Cellular Respiration

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1 ellular Respiration

2 ellular Respiration A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from macromolecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O). 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 glucose 6O2 + 6H 2 O + energy ATP

3 Question: In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place?

4 Plants and Animals Plants - Autotrophs: self-producers. Animals - Heterotrophs: consumers.

5 Mitochondria Organelle where cellular respiration takes place. Outer membrane Inner membrane Inner membrane space Matrix ristae

6 Redox Reaction Transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another. Two types: 1. Oxidation 2. Reduction

7 Oxidation Reaction The loss of electrons from a substance. Or the gain of oxygen. Oxidation 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 glucose 6O 2 + 6H 2 O + energy ATP

8 Reduction Reaction The gain of electrons to a substance. Or the loss of oxygen. Reduction 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 glucose 6O 2 + 6H 2 O + energy ATP

9 Breakdown of ellular Respiration Four main parts (reactions). 1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar) a. cytosol, just outside of mitochondria. 2. Grooming Phase 2. Grooming Phase a. migration from cytosol to matrix.

10 Breakdown of ellular Respiration 3. Krebs ycle (itric Acid ycle) a. mitochondrial matrix 4. Electron Transport hain (ET) and Oxidative Phosphorylation a. Also called hemiosmosis b. inner mitochondrial membrane.

11 1. Glycolysis Occurs in the cytosol just outside of mitochondria. Two phases (10 steps): A. Energy investment phase a. Preparatory phase (first 5 steps). B. Energy yielding phase a. Energy payoff phase (second 5 steps).

12 1. Glycolysis A. Energy Investment Phase: 2ATP 2ADP + P Glucose (6) 2 ATP - used 0 ATP - produced 0 NADH - produced Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2-3) (G3P or GAP) -- --

13 1. Glycolysis B. Energy Yielding Phase Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2-3) (G3P or GAP) 4ADP + P 4ATP Pyruvate (2-3) (PYR) 0 ATP - used 4 ATP - produced 2 NADH - produced GAP GAP (PYR) (PYR)

14 1. Glycolysis Total Net Yield 2-3-Pyruvate (PYR) 2 - ATP (Substrate-level Phosphorylation) 2 - NADH

15 Substrate-Level Phosphorylation ATP is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP. Enzyme Example: PEP to PYR Substrate (PEP) Product (Pyruvate) O - =O -O- H 2 P P P Adenosine ADP O - =O =O H 2 P P P ATP Adenosine

16 Fermentation Occurs in cytosol when NO Oxygen is present (called anaerobic). Remember: glycolysis is part of fermentation. Two Types: 1. Alcohol Fermentation 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation

17 Alcohol Fermentation Plants and Fungi beer and wine glucose 2ADP + 2 P Glycolysis 2 NAD + 2ATP 2NADH 2 Pyruvic acid 2NADH 2 NAD + 2O 2 Ethanol 2 released

18 Alcohol Fermentation End Products: Alcohol fermentation 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 - O Ethanol s Duff Beer

19 Lactic Acid Fermentation Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). Glucose 2ADP + 2 P Glycolysis 2 NAD + 2ATP 2NADH 2 Pyruvic acid 2NADH 2 NAD + 2 Lactic acid

20 Lactic Acid Fermentation End Products: Lactic acid fermentation 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 - Lactic Acids

21 2. Grooming Phase Occurs when Oxygen is present (aerobic). 2 Pyruvate (3) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane to the matrix and is converted to 2 Acetyl oa (2) molecules. ytosol 2 Pyruvate 2 NAD + 2 O 2 2NADH Matrix - 2 Acetyl oa

22 2. Grooming Phase End Products: grooming phase 2 - NADH 2 - O 2 2- Acetyl oa (2)

23 3. Krebs ycle (itric Acid ycle) Location: mitochondrial matrix. Acetyl oa (2) bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4 - OAA) to make itrate (6). It takes 2 turns of the krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule. Mitochondrial Matrix

24 3. Krebs ycle (itric Acid ycle) 1 Acetyl oa (2) OAA (4) itrate (6) FADH 2 Krebs ycle (one turn) 2 O 2 3 NAD + FAD ATP ADP + P 3 NADH

25 3. Krebs ycle (itric Acid ycle) 2 Acetyl oa (2) OAA (4) itrate (6) 2 FADH 2 Krebs ycle (two turns) 4 O 2 6 NAD + 2 FAD 6 NADH 2 ATP 2 ADP + P

26 3. Krebs ycle (itric Acid ycle) Total net yield (22 turns of krebs cycle) ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) NADH FADH O 2

27 4. Electron Transport hain (ET) and Oxidative Phosphorylation (hemiosmosis( hemiosmosis) Location: inner mitochondrial membrane. Uses ET (cytochrome proteins) and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP. ET pumps H + (protons) across innermembrane (lowers ph in innermembrane space). Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

28 4. Electron Transport hain (ET) and Oxidative Phosphorylation (hemiosmosis( hemiosmosis) The H+ then move via diffusion (Proton Motive Force) through ATP Synthase to make ATP. All NADH and FADH 2 converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration. Each NADH converts to 3 ATP. Each FADH 2 converts to 2 ATP (enters the ET at a lower level than NADH).

29 4. Electron Transport hain (ET) and Oxidative Phosphorylation (hemiosmosis( hemiosmosis) Outer membrane Inner membrane Inner membrane space Matrix ristae

30 4. ET and Oxidative Phosphorylation (hemiosmosis for NADH) Intermembrane Space 1H + 2H + 3H + higher H + concentration H + ATP Synthase E T Inner Mitochondrial Membrane NADH + H + NAD+ 2H + + 1/2O 2 H 2 O ADP + P H + ATP Matrix (Proton Pumping) lower H + concentration

31 4. ET and Oxidative Phosphorylation (hemiosmosis for FADH 2 ) Intermembrane Space 1H + 2H + higher H + concentration H + ATP Synthase E T Inner Mitochondrial Membrane FADH 2 + H + (Proton Pumping) Matrix FAD+ 2H + + H 1/2O 2 O 2 ADP + P H + ATP lower H + concentration

32 TOTAL ATP YIELD ATP - substrate-level phosphorylation ATP - ET & oxidative phosphorylation 38 ATP - TOTAL YIELD ATP

33 Eukaryotes (Have Membranes) Total ATP Yield 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) 04 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle 36 ATP - TOTAL

34 Maximum ATP Yield for ellular Respiration (Eukaryotes) Glucose ytosol Glycolysis 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 Pyruvate 2NADH 2 Acetyl oa 2NADH 6NADH Krebs ycle ET and Oxidative Phosphorylation Mitochondria 2FADH 2 2ATP 4ATP 6ATP 18ATP 4ATP 2ATP 36 ATP (maximum per glucose) 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)

35 Prokaryotes (Lack Membranes) Total ATP Yield 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle 38 ATP - TOTAL

36 Question: In addition to glucose, what other various food molecules are use in ellular Respiration?

37 atabolism of Various Food Molecules Other organic molecules used for fuel. 1. arbohydrates: polysaccharides 2. Fats: glycerol s and fatty acids 3. Proteins: amino acids

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