Science Writing Heuristics

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1 Student/Lab Group: Think It Through Questions Part III 1. What happens in a volcanic eruption? 2. What forces are involved in making a volcano erupt? 3. Why do volcanic eruptions affect us? 4. Why do some volcanoes explode, others erupt slowly? 5. Explain how magma and lava are different and alike? Science Writing Heuristics 138

2 Part III Before You Begin A good detective is always on the lookout for clues. You need information about volcanoes to be a good detective. How are these related to the Earth s Plates? Safety Alert: None Materials (* means you must supply the item) Making and Breaking Plates Part III Internet or reference books* pen/pencil* Directions 1. Don t forget about your Science Journal. Where can we get information about volcanoes and their explosions? That s where the Internet comes in. 2. Find, locate and mark the major volcanoes and/or volcanic eruptions which have happened on the Making and Breaking Plates Part III map. 3. Write the dates of the eruption beside the mark. Notice how many of these eruptions occur on or near plate boundaries. The Science You Just Used If melted rock is above ground, it s called Lava, underground the same rock is Magma. Volcanic Eruptions happens when conditions create Pressure or Forces which move magma and hot Gasses from the earth. This can create Ash, or pulverized rock. It also releases gasses such as steam and possibly some other Toxic gasses. Eruptions can be rather quiet to very explosive. Eruptions are ranked from 0-8 on a scale called the VEI or Volcanic Explosivity Index. Hawaiian volcanoes are pretty quiet eruptions, others have been very destructive, like Mt. St. Helens in Volcanic gasses like toxic hydrogen sulfide are associated with explosive eruptions. Volcanism is generally a Constructive Process linking the Earth s Internal Heat Engine to the Earth s surface. A dormant volcano is not erupting, so now Erosion, a Destructive Process, begins to wear away the surface. This destructive process is caused by Earth s External Heat Engine, powered by the Sun. Gravity pulls things downhill, like when soil is eroded from the volcano. How are volcanoes related to Earth s Tectonic Plates? Discuss this among your lab group members. Questions to Get You Started 1. In your opinion where is Earth s next big eruption? 2. Why do you think this? Explain your answer well. 139

3 Making and Breaking Plates Parts III, IV and V 140

4 1. people build cities near volcanoes? Rich soil for agriculture, scenic location, etc. 2. history has been affected by volcanoes? They killed a lot of people, did huge property damage, etc. 3. volcanoes are deadly, even away from the eruption? Pyroclastic flows of hot gases, floods, earthquakes, etc. 4. earthquakes are happening near a volcanic eruption? The forces which cause them are related and usually close together. 5. there are a lot of different volcanoes? The magma has different amounts of gas in them, blockages, etc. 1. How have volcanoes affected our atmosphere? A lot of the gases in it came from volcanoes. 2. How can volcanoes affect climate? Causing long term shading, gases, etc. are just some examples. 3. Can we predict volcanoes? We have gathered a lot of clues, but not yet. 4. How do volcanoes improve the soil? Their magma or ash can be rich in nutrients. 5. How are plate movements, volcanoes, and earthquakes related? The tectonic forces which cause these are related and similar. 141

5 Name Part III Student Assessment Let s See What We ve Learned! 1. Which of these is/are molten rock above ground? 2. Which of these is/are considered a destructive process? 3. Which of these is/are NOT produced by Earth s internal heat engine? 4. Which of these powers Earth s external heat engine? 5. Which of these would you see from a quiet volcanic eruption? 6. Which of these would be steam released from a volcano? 7. Which of these is the process which wears down a dormant volcano? 8. Which of these is a very small particle thrown from a volcano? 9. Which of these is molten rock below the ground? 10. Which of these cause explosive eruptions? Optional; Read and write about a famous eruption in history and its effects. 142

6 Name Part III Student Assessment Let s See What We ve Learned! 1. Which of these is/are molten rock above ground? 2. Which of these is/are considered a destructive process? 3. Which of these is/are NOT produced by Earth s internal heat engine? 4. Which of these powers Earth s external heat engine? 5. Which of these would you see from a quiet volcanic eruption? 6. Which of these would be steam released from a volcano? 7. Which of these is the process which wears down a dormant volcano? 8. Which of these is a very small particle thrown from a volcano? 9. Which of these is molten rock below the ground? 10. Which of these cause explosive eruptions? Optional; Read and write about a famous eruption in history and its effects. student research 143

7 Student/Lab Group: Think It Through Questions Part IV 1. Why should we be very concerned about earthquakes? 2. What is an earthquake and what makes them happen? 3. What is a tsunami and what makes them happen? 4. Describe different seismic waves. 5. How does an earthquake convert potential to kinetic energy? Science Writing Heuristics 144

8 Part IV Before You Begin A good detective looks for clues. So, you re going to look for clues to explain the causes of earthquakes. Keep in mind what you have learned in Parts I, II, and III. Safety Alert: None Materials (* means you must supply the item) Making and Breaking Plates Part IV Internet or reference books* pen/pencil* Directions 1. You will need a good source of clues to solve what causes earthquakes. 2. That s where the Internet or reference books come in. Use them. 3. Map major earthquakes which have happened on the Making and Breaking Plates Part IV map. Be neat and make small marks. Don t forget about your Science Journal. The Science You Just Used An Earthquake is the ground shaking or trembling. These happen when there is a sudden Energy release from rocks beneath the Earth s surface. Earth s plates are moving. This is Kinetic Energy. When the rock layers catch against each other and lock, this energy is stored now as Potential Energy in the rock layers. When these layers break or break free, an earthquake results. This broken rock area is called an Earthquake Fault. When these rock layers break, the energy is released. The released energy creates Seismic Waves. These waves cause the shaking and trembling which results in huge loss of life and property damage. Questions to Get You Started 1. Where do you think the next big earthquake will strike? 2. Why do you think this? Explain your answer well. 145

9 1. earthquakes happen near volcanoes? Volcanoes/earthquake are near plate boundaries, large amounts of stress, etc. 2. we can t predict earthquakes yet? We don t know enough yet, no pattern yet found, etc. 3. earthquakes don t destroy all buildings, just some? Better construction, more stable substrate, the soil around the building, etc. 4. earthquake damage is usually greater near the epicenter? Greater energy. 5. damage from earthquakes can happen at a long distance? The energy travels in waves from where the earthquake happens. 1. Why can t we predict earthquakes? Extremely large areas, we lack knowledge, no good predictors found yet, etc. 2. Why are earthquakes often found near tectonic plate boundaries? Huge amounts of stress from plates moving. 3. How deep can earthquakes happen? Earthquakes can happen miles underground. 4. What are fault lines? Breaks in the crust where earthquakes have happened before. 5. Why don t earthquakes occur very often in the middle of tectonic plates? Very little stress here, more on the edges. 146

10 Name Part IV Student Assessment Let s See What We ve Learned! 1-2. Where are two examples of kinetic energy in the Earth s crust? A) B) 3-5. What is an earthquake fault? Tell what causes it and what a fault can do What is the source of potential energy which is released during an earthquake? What are seismic waves? How are they produced? Optional; Read write about a famous earthquake fault. 147

11 Name Part IV Student Assessment Let s See What We ve Learned! 1-2. Where are two examples of kinetic energy in the Earth s crust? plates moving, earthquakes, etc. A) B) 3-5. What is an earthquake fault? Tell what causes it and what a fault can do. where rock layers break due to plate movement, it can cause an earthquake 6-7. What is the source of potential energy which is released during an earthquake? the plates locked against each other and the plates still keep moving, etc What are seismic waves? How are they produced? energy waves released from the breaking of rock layers, etc. Optional; Read write about a famous earthquake fault. student research 148

12 Student/Lab Group: Think It Through Questions Part V 1. How does plate tectonics cause mountain building? 2. Why are ocean trenches found near mountain ranges? 3. What happens to mountains when they stop growing? 4. Who was Alfred Wegener? What science is he known for? 5. How can plate tectonics produce igneous rocks? Science Writing Heuristics 149

13 Part V Before You Begin What makes mountains? What do Earth s plates have to do with volcanoes, mountains, and earthquakes? You have been doing Parts I, II, III, IV and V to find out. Safety Alert: None Materials (* means you must supply the item) Making and Breaking Plates Part V Internet or reference book access* colored pencils Directions 1. On the Internet or from reference books, find the major mountain ranges of Earth. Neatly put them on your Part V map and label them. Write and draw small. 2. On the Internet or from reference books, find the major deep ocean trenches of Earth. Neatly put them on your map and label them. Use a different color for these trenches than you used for mountains. Write and draw small. Don t forget about your Science Journal. 3. On the Internet or from reference books, find out what direction the plates are moving. Use a very fine tipped pen to make arrows on your map showing the plate direction. 4. Compare the maps you made in Parts II, III, IV, and V. The Science You Just Used The interaction between plates causes Volcanoes, Mountain Building, and forms the deep Ocean Trenches. You noticed many of these happened near plate boundaries. The Heat from the core is carried by Convection Currents through the mantle. This is the Energy to move the plates. Mountains can form when one plate is pushed up as another goes down. This downward plate eventually melts. Some of this molten rock called Magma moves upward and a volcano results, erupting this molten rock, now called Lava. As the diving plate heads down, it causes the ocean floor to move down, creating the deep ocean trenches. All of this action is called a Subduction Zone. You can see the relationship between plates, volcanoes, earthquakes, deep ocean trenches, and mountain building on the four Making and Breaking Plate sheets your lab group did. Questions to Get You Started 1. What energy source will move these giant Earth plates? 2. Why can you only find ocean trenches near plate boundaries? 150

14 1. mountains don t just keep growing? Plates stop coming together, erosion wears them down, etc. 2. mountains are worn away or eroded? The external heat engine, or weathering from physical or chemical erosion. 3. mountains form long chains? Long plate boundaries interacting with each other form the long chains. 4. mountains are usually near plate boundaries? Plates pushing up due to their colliding or convergence. 5. mountains can form underwater in the oceans? From volcanoes or sea floor spreading, plates pushing up. 1. How are both regular and volcanic mountains alike? They are both formed by Earth's internal forces. 2. How are both regular and volcanic mountains different? Volcanoes can be created and destroyed quickly. 3. Why can you find sea-life fossils high in the mountains? Fossils formed on a sea bed have been lifted up by tectonics. 4. What makes tectonic plates spread apart deep undersea? Sea floor spreading. 5. How can the Earth s tectonic plates be recycled? As one plate is pushed down and melted, other lava is coming up somewhere else. 151

15 Name Part V Student Assessment Let s See What We ve Learned! 1-2. What supplies the energy to move plates? 3-4. Tell how plates interacting can create mountains Tell how plates interacting can create ocean trenches Tell how plates interacting can create volcanoes What is the difference between magma and lava? Optional; Tell how the Earth s internal convection currents are formed. 152

16 Name Part V Student Assessment Let s See What We ve Learned! 1-2. What supplies the energy to move plates? heat energy creating convection currents, etc Tell how plates interacting can create mountains. one plate is shoved upwards, etc Tell how plates interacting can create ocean trenches. one plate is shoved downwards, etc Tell how plates interacting can create volcanoes. a plate pushed down melts, magma rises, etc What is the difference between magma and lava? both are molten rock, magma is inside the Earth, lava is outside, some chemical differences also, etc. Optional; Tell how the Earth s internal convection currents are formed. heat from the core causes semi-molten mantle to rise, as the mantle is cooled near the crust, it falls, etc. 153

17 Science The discovery of Earth s plates changed what we understood about Earth movements. Science, through the analysis of earthquake waves passing through the planet, figured out the density, depth, and makeup of the Earth layers under our feet. Alfred Wegener s thoughts about the plate tectonic theory were later proven by science. Earthquake waves discovery and measurements by science has led to much understanding of Earth s structure and earthquakes as well. Technology Once science has discovered the facts about earth processes like mountains, erosion, volcanoes and earthquakes, technology takes over. New instruments have been developed to help take the mathematical measurements science needs. Older instruments like the seismograph have been greatly improved. The computer has changed everything about monitoring the Earth. Even satellites get into the action as they take measurements and observations of the Earth s surface. Engineering Engineers are using the information gained by science to develop structures like bridges and buildings which will withstand much of an earthquake s energy. They re developing earthquake resistant structures. Perhaps earthquake proof structures are possible, but the cost would prove to be prohibitive. New materials and construction techniques have come from the work of engineers. Mathematics The speed of earthquake waves is measured using math. This speed is determined by what density of materials they pass through. When they change speed, they are refracted or bent. All of this involves mathematics. Math allows science to measure, calculate, and even predict what can happen during earth changes. Volcanoes and their actions are measured using math, allowing understanding and prediction of some behaviors in some cases. 154

18 So, How Does This Science Affect Me? 1. How does a nearby mountain range affect my weather? 2. How could a volcano eruption on another continent affect me? 3. An earthquake in Japan could affect me. How, I am not hurt? 4. How do mountain ranges cause a desert to be formed? 5. How can an earthquake cause a tsunami? 6. How could an African earthquake cause a tsunami off the Eastern US? 7. Why is it so expensive to make buildings earthquake resistant? 8. How are my insurance costs related to earthquake damages? 9. How can volcanoes affect life on Earth? 10. How can a big volcanic ash eruption affect me? 11. How can earthquakes affect our country s economy? 12. How could earthquakes keep a country poor and underdeveloped? 13. How can I protect myself from earthquake danger? 155

19 Getting a Job into Focus Everyone who knows about earthquakes and tsunamis caused by earthquakes is afraid of them. Who are the people finding out more about these powerful releases of energy for us? They are called seismologists. Their job is to keep track of rapid Earth movements called earthquakes. Earthquakes are caused by a rock layer breaking due to the tremendous forces caused by moving heat deep underground. These forces build up until the rock layer breaks. When this happens powerful waves are produced. Earthquake waves are of two types; body waves which move through the Earth s interior, and surface waves, the ones which do all the damage we read about. It was heat energy which moved the plates from deep inside Earth. There was a lot of potential energy stored in these rocks until they broke. When they break, there is a big release of kinetic energy as earthquake waves. This kinetic energy is the cause of all the destruction by tsunamis and earthquakes. To be a seismologist you will have to know a great deal about a device called a seismograph. This is a sensitive instrument which detects both small and large Earth movements when energy is released by an earthquake or other Earth movement. The drawing the seismograph makes is called a seismogram. This is the data a seismologist is interested in reading and understanding. These seismograms also tell us about the Earth s layers as they travel through them. It would be great to be able to predict when and where an earthquake or a volcano is going to happen. Seismologists have come a long ways toward predicting where and when these killers are going to strike. But perhaps it will be one of you who will discover the scientific information needed to make these important predictions. Seismologists work in the science lab, but they must also spend a lot of time outdoors collecting other Earth movement information. 156

20 Alfred Wegener Alfred Wegener was a German meteorologist, a weather specialist and a geophysicist. A geophysicist is a scientist who tries to explain the forces of Earth and how these cause Earth movements. He lived from 1880 to 1930 and during this time he proposed the theory of continental drift. He saw the similarities of continental shapes, he looked at them like they were a giant jigsaw puzzle and tried to explain them. He needed proof. The energy needed to move continents is huge, where did it come from? He found that rock types and structures on both sides of the Atlantic were very similar. He also analyzed their various geological structures and found they were alike. But his final proof was the fossil record of both areas. They both contained the same extinct life forms, but these fossils were now separated by long distances. From this and other largely circumstantial evidence, he formulated his continental drift theory in In his theory he first thought of the idea of sea-floor spreading. We now widely accept this concept today. But he could not explain the energy needed to make the continents move. He tried to use centrifugal force from Earth s spinning and even Earth s wobbling on its axis, its precession. Neither has enough force to move such huge masses. Most of the scientific world thought he was crazy. Few believed his work. In the 1950 s new technology and information backed up much of what he had proposed. Today continental drift is well accepted by the scientific world. But he died in 1930 on a meteorology expedition to Greenland. Today we more correctly call continental drift a more descriptive term, plate tectonics. Wegener didn t understand the facts we know today about the Earth s crust being broken into plates driven by convection currents from deep inside. These convection currents carry heat energy from the Earth s core to move the continental plates. 157

21 Calculating Science A. A continental plate moves at 23 mm per year. How far would this plate move in a decade? How long would it move in a century? Answer B. Two continental plates are separated by 1250 km. If they are separating at the rate in the top problem, how long did it take to move them this far apart? Answer C. A meter is inches. A tsunami was recorded to be 25.5 m in height. How many feet was this? Answer D. Measure a small distance. Time how slowly you can move a pencil point across this distance. Calculate the speed you moved. Compare the speed in a ratio to a continent moving at 20 mm per year. Answer Remember to ALWAYS show your work when you re calculating. 158

22 Answer Page Making and Breaking Plates Part I 1-3. breaking of surface tension 4-6. attraction of positive and negative ends 7. drift earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, trenches, etc. Optional; student research Questions to Get You Started; 1. (answers will vary, but it s unlikely the pieces will look anything like the present world map, but who knows?) Making and Breaking Plates Part II 1. North American 2. Pacific 3-4. plates are separating 5-6. plates are coming together 7-8. plates are sliding by each other movement of plates past each other, breaking of rock layers, etc. Optional; student research Questions to Get You Started; 1. (earthquakes) 2. (mountains or possibly earthquakes) Making and Breaking Plates Part III 1. A 2. E 3. E & F 4. F 5. A 6. C 7. E 8. D 9. B 10. C Optional student research Questions to Get You Started; 1. (student research) 2. (student explanation) Making and Breaking Plates Part IV 1-2. plates moving, earthquakes, etc where rock layers break due to plate movement, it can cause an earthquake 6-7. the plates locked against each other and the plates still keep moving, etc energy waves released from the breaking of rock layers, etc. Optional; student research Questions to Get You Started; 1. (near a plate boundary) 2. (plate movement, faults, etc.) Making and Breaking Plates Part V 1-2. heat energy creating convection currents, etc one plate is shoved upwards, etc one plate is shoved downwards, etc a plate pushed down melts, magma rises, etc both are molten rock, magma is inside the Earth, lava is outside, some chemical differences also, etc. Optional; heat from the core causes semi-molten mantle to rise, as the mantle is cooled near the crust, it falls, etc. Questions to Get You Started; 1. (heat from the Earth s core, etc.) 2. (one plate is pushed up, the other is pushed downwards, etc.) So, How Does This Science Affect Me? 1. It can block air flow, cause rain to fall on one side, etc. 2. Ash can fall on you, affect weather, affect climate, etc. 3. Loss of life, affect important industries, they can t buy our things, etc. 4. As moisture hits the mountains, moist air rises and falls on only one side of the mountain. 5. It can move water, a landslide falling into the ocean, etc. 6. It could cause a landslide into the ocean, the wave hits the US. 7. You have to use so many expensive items, build them very strong, etc. 8. The greater the damages, the more companies have to pay. This affects everyone s premiums. 9. Block light, affect weather, affect climate, cause pollution, poison gases, etc. 10. Affect food production, cause extinctions, affect atmosphere, affect weather, etc. 11. Loss of life, disrupt production, property damage, pay for damage, more taxes to fix roads, etc. 12. Nobody wants to build factories there, no money means no education, etc. 13. Be prepared with supplies, react to first warnings, have a safe place to hide in house, etc. 159

23 Calculating Science A) 10 years x 23 mm = 230 mm = 2.3 cm year Answer Page 100 years x 23 mm = 2300 mm = 230 cm year B) 1250 km = 1,250,000 m = 1,250,000,000 mm 1,250,000,000 x 1 year = 54,347, years 23 mm C) 25.5 meter x inches x 1 foot = 83.7 feet 1 meter 12 inches D) Example: 20 mm = 2 mm 10 minutes minute 2 mm x 60 minutes x 24 hours x 365 days = 1,051,200 mm minute hour day year year 23 mm compared to 1,051,200 mm Your slow movement was 45,704 times faster. Year year 160

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