freud s contention that personality is fundamentally determined by early childhood experiences. c. Freud s generally pessimistic view of human nature and society. 2. Carl Jung: Archetypes and the collective unconscious Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung broke with Sigmund Freud to develop his own psychoanalytic theory of personality. Jung believed that people are motivated by a more general psychological energy that pushes them to achieve psychological growth, self-realization, and psychic wholeness and harmony. He also believed that personality continues to develop in significant ways throughout the lifespan. a. Jung believed that the deepest part of the individual psyche is the collective unconscious, which is shared by all people and reflects humanity s collective evolutionary history. b. Contained in the collective unconscious are the archetypes, the

6 mental images of universal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations. c. Jung described two important archetypes: the anima (feminine) and the animus (masculine). To achieve psychological harmony, Jung believed, men must recognize and accept their feminine aspects and women must recognize and accept their masculine aspects. d. Jung s concepts of the collective unconscious and shared archetypes have been criticized as unscientific or mystical. e. Jung was the first to describe two basic personality types: introverts, who focus their attention inward, and extraverts, who turn their attention and energy toward the outside world. 3. Karen Horney: Basic anxiety and womb envy German-born American psychoanalyst Karen Horney came to stress the importance of cultural and social factors and social relationships (especially the parent child relationship) in personality development. a. Horney believed that disturbances in human relationships, not sexual conflicts, were the cause of psychological problems. Such problems arise from the attempt to deal with basic anxiety. b. Horney described three patterns of behavior that individuals use to defend against basic anxiety. (1) Those who move toward other people have an excessive need for approval and affection. (2) Those who move against others have an excessive need for power. (3) Those who move away from other people have an excessive need for independence and self-sufficiency. c. Horney contended that people with a healthy personality are flexible in balancing these different needs. d. Horney sharply disagreed with Freud s notion that women suffer from penis envy. She believed that what women envy in men is not their penis, but their superior status in society. She contended that men often suffer womb envy envying women s capacity to bear children. She argued that men compensated for their minor role in reproduction by constantly striving to make creative achievements in their work. e. Horney agreed with Jung that the drive to grow psychologically and achieve one s potential is a basic human motive. 4. Alfred Adler: Feelings of inferiority and striving for superiority Austrian physician Alfred Adler broke away from Freud to establish his own theory of personality. a. Adler believed that the most fundamental human motive is striving for superiority the desire to improve oneself, master challenges, and move toward self-perfection and self-realization.

7 (1) This striving arises from universal feelings of inferiority. (2) These feelings motivate people to compensate for their real or imagined weaknesses. b. When people are unable to compensate for specific weaknesses or when their feelings of inferiority are excessive, they can develop an inferiority complex a sense of inadequacy, weakness, and helplessness. c. At the other extreme, people can overcompensate for their feelings of inferiority and develop a superiority complex. E. Evaluating Freud and the Psychoanalytic Perspective on Personality Although Freudian theory has had a profound impact on psychology and on society, there are several valid criticisms. 1. Inadequacy of evidence a. Freud s theory relies wholly on data derived from his relatively small number of patients and from his own self-analysis. b. It is impossible to objectively assess Freud s data, because he did not take notes during sessions and his reported cases consisted of his interpretations. 2. Lack of testability a. Many psychoanalytic concepts are so vague and ambiguous that they are impossible to measure or confirm objectively, yet they are often impossible to disprove, because even seemingly contradictory information can be used to support Freud s theory. b. Psychoanalysis is better at explaining past behavior than at predicting future behavior. c. Nonetheless, several key psychoanalytic ideas have been substantiated by empirical research. Among them: (1) much of mental life is unconscious; (2) early childhood experiences have a critical influence on interpersonal relationships and psychological adjustment; and (3) people differ significantly in the degree to which they are able to regulate their impulses, emotions, and thoughts toward adaptive and socially acceptable ends. 3. Sexism a. Freud claimed women are more vain, masochistic, and jealous than men. He also believed that women are more influenced by their emotions and have a lesser ethical and moral sense. b. Horney and other female psychoanalysts have pointed out that Freud s theory uses male psychology as a prototype. Women are essentially viewed as a deviation from the norm of masculinity. III. The Humanistic Perspective on Personality A. The Emergence of the Third Force In opposition to both psychoanalysis and behaviorism was a third force in psychology, called humanistic psychology. This view of personality

8 emphasizes human potential and such uniquely human characteristics as self-awareness and free will. It sees people as being innately good and focuses on the healthy personality. 1. Humanistic psychologists contended that the most important factor in personality is the individual s conscious, subjective perception of his or her self. 2. Abraham Maslow, one of the two most important contributors to humanistic psychology developed the hierarchy of needs and the concept of self-actualization. B. Carl Rogers: On Becoming a Person Psychotherapist Carl Rogers, one of the two most important contributors to humanistic psychology, developed his personality theory from his clinical experiences with his patients, whom he referred to as clients to emphasize their active and voluntary participation in therapy. According to Rogers, the most basic human motive is the actualizing tendency the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism. 1. The cornerstone of Rogers s personality theory is the idea of the self concept, which is the set of perceptions and beliefs that you have about yourself. As children develop a greater sense of self-awareness, there is an increasing need for positive regard the sense of being loved and valued by other people. a. Rogers maintained that most parents provide their children with conditional positive regard the sense that the child is valued and loved only when the child behaves in a way that is acceptable to others. Incongruence is a state in which a child s self-concept conflicts with his or her actual experience. b. Unconditional positive regard refers to the child s sense of being unconditionally loved and valued, even if she doesn t conform to the standards and expectations of others. c. Rogers did not advocate permissive parenting. He maintained that parents can disapprove of a child s specific behavior without completely rejecting the child herself. 2. Through consistent experiences of unconditional positive regard, one becomes a psychologically healthy, fully functioning person who has a flexible, constantly evolving self-concept. Rather than defending against or distorting her own thoughts or feelings, the person experiences congruence: Her sense of self is consistent with her emotions and experiences. 3. Critical Thinking: Freud Versus Rogers on Human Nature a. Freud was deeply pessimistic about human nature, believing that people are inherently driven by aggressive instincts. b. In his view, the destructive urges of the id have to be restrained by parents, culture, religion, and society; otherwise, civilization will be destroyed. c. In contrast, Rogers believed people are naturally good. d. If they exist in a free and nurturing environment, he suggested,

9 they would invariably make constructive choices that benefit both themselves and society as a whole. C. Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective on Personality 1. The humanistic perspective has been criticized on two counts. a. Humanistic theories are hard to validate or test scientifically, because they tend to be based on philosophical assumptions or clinical observations, rather than on empirical research. b. Many psychologists believe that humanistic psychology s view of human nature is too optimistic. 2. Although the influence of humanistic psychology has waned since the 1960s and early 1970s, it has made lasting contributions to psychotherapy, counseling, education, and parenting. IV. The Social Cognitive Perspective on Personality A. The idea that a person s conscious thought processes in different situations strongly influence his or her actions is one important characteristic of the social cognitive perspective on personality, which differs from the psychoanalytic and humanistic perspectives in several ways: 1. It relies heavily on experimental findings. 2. It emphasizes conscious, self-regulated behavior. 3. It emphasizes that our sense of self can vary, depending on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in a given situation. B. Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura is best known for his now-classic research on observational learning (Chapter 5) and his more recent research on self-efficacy (Chapter 8). Both topics are reflected in his personality theory, called social cognitive theory. 1. Social cognitive theory emphasizes the social origins of thoughts and actions but also stresses active cognitive processes and the human capacity for self-regulation. 2. Bandura s research has shown that we observe the consequences that follow people s actions, the rules and standards that apply to behavior in specific situations, and the ways in which people regulate their own behavior. 3. Reciprocal determinism is a model proposed by Bandura that explains human functioning and personality as caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors. 4. Beliefs of self-efficacy a. Collectively, a person s cognitive skills, abilities, and attitudes represent the person s self-system. b. The most critical elements influencing the self-system are our beliefs of self-efficacy, the degree to which we are subjectively convinced of our own capabilities and effectiveness in meeting the demands of a particular situation. c. We acquire new behaviors and strengthen our beliefs of self efficacy in particular situations through observational learning and mastery experiences.

10 5. Developing self-efficacy begins in childhood, but it continues as a lifelong process, with each stage of the lifespan presenting new challenges. 6. Critical Thinking: Freud Versus Bandura on Human Aggression a. Freud saw human aggression as a universal, unconscious instinct that must be controlled by the internal restraints of the superego and the external restraints of culture, society, and morality. b. According to Bandura, people frequently act destructively, not because of reduced self-control, but because they consciously use moral justification and self-exoneration to go forward with destructive behaviors. C. Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspective on Personality 1. A key strength of the social cognitive perspective on personality is that it is grounded in research in learning, cognitive psychology, and social psychology, rather than on clinical impressions. 2. However, some psychologists feel that this approach applies best to laboratory research; they feel that clinical data rather than laboratory data may be more reflective of human personality. 3. The social cognitive perspective has been criticized for its limited view of personality; it focuses on very limited areas of personality learning, the effects of situations, and the effects of beliefs about the self and ignores unconscious influences, emotions, and conflicts. 4. By emphasizing the self-regulation of behavior, the social cognitive perspective places most of the responsibility for our behavior, and for the consequences we experience, squarely on our own shoulders. V. The Trait Perspective on Personality A trait theory of personality is one that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions. 1. Trait theorists view the person as a unique combination of personality characteristics or attributes, called traits. A trait is a relatively stable, enduring predisposition to behave in a certain way. 2. A trait is typically described in terms of a range from one extreme to its opposite. A. Surface Traits and Source Traits 1. Surface traits are personality characteristics or attributes that can be easily inferred from observable behavior. 2. Source traits are the most fundamental dimensions of personality; they are the broad basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number. A source trait can give rise to many surface traits. B. Two Representative Trait Theories: Raymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck 1. Pioneer trait theorist Raymond Cattell used a statistical technique called factor analysis to identify traits that were most closely related to one another, eventually reducing his list to 16 key personality factors. Cattell developed the widely used personality test, the Sixteen

11 Personality Factor Questionnaire, or 16PF. 2. British psychologist Hans Eysenck developed a trait theory of personality that includes three basic dimensions. a. Introversion extraversion is the degree to which a person directs his energies outward toward the environment and other people versus inward toward his inner and self-focused experiences. (1) High on introversion quiet, solitary, reserved; avoiding new experiences (2) High on extraversion outgoing and sociable; enjoying new experiences and stimulating environments b. Neuroticism emotional stability refers to a person s emotional predisposition. (1) Neuroticism refers to a person s predisposition to become emotionally upset. (2) Stability reflects a person s predisposition to be emotionally even. c. Psychoticism, the third major personality dimension, was identified by Eysenck in later research. (1) A person high on this trait is antisocial, cold, hostile, and unconcerned about others. (2) A person who is low on psychoticism is warm and caring toward others. d. Eysenck believed that individual differences in personality are due to biological differences among people. e. (Focus on Neuroscience) Personality traits and patterns of brain activity. Specific personality traits can produce individual differences in the brain s reaction to emotional stimuli. (1) Female volunteers who scored high on extraversion had greater brain activity toward positive images than did women who scored low on extraversion. The brain activity was mostly in areas that control emotion. (2) In contrast, women who scored high on neuroticism had more brain activation in response to negative images, but in fewer areas that control emotions. C. Sixteen Are Too Many, Three Are Too Few: The Five-Factor Model Many trait researchers believe that the essential building blocks of personality can be described in terms of five basic personality dimensions, sometimes called the Big Five. According to the five-factor model of personality, these five dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) represent the structural organization of personality traits. 1. The five-factor structure of personality has been found in a variety of cultures and may be universal. 2. Research has shown that traits are remarkably stable over time. 3. Traits are also generally consistent across different situations, but situational influences may affect their expression. Human behavior

12 is the result of a complex interaction between traits and situations. D. Personality Traits and Behavioral Genetics 1. Behavioral genetics studies the effects of genes and heredity on behavior. 2. Using twin studies and adoption studies, behavioral geneticists have found that certain personality traits are substantially influenced by genetics, especially extraversion and neuroticism. Openness to experience and conscientiousness are also substantially influenced by genetics, although to a lesser degree than extraversion and neuroticism. 3. In Focus Explaining Those Amazing Identical Twin Similarities In explaining twin similarities, David Lykkens refers to certain traits as emergenic; that is, they result from unique configurations of many interacting genes. 4. The influence of environmental factors is at least equal to the influence of genetic factors. E. Evaluating the Trait Perspective on Personality 1. Psychologists generally agree that people can be described and compared in terms of basic personality traits. 2. Like the other personality theories, the trait approach has its weaknesses. Trait theories fail to a. truly explain human personality. b. explain how or why individual differences developed. c. address other important personality issues, such as the basic motives that drive human personality, the role of unconscious mental processes, how beliefs about the self influence personality, or how psychological change and growth occur. VI. Assessing Personality: Psychological Tests Psychological tests assess a person s abilities, aptitudes, interests, or personality on the basis of a systematically obtained sample of behavior. Any psychological test is useful insofar as it achieves two basic goals: 1. It accurately and consistently reflects a person s characteristics on some dimension. 2. It predicts a person s future psychological functioning or behavior. A. Projective Tests: Like Seeing Things in the Clouds 1. Projective tests are personality tests that involves a person s interpreting an ambiguous image; they are used to assess unconscious motives, conflicts, psychological defenses, and personality traits. a. The Rorschach Inkblot Test is a projective test using inkblots that was developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in b. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective personality test that involves creating stories about each of a series of ambiguous scenes. 2. Strengths and limitations of projective tests a. The primary strength of projective tests is that they provide a

13 wealth of qualitative information about an individual s psychological functioning. b. Projective tests have several drawbacks. (1) The testing situation or the examiner s behavior can influence a person s responses. (2) The scoring of projective tests is highly subjective, requiring the examiner to make numerous judgments about the person s responses. (3) Projective tests often fail to produce consistent results. (4) Projective tests are poor at predicting future behavior. c. Despite their widespread use, hundreds of studies of projective tests seriously question their validity (that the tests measure what they purport to measure) and their reliability (the consistency of test results). 3. (Science Versus Pseudoscience) Graphology: The Write Way to Assess Personality? a. Graphology is a pseudoscience that claims that your handwriting reveals your temperament, personality traits, intelligence, and reasoning ability. b. Numerous studies have cast doubts about the reliability of graphology. B. Self-Report Inventories 1. Self-report inventories are psychological tests in which people s responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms. a. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics and psychological disorders; it is used to assess both normal and disturbed populations. b. The California Personality Inventory (CPI) is a self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics in normal populations. c. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) is a self-report inventory developed by Raymond Cattell that generates a personality profile with ratings on 16 trait dimensions. 2. Strengths and limitations of self-report inventories a. The strengths include (1) standardization and the use of established norms. (2) their reliability and validity, which are generally greater than those of projective tests. b. The weaknesses include that (1) despite inclusion of items designed to detect deliberate deception, people can still successfully fake responses and answer in socially desirable ways. (2) some people are prone to responding in a set way, whether the item accurately reflects them or not.

14 (3) people are not always accurate judges of their own behavior, attitudes, or attributes. c. Personality tests are generally useful strategies that can provide insights about the psychological makeup of people. VII. Application: Possible Selves: Imagine the Possibilities 1. According to Hazel Markus and her colleagues, possible selves are the aspect of the self-concept that includes images of the selves that you hope, fear, or expect to become in the future. 2. Your possible selves influence your incentive, drive, and motivation, as well as your decisions and choices about future behavior. 3. Assessing the role that your possible selves can play in your life helps you gain insight into whether they are influencing your behavior in productive, constructive ways.

PERSONALITY. Fast Track Chapter 10 (Bernstein Chapter 14)

PERSONALITY. Fast Track Chapter 10 (Bernstein Chapter 14) PERSONALITY Fast Track Chapter 10 (Bernstein Chapter 14) PERSONALITY the unique and consistent pattern of behavior, thinking, and feeling that makes up an individual Major Research Approaches Psychodynamic

More information

Visualizing Psychology

Visualizing Psychology Visualizing Psychology by Siri Carpenter & Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 12: Personality Siri Carpenter, Yale University Karen Huffman, Palomar College Lecture Overview Trait

More information

Personality & Its Assessment

Personality & Its Assessment Personality & Its Assessment Dr Elena Gregoria Chai Chin Fern Faculty of Social Sciences Universiti Malaysia Sarawak This OpenCourseWare@UNIMAS and its related course materials are licensed under a Creative

More information

What is Personality? How do you define personality? CLASS OBJECTIVES 4/10/2009. Chapter 12 Personality and its assessment. What is personality?

What is Personality? How do you define personality? CLASS OBJECTIVES 4/10/2009. Chapter 12 Personality and its assessment. What is personality? What is Personality? Chapter 12 Personality and its assessment CLASS OBJECTIVES What is personality? How does our personality develop? What would Freud say? Other theories of personality How do you define

More information

Chapter 10 Personality Name Period Date. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 10 Personality Name Period Date. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 10 Personality Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The BEST kind of personality test is one that is. A) both

More information

What is the Humanist Perspective? What are the key ideas in the Humanistic perspective of personality?

What is the Humanist Perspective? What are the key ideas in the Humanistic perspective of personality? What is the Humanist Perspective? LP 13C Humanist Perspective 1 What are the key ideas in the Humanistic perspective of personality? Differences with the Psychoanalysts: Humanists focus on the healthy

More information

PERSONALITY THEORIES. Every one of us shares many things with others. However, apart from commonalities MODULE-IV OBJECTIVES. Personality Theories

PERSONALITY THEORIES. Every one of us shares many things with others. However, apart from commonalities MODULE-IV OBJECTIVES. Personality Theories Personality Theories MODULE-IV 18 PERSONALITY THEORIES Every one of us shares many things with others. However, apart from commonalities we also find that people are different in the way they appear and

More information

Personality: Vive la Difference!

Personality: Vive la Difference! Personality: Vive la Difference! 11 What Is Personality? A set of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive tendencies that people display over time and across situations What are some terms you use to describe

More information

PERSONALITY PSYCHOANALYTIC TRAIT HUMANISTIC SOCIAL-COGNITION. Individual s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

PERSONALITY PSYCHOANALYTIC TRAIT HUMANISTIC SOCIAL-COGNITION. Individual s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting PERSONALITY PSYCHOANALYTIC TRAIT HUMANISTIC SOCIAL-COGNITION Individual s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting PSYCHOANALYTIC Zeitgeist Spirit of the Times Sigmund Freud Brain is the

More information

Psychology 305A: Lecture 5. Freud Part 2

Psychology 305A: Lecture 5. Freud Part 2 Psychology 305A: Lecture 5 Freud Part 2 1 Freudian Theory of Personality 2 Psychoanalytic Theory: Basic Assumptions 1. Psychological Determinism Life/sex instinct Death/aggression instinct 2. Importance

More information

CHAPTER 12 - PERSONALITY - EXAM

CHAPTER 12 - PERSONALITY - EXAM CHAPTER 12 - PERSONALITY - EXAM Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A durable disposition or tendency to behave in a particular

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 12

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 12 1 Chapter Test 1. People are not merely a random collection of traits, meaning that people s personalities are a. integrated b. organized c. enduring d. transient Answer: B difficulty: 1 conceptual 2.

More information

Psychodynamic Approach Assumptions

Psychodynamic Approach Assumptions If you know very little about psychology, and you have heard of just one psychologist, the chances are that this is Sigmund Freud, the founder of the psychodynamic approach to psychology and psychoanalysis.

More information

The Social Cognitive perspective and Albert Bandura

The Social Cognitive perspective and Albert Bandura LP 11D Social Cog/Trait 1 The Social Cognitive perspective and Albert Bandura For more information on Albert Bandura and the Social Cognitive Perspective, see Chapter 5: Learning and Chapter 8: Motivation

More information

What Is Personality?

What Is Personality? What Is Personality? Personality is an individual s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits. A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations.

More information

Psychodynamic Approach

Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamic Approach LP 12D Freud/defense mech 1 Psychodynamic: An approach that regards personality as formed by needs, strivings and desires largely operating outside of awareness motives that can

More information

Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychic determinism This principle holds that in all mental functioning nothing happens by chance. Everything a person feels, thinks, fantasizes, dreams,

More information

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Deborah L. Cabaniss, M.D.

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Deborah L. Cabaniss, M.D. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Deborah L. Cabaniss, M.D. I. Definitions A. Psychotherapy Psychotherapy is the umbrella term for a number of therapies that aim at treating problems that affect the mind (psyche).

More information

I have no desire at all to leave psychology hanging in the air with no organic basis. But, beyond a feeling of conviction [that there must be such a

I have no desire at all to leave psychology hanging in the air with no organic basis. But, beyond a feeling of conviction [that there must be such a I have no desire at all to leave psychology hanging in the air with no organic basis. But, beyond a feeling of conviction [that there must be such a basis], I have nothing, either theoretical or therapeutic,

More information

(( Typical Personality in University Lecturer ))

(( Typical Personality in University Lecturer )) (( Typical Personality in University Lecturer )) Prof. Yousif Hama Salih Mustafa Ph.D. in psychology (personality and mental health) Salahaddin university E-mail: yousifhsm@gmail.com Mob: 07504514924 June

More information

Personality CHAPTER 11 CHAPTER OUTLINE

Personality CHAPTER 11 CHAPTER OUTLINE CHAPTER 11 Personality CHAPTER OUTLINE Personality is the unique pattern of enduring thoughts, feelings and actions that characterize a person. I. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH How did paralyzed patients

More information

Name Chapter 1--Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis Description Instructions

Name Chapter 1--Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis Description Instructions Name Chapter 1--Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis Description Instructions Modify Question 1 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The major influence on contemporary personality theory is John B.

More information

Freud and Personality

Freud and Personality Psychology Psychoanalysis 01 Notes Freud and Personality The psychoanalytical perspective in psychology examines personality traits and disorders in terms of sexual and/or aggressive drives or unfilled

More information

15: Personality CHAPTER PREVIEW CHAPTER GUIDE

15: Personality CHAPTER PREVIEW CHAPTER GUIDE 15: Personality CHAPTER PREVIEW Personality is one s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Sigmund Freud, in his psychoanalytic perspective, proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious

More information

CHAPTER. Personality. Preview

CHAPTER. Personality. Preview CHAPTER 14 Personality Preview Personality is one s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Psychodynamic theories focus on the unconscious and early childhood experiences. Sigmund Freud,

More information

Psychodynamic Workbook

Psychodynamic Workbook Psychodynamic Workbook Name: Group: Exam Dates: King Edward VI Psychology Department 1 Contents Specification... 3 Psychodynamic Approach... 5 Content Personality... 8 Content Psychosexual development...

More information

Slide 1: What is Personality? What do you think? Personality- an individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits (& feelings).

Slide 1: What is Personality? What do you think? Personality- an individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits (& feelings). Slide 1: What is? What do you think? - an individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits (& feelings). Traits- a disposition to behave in a particular way across a variety of of situation.

More information

Psychoanalytic Social Theory Karen Horney

Psychoanalytic Social Theory Karen Horney Psychoanalytic Social Theory Karen Horney Psychoanalytic Social Theory is built on the assumption that social and cultural conditions, especially childhood experiences, are largely responsible for shaping

More information

Chapter Five Socialization. Human Development: Biology and Society. Social Isolation

Chapter Five Socialization. Human Development: Biology and Society. Social Isolation Chapter Five Socialization Socialization is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identify and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival

More information

Psychological Models of Abnormality

Psychological Models of Abnormality Several Different Models Psychological Models of Abnormality Psychoanalytic Models Learning Models Cognitive Models Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides

More information

CHAPTER 10 : PERSONALITY/MIDTERMS

CHAPTER 10 : PERSONALITY/MIDTERMS CHAPTER 10 : PERSONALITY/MIDTERMS 1/17 overview/psychodynamic theories 334-343 Homework: read & outline text pages above Lecture 1/18 - Humanistic personality theories/trait theories 344-350 Homework:

More information

Chapter 9. Personality

Chapter 9. Personality Chapter 9 Personality Outline I. Introducing Personality Theories A. A theory is an organized collection of testable ideas used to explain a particular subject matter. B. Personality includes the affects,

More information

General Psychology Notes - Theories of Personality

General Psychology Notes - Theories of Personality General Psychology Notes - Theories of Personality These are general notes designed to assist students who are regularly attending class and reading assigned material: they are supplemental rather than

More information

psychology the science of psychology CHAPTER third edition Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

psychology the science of psychology CHAPTER third edition Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White psychology third edition CHAPTER 1 the science of psychology Learning Objectives LO 1.1 Definition and Goals of Psychology LO 1.2 Structuralism and Functionalism LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, Psychoanalysis, and

More information

What is Psychology? A set of questions about mental functioning trace back to philosophy Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc.

What is Psychology? A set of questions about mental functioning trace back to philosophy Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc. What is? The science of behavior and the mind behavior - observable actions of a person or animal mind - thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences

More information

The Psychodynamic Approach

The Psychodynamic Approach The Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Freud was born in Frieburg, Moravia (now Pribor in the Czech Republic) Freud s background Born to Jacob (who was 40 years old) and Amalie (20 years

More information

Great Books: Freud s Interpretation of Dreams Teacher s Guide

Great Books: Freud s Interpretation of Dreams Teacher s Guide Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 9-12 Curriculum Focus: Human Body Lesson Duration: One class period Program Description Using a unique series of dream sequence reenactments based on Freud's revolutionary

More information

COMPETENCY 1.0 Understand human development from early childhood to adulthood. Major Theories of Social and Personality Development

COMPETENCY 1.0 Understand human development from early childhood to adulthood. Major Theories of Social and Personality Development Subarea: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING COMPETENCY 1.0 Understand human development from early childhood to adulthood SKILL 1.1 Major Theories of Social and Personality Development There are many theories

More information

Chapter 1. Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context

Chapter 1. Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context Chapter 1 Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context Myths and Misconceptions About Abnormal Behavior No Single Definition of Psychological Normality No Single Definition of Psychological Abnormality Differences

More information

Psychosexual Development: Freudian Concept

Psychosexual Development: Freudian Concept 180 Introduction to Social Work 23 Psychosexual Development: Freudian Concept Introduction * Tomy Philip The theory of psychosexual development, also known as theory of libidinal development, is one of

More information

STRUCTURALISM: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener

STRUCTURALISM: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener STRUCTURALISM: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920): Established first first Psychology Lab Lab in in Germany. Defined psychology as as the the science

More information

BASICS OF PSYCHOLOGY. A Brief History of Psychology. B. The Emergence of Psychology. A. Before Psychology

BASICS OF PSYCHOLOGY. A Brief History of Psychology. B. The Emergence of Psychology. A. Before Psychology BASICS OF PSYCHOLOGY A brief history of psychology A. before psychology B. the emergence of psychology C. early schools of psychology Theoretical approaches (Disciplines/Schools) Behaviourist Psychodynamic

More information

GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 SEX AND GENDER REVISION

GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 SEX AND GENDER REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 SEX AND GENDER REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 SEX AND GENDER IDENTITY SEX IDENTITY AND GENDER IDENTITY SEX IDENTITY = a biological term. A child s sex can be identified by their

More information

Chapter 13 online insight and behavior therapies pgs 424-433 Name Period Date

Chapter 13 online insight and behavior therapies pgs 424-433 Name Period Date Chapter 13 online insight and behavior therapies pgs 424-433 Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The major goal of

More information

History/Approaches. 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in

History/Approaches. 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in History/Approaches 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in (A). concentration of neutral transmitters in the spinal cord (B). unconditional positive regard in the therapeutic setting

More information

11 Psychology MI-SG-FLD011-02

11 Psychology MI-SG-FLD011-02 11 Psychology MI-SG-FLD011-02 TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1: General Information About the MTTC Program and Test Preparation OVERVIEW OF THE TESTING PROGRAM... 1-1 Contact Information Test Development Process

More information

PERSONALITY THEORY PSYCHODYNAMIC MODEL

PERSONALITY THEORY PSYCHODYNAMIC MODEL PERSONALITY THEORY Personality includes the unique pattern of psychological and behavioral characteristics that distinguishes each of us from everyone else. Personality characteristics are relatively stable

More information

Socialization From Infancy to Old Age A. Socialization and the Self self a. Self-identity Socialization

Socialization From Infancy to Old Age A. Socialization and the Self self a. Self-identity Socialization I. Socialization From Infancy to Old Age A. Socialization and the Self 1. Over our lives, we develop a sense of self: a perception of being a distinct personality with a distinct identity. a. Self-identity:

More information

PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES CHAPTER 9 PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 348 CHAPTER OUTLINE module 29 Psychodynamic Approaches to Personality Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory: Mapping the Unconscious Mind The Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysts:

More information

Adlerian Psychotherapy. Prioritizing relationships

Adlerian Psychotherapy. Prioritizing relationships Adlerian Psychotherapy Prioritizing relationships Adlerian Theory History of Adlerian Theory Inspired by Freudian psychoanalysis. Founded by Alfred Adler, championed in America by Rudolf Dreikurs. Dissemination

More information

PSYCHOTHERAPY. MODULE -V Social and Applied Psychology OBJECTIVES 24.1 MEDICAL MODEL. Psychotherapy. Notes

PSYCHOTHERAPY. MODULE -V Social and Applied Psychology OBJECTIVES 24.1 MEDICAL MODEL. Psychotherapy. Notes MODULE -V Psychotherapy 24 PSYCHOTHERAPY In the previous lesson, you were told about psychological disorders. Psychologists have tried to understand the causes of abnormal behaviour, and the best way to

More information

Sample Curriculum Fundamentals of Psychoanalysis I (offered in odd years):

Sample Curriculum Fundamentals of Psychoanalysis I (offered in odd years): Sample Curriculum Fundamentals of Psychoanalysis I (offered in odd years): Unit I: What is Psychoanalysis? (The psychoanalytic method; from hypnosis to free association. The Interview and The Contract.

More information

Models of Abnormality

Models of Abnormality Models of Abnormality Chapter 3 Slides & Handouts by Karen Clay Rhines, Ph.D. Northampton Community College Comer, Abnormal Psychology, 8e Models of Abnormality In science, the perspectives used to explain

More information

Sigmund Freud versus George Kelly: Comparison of Psychoanalysis. and Phenomenology in the Case Study of Niko. Sarah Student

Sigmund Freud versus George Kelly: Comparison of Psychoanalysis. and Phenomenology in the Case Study of Niko. Sarah Student Sigmund Freud versus George Kelly 1 Running Head: SIGMUND FREUD VERSUS GEORGE KELLY Sigmund Freud versus George Kelly: Comparison of Psychoanalysis and Phenomenology in the Case Study of Niko Sarah Student

More information

Course Correlation to Virginia Standards of Learning

Course Correlation to Virginia Standards of Learning Course Correlation to Virginia Standards of Learning Name of Provider: York County School Division Name of Course: Psychology URL for Course Syllabus: http://yorkcountyschools.org/virtuallearning/coursecatalog.aspx

More information

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since 1600. Dynamics of the Personality

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since 1600. Dynamics of the Personality PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since 1600 Dr. Peter Assmann Spring 2015 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) When a member of my family complains to me of having bitten

More information

117 118, 123, 125, 130 131, 133)

117 118, 123, 125, 130 131, 133) Samples_PDPS_pms_540.qxd 4/19/06 10:05 AM Page 122 CH A P T E R O B J E C T I V E S R E V I E W After reading this chapter, you should understand the chapter objectives. The objectives are listed below

More information

Enriching Knowledge for the Health Management and Social Care Curriculum Series (16): Understanding Theories of Development (New)

Enriching Knowledge for the Health Management and Social Care Curriculum Series (16): Understanding Theories of Development (New) Enriching Knowledge for the Health Management and Social Care Curriculum Series (16): Understanding Theories of Development (New) Speaker:Dr. Chan Shing Kun Department of Psychological Studies The Hong

More information

Psychology- Themes and Variations Lorenz Sol

Psychology- Themes and Variations Lorenz Sol Chapter 1- The Evolution of Society Watson Alters Psychology Course as Behaviourism Makes Its Debut - Founded by John B. Watson (1878-1958), behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise

More information

Behaving Intelligently: Leadership Traits & Characteristics Kristina G. Ricketts, Community and Leadership Development

Behaving Intelligently: Leadership Traits & Characteristics Kristina G. Ricketts, Community and Leadership Development COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546 ELK1-102 LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR Behaving Intelligently: Leadership Traits & Characteristics Kristina G. Ricketts,

More information

Introducing Social Psychology

Introducing Social Psychology Introducing Social Psychology Theories and Methods in Social Psychology 27 Feb 2012, Banu Cingöz Ulu What is social psychology? A field within psychology that strives to understand the social dynamics

More information

Social Studies Scope and Sequence

Social Studies Scope and Sequence Social Studies Scope and Sequence Unit: Introduction to the Study of Psychology Unit: Personality Theories Interpret, evaluate, and compare the basic personality theories of psychoanalysis, behaviorism,

More information

Virtual Child Written Project Assignment. Four-Assignment Version of Reflective Questions

Virtual Child Written Project Assignment. Four-Assignment Version of Reflective Questions Virtual Child Written Project Assignment Four-Assignment Version of Reflective Questions Virtual Child Report (Assignment) 1: Infants and Toddlers (20 points) Choose 7 or 8 questions whose total point

More information

Al Ahliyya Amman University Faculty of Arts Department of Psychology Course Description Psychology

Al Ahliyya Amman University Faculty of Arts Department of Psychology Course Description Psychology Al Ahliyya Amman University Faculty of Arts Department of Psychology Course Description Psychology 0731111 Psychology And Life {3}[3-3] Defining humans behavior; Essential life skills: problem solving,

More information

Psychotherapy with Mentally Challenged Children and Adolescents

Psychotherapy with Mentally Challenged Children and Adolescents The Inferiority of the Seemingly Superior Robin Mindell 2007, Robin Mindell & The M.-L. von Franz Institute for Studies in Synchronicity, Zurich Organization and Philosophy 1984: Research Project Children

More information

MODULE - I Foundations of Psychology

MODULE - I Foundations of Psychology Methods of 2 METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY In the last lesson we noted that the interpretation of a psychological phenomenon by a psychologist may differ from that of a novice. A psychologist follows a systematic

More information

Chapter 5. Socialization

Chapter 5. Socialization Chapter 5 Socialization I. Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity. A. Socialization is the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture. B. Social

More information

4.Insight = change of self- image acceptance of theoretical interpretation 5.Obtaining relevant information

4.Insight = change of self- image acceptance of theoretical interpretation 5.Obtaining relevant information Psychotherapy Treatment by psychological stimuli Intrapsychological process therapeutic relationship Methods: 1.Abreaction release of repressed emotions and feelings 2.Catharsis clearing, cognitive rebirth

More information

Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Lifespan Developmental Theory

Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Lifespan Developmental Theory Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Wednesday, August 24 th, 2005 Covering: Lifespan Developmental Theory, Psychoanalytic Theory, Erikson, Behavioral and Social Learning,

More information

Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective

Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective OpenStax-CNX module: m49072 1 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 By the end of

More information

What is this thing we call psychology? Science of the mind; Science of behavior. Biological mechanisms and psychological phenomena

What is this thing we call psychology? Science of the mind; Science of behavior. Biological mechanisms and psychological phenomena Psychology Introduction What is psychology? The range and major schools Disciplines Conclusion YRG @ Department of Epileptology University of Bonn Medical Centre, Germany * christian.hoppe@ukb.uni-bonn.de

More information

AP Psychology 2008-2009 Academic Year

AP Psychology 2008-2009 Academic Year AP Psychology 2008-2009 Academic Year Course Description: The College Board Advanced Placement Program describes Advanced Placement Psychology as a course that is designed to introduce students to the

More information

INDIAN SCHOOL MUSCAT DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND HUMANITIES CLASS: XII PSYCHOLOGY

INDIAN SCHOOL MUSCAT DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND HUMANITIES CLASS: XII PSYCHOLOGY [ INDIAN SCHOOL MUSCAT Worksheet: 1 Chapter Name: Intelligence and Aptitude Name of Student : Class : 1. Explain the concept is Assessment? 2. What is Intelligence is according to Oxford dictionary? 3.

More information

PSYCHOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD REVIEW QUESTIONS

PSYCHOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD REVIEW QUESTIONS PSYCHOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD REVIEW QUESTIONS These review questions are designed to help you assess your grasp of the facts and definitions covered in your textbook. Knowing facts and definitions is necessary

More information

Grade 12 Psychology (40S) Outcomes Unedited Draft 1

Grade 12 Psychology (40S) Outcomes Unedited Draft 1 Grade 12 Psychology (40S) Outcomes Unedited Draft 1 Theme 1: Introduction and Research Methods Topic 1: Introduction 1.1.1 Define psychology, and list and explain its goals. 1.1.2 Describe and compare

More information

Key ideas of psychoanalysis Internal structure

Key ideas of psychoanalysis Internal structure Key ideas of psychoanalysis The aim is to find out what s really going on in the hidden, unconscious recesses of the mind Psychic determinism Determinism is the idea that everything that happens has a

More information

Dualism is the belief that the mind is separate from the brain but somehow controls the brain and through it also the rest of the body.

Dualism is the belief that the mind is separate from the brain but somehow controls the brain and through it also the rest of the body. Chapter 1 What is Psychology? Sociology Social Psychology Psychology Biological Psychology (Neuroscience) Biology Biochemistry Chemistry Physical Chemistry Physics Psychology is a word deriving from Greek

More information

Psychology. Department Faculty Kevin Eames Michael Rulon Phillip Wright. Department Goals. For General Education. Requirements for Major in

Psychology. Department Faculty Kevin Eames Michael Rulon Phillip Wright. Department Goals. For General Education. Requirements for Major in Psychology Department Faculty Kevin Eames Michael Rulon Phillip Wright Department Goals The discipline of psychology is concerned with the examination of human behavior. For General Education The goals

More information

Psychology 305A Lecture 3. Research Methods in Personality Psychology

Psychology 305A Lecture 3. Research Methods in Personality Psychology Psychology 305A Lecture 3 Research Methods in Personality Psychology 1 Reminder Research Assistant Positions available! Emotion and Self Lab needs your help! Email jeff.emoselflab@gmail.com for information

More information

Chapter 2. Communication & Identity

Chapter 2. Communication & Identity Chapter 2 Communication & Identity Communication & the Self Self-concept > stable perceptions about yourself Self-esteem > evaluation of self-worth Think well of others Doesn t guarantee interpersonal

More information

The Case of Anna O. Psychoanalysis Today. Origins of Psychoanalysis. Origins of Psychoanalysis. Origins of Psychoanalysis (cont.)

The Case of Anna O. Psychoanalysis Today. Origins of Psychoanalysis. Origins of Psychoanalysis. Origins of Psychoanalysis (cont.) Today Origins of Chapter 2 Although popular for decades, is rarely practiced in its classical form today Much of Freud s initial theoretical framework has been modified, some has been discarded represents

More information

Cognitive Therapies. Albert Ellis and Rational-Emotive Therapy Aaron Beck and Cognitive Therapy Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

Cognitive Therapies. Albert Ellis and Rational-Emotive Therapy Aaron Beck and Cognitive Therapy Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Psyc 100 Ch 15C therapies 1 Cognitive Therapies Albert Ellis and Rational-Emotive Therapy Aaron Beck and Cognitive Therapy Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Psyc 100 Ch 15C therapies 2 Cognitive Therapies Unlike

More information

Drug-Addicted behaviors under Psychodynamic-Perspective

Drug-Addicted behaviors under Psychodynamic-Perspective Drug-Addicted behaviors under Psychodynamic-Perspective Mr.Phaitoon Sangpoom Office of the Royal Development Projects Board Introduction Understanding and studying about factors that influence a person

More information

Abnormal Psychology PSYCH 40111

Abnormal Psychology PSYCH 40111 Abnormal Psychology PSYCH 40111 Models of Psychopathology Scientific Paradigms Paradigms are conceptual frameworks that scientists use to study the world Paradigms include assumptions about science and

More information

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. effectiveness of, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. effectiveness of, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in, the effectiveness of, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Educational psychology

More information

Camden County Technical School Hudson County Career Academy Matawan Regional High School Sterling Regional High School Winslow Township High School

Camden County Technical School Hudson County Career Academy Matawan Regional High School Sterling Regional High School Winslow Township High School A SPOTLIGHT LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT & SERVICES PILOTS SUMMER CURRICULUM INSTITUTE AUGUST 6,2014 HUMAN SERVICES CAREER CLUSTER EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT & SERVICES PATHWAY

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Quiz. Name: Date:

Chapter 13 & 14 Quiz. Name: Date: Name: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Quiz 1. Regarding the difference between normal and abnormal behavior, which of the following statements is TRUE? A) Abnormal behavior is unusual, whereas normal behavior is

More information

Types of Therapists and Associated Therapies

Types of Therapists and Associated Therapies Types of Therapists and Associated Therapies Types Of Therapists Psychologists This is a profession that is granted to a person by law and degree and for their study on the behaviors of people and how

More information

430 CURRICULUM AND SYLLABUS for Classes XI & XII

430 CURRICULUM AND SYLLABUS for Classes XI & XII 430 CURRICULUM AND SYLLABUS for Classes XI & XII PSYCHOLOGY CLASS XI (THEORY) One Paper Time: 3 Hours 70 Marks 180 Periods Unit Unitwise Weightage Marks I What is Psychology? 6 I Methods of Enquiry in

More information

Erik Erikson (1950, 1963) does not talk about psychosexual Stages, he discusses psychosocial stages.

Erik Erikson (1950, 1963) does not talk about psychosexual Stages, he discusses psychosocial stages. Psychodynamic Psyche Psychosexual Stages Unconscious Mind Home Developmental Psychology Erik Erikson Erik Erikson by Saul McLeod published 2008, updated 2013 Erik Erikson (1950, 1963) does not talk about

More information

Identifying Family and Relationship Theories in Family Life Education Materials

Identifying Family and Relationship Theories in Family Life Education Materials Identifying Family and Relationship Theories in Family Life Education Materials Brief Descriptions of Major Family and Relationship Theories/Philosophies Note that there are many grand and smaller theories

More information

Socialization is the process whereby the helpless infant gradually becomes a self aware, knowledgeable person, skilled in the ways of the culture

Socialization is the process whereby the helpless infant gradually becomes a self aware, knowledgeable person, skilled in the ways of the culture Socialization is the process whereby the helpless infant gradually becomes a self aware, knowledgeable person, skilled in the ways of the culture into which he or she was born. Genie - the feral child

More information

PATIENTS LIKE TO BE DEEPLY UNDERSTOOD

PATIENTS LIKE TO BE DEEPLY UNDERSTOOD The Compass - Page 29-32 Summer/Fall 2009 Compass interview with Robert M. Gordon, Ph.D.* PATIENTS LIKE TO BE DEEPLY UNDERSTOOD Robert M. Gordon, Ph.D., is a psychologist and psychoanalyst in Allentown,

More information

AP Psychology: Syllabus 2

AP Psychology: Syllabus 2 AP Psychology: Syllabus 2 Scoring Components SC1 The course provides instruction in history and approaches. 5 SC2 The course provides instruction in research methods used in psychological science, practice

More information

A literature review of Erikson s Psychosocial Development theory.

A literature review of Erikson s Psychosocial Development theory. 1 A literature review of Erikson s Psychosocial Development theory. Student Name: Dannielle Brown Student No.: n5990769 Word Count: Unit: SWB102 Human Development and Behaviour Due Date: 26 th April 2012

More information

Grade: 11 th & 12 th grade, Psychology TEKS Guiding Questions Content Vocabulary Resources/Lesson Ideas

Grade: 11 th & 12 th grade, Psychology TEKS Guiding Questions Content Vocabulary Resources/Lesson Ideas Psychology 1 st six weeks Approaches to Psychology (2 weeks) 1a-c understands development of the field of psychology 2a-d differentiates the processes of theory development and validation Identify various

More information

Chapter 13. Theories of Personality

Chapter 13. Theories of Personality Chapter 13 Theories of Personality Personality Personality A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives & emotions. Character value judgments of a person s moral and ethical

More information

Restorative Parenting: A Group Facilitation Curriculum Activities Dave Mathews, Psy.D., LICSW

Restorative Parenting: A Group Facilitation Curriculum Activities Dave Mathews, Psy.D., LICSW Restorative Parenting: A Group Facilitation Curriculum Activities Dave Mathews, Psy.D., LICSW RP Activities 1. Framework of Resourcefulness 2. Identifying the Broken Contract Articles 3. The Process of

More information

Sigmund Freud ANALYSIS OF A PHOBIA IN A FIVE YEAR OLD BOY

Sigmund Freud ANALYSIS OF A PHOBIA IN A FIVE YEAR OLD BOY Sigmund Freud ANALYSIS OF A PHOBIA IN A FIVE YEAR OLD BOY BACK GROUND AND CONTEXT Sigmund Freud was a practising therapist who developed his theories from his own observations of his patients, and his

More information

APA National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula

APA National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula APA National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula http://www.apa.org/ed/natlstandards.html I. METHODS DOMAIN Standard Area IA: Introduction and Research Methods CONTENT STANDARD IA-1: Contemporary

More information