Unit 2: Creating a Nation. U. S. History from 1750 to 1796.

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1 Unit 2: Creating a Nation U. S. History from 1750 to 1796.

2 The French vs. English imperial competition for the Ohio river Valley resulted in series of wars that culminated in The French and Indian War The British won and most French were expelled from the territory. To pay off war debt, the British began taxing the colonists. The colonists believed they had done all of the fighting and now had to pay for the war in their taxes. People in the colonies began to resent British control. A. Britain issued The Proclamation of 1763 which forbid settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains. This further angered the colonists who believed they had a right to settle anywhere they wanted. The ground work is now laid down for The American Revolution.

3 Now the British start to enforce the Stamp Act, a tax on paper products, and The Intolerable Acts, which closed the port of Boston, called for the trial of royal officials in England, and forced colonists to house troops. The province of Quebec was extended to the Ohio River taking lands from settlers already there. A. These acts caused the formation of The Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence. The first were made up of lawyers, artisans, politicians, and merchants and they came together to protest the Stamp Act. B. The Committees of Correspondence were given the job of informing colonists and the rest of the world about what King George III was doing.

4 In 1776 Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense. This work was extremely influential in persuading colonist to break away from England and become independent. Paine argued that it was against common sense for such a small island to rule as large an area as the 13 colonies. This influenced Thomas Jefferson.

5 The American Revolution The Declaration of Independence was primarily written by Thomas Jefferson and it was published July 4 th, A. The language of the Declaration was designed to present the grievances against George III by the colonists. Jefferson wanted it published to make clear to the rest of the world why the colonies should be independent. B. The Declaration was based in part on the writings of John Locke and Baron Montesquieu. Locke argued against rule by divine right, that power rests with the people, and all men have certain rights guaranteed by God. C. Montesquieu wrote that the best form of government was a republic (representative government ).

6 After the revolution had started, the Americans asked for help from France. France and England had been enemies for hundreds of years. Benjamin Franklin, the colonies greatest diplomat, went to France to negotiate a treaty of assistance. A. The Marquis de Lafayette helped Franklin with the negotiations and later he served in the war. C. France sent money, troops, and ships to fight in the war. Without France s help we might not have achieved our independence.

7 George Washington was the most experienced military person in the colonies. He had fought bravely in the French and Indian War, and he was chosen to lead the new colonial army. A. With the help of Baron von Steuben and Marquis de Lafayette, General Washington created a professional military organization. By the end of the war, soldiers were well trained and equipped. B. The common solder lived a hard life. For the first several years of the war he was poorly fed or supplied. The army was based at Valley Forge Pa. (2500 men died during the winter there, and the following summer, after the battle of Saratoga, the French joined the war on the side of the Americans) and it was in danger of disintegration. Washington planned and executed a brilliant attack across the Delaware river. This attack destroyed a Hessian (German) regiment of 1200 men. This attack boosted morale.

8 The final decisive battle of The Revolutionary War was the battle of Yorktown (Virginia). A. The British were commanded by the finest British General of the time, Lord Cornwallis. Lafayette reported that the British could be trapped if Washington would take his army to Yorktown and surround the British. This was the second whole British army defeated in the war and this defeat convinced the British government to ask for peace. B. The Treaty of Paris 1783 was signed and the war was over. In this treaty the British recognized the existence of The United States, established the Mississippi River as the western boundary of the U.S., and gave America fishing rights off the coast of Canada.

9 The Adoption and Implementation of The United States Constitution. A. The Articles of Confederation was the first U.S. constitution. These articles were adopted by Congress in 1777 and finally ratified in B. The Good: 1) it helped win the war, 2) it passed the Land Ordinance of 1785 which put public land up for sale and 3) The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was important to westward expansion. It provided rules for the settlement of new areas. First it prohibited slavery in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois etc. The second part required land be set aside for public education. The third part provided for how new states would be added to the U.S.. C. The Bad: Congress could not tax or regulate trade and therefore could not raise money. Europe did not respect America because she could not pay her debts. This weakness caused Daniel Shay s Rebellion. Western farmers such as Shay and his followers could not afford to pay their taxes and mortgages and were losing their farms. They protested and rebelled against the national government

10 Shay s Rebellion was stopped but the whole event caused serious concern about the weaknesses of The Articles of Confederation. Washington and others called for a meeting of delegates to modify the Articles. Soon after the meeting started many delegates began to believe that a whole new constitution was needed.

11 Two groups emerged during the debates. A. The Anti-Federalists believed in a weaker central government and a Bill of Rights (to protect individual rights). B. The Federalists stated that a strong central government was necessary for survival. They pointed to The Articles of Confederation and how a weak government proved ineffective. C. In the debate problems arose over representation, slavery, trade, and executive powers.

12 The problem of representation was solved by The Great Compromise. This called for a two house (bi-cameral) Congress. In the Senate, each state has two Senators (equal representation). In the House representation is based on population. The slavery question was solved by The Three Fifths Compromise. Every 5 slaves counted as 3 free people for representation purposes. The Constitution allowed for the import of slaves for 20 more years, and then it would be banned in The power of the Executive was limited to a 4 year term. The President was given the power to veto acts of Congress. He is elected by The Electoral College.

13 Alexander Hamilton and James Madison were Federalists and along with John Jay and they helped write The Federalist Papers. These essays convinced many to vote for the new constitution. The constitution provided for checks and balances, separation of powers, and equal representation. Any powers not given to the federal government or to the state governments is reserved for the people. Our Constitution states that all power rests with the people.

14 Right after the Constitution was ratified Congress passed into law The Bill of Rights. These first ten amendments to the Constitution guaranteed certain rights for American citizens. George Washington became our first President by a unanimous decision. In his first term Washington kept us out of war in Europe, and he dealt with The Whiskey Rebellion. In this rebellion farmers refused to pay taxes on whiskey, which had become both a way of earning money and a trading object. Washington sent 15,000 men to crush the rebellion, but the rebels dispersed without a fight.

15 After Washington served his second term, John Adams was elected President. A. Political parties had begun to form at this time. The first was the Federalist Party. They believed in strong government and they mostly lived in the northeast. B. The other was the Democratic- Republicans who favored a weaker federal government and they lived mostly in the south and west. C. During Adam s presidency The XYZ Affair (French agents, X,Y, and Z offered bribes and demanded loans) almost caused a war with France. Congress also passed The Alien and Sedition Acts (immigration/incitement) which tried to limit the freedom of citizens.

16 Thomas Jefferson was elected President in 1800 and again in A. He was responsible for the Louisiana Purchase. Jefferson played the English and French against each other and for 15 million dollars he doubled the size of America. B. Jefferson came up with the idea for The Lewis and Clark Expedition (The Corps of Discovery). These men explored the new territory mapping and making scientific observations. They made it to the Pacific Ocean and back home between An Indian woman named Sacajawea helped them. C. Jefferson, in order to avoid war with England had Congress pass The Embargo Act of 1807 (Stopped trade between US and Europe hurt U.S. more than Europe and was repealed March 1809). It was an economic disaster, especially for shipbuilders and merchants.

17 The effects of the War of 1812: 1. The U.S. gained international respect for defeating Britain in two wars. 2. The Federalist Party, because it had opposed the war, disappeared from the political scene. 3. Because European goods were unavailable, American factories were built and we joined The Industrial Revolution. 4. The war created a feeling of nationalism and a belief that America s future was in the west not Europe. 5. The Star Spangled Banner was written by Francis Scott Key during the attack on Fort McHenry

18 The War of 1812 had several causes. A. The British and French were at war and they both violated the free trade rights of the U.S. The British also took American sailors off their ships and made them serve in the British Navy (impressment). B. Tension along America s western border with Britain, Spain, and the Native Americans was the second reason for the War of C. A group of men in Congress called the War Hawks demanded war in order save our honor and destroy the Native American threat to settlers. Their opponents were the Doves, who favored peace.

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