Concentration Units The concentration of a dissolved salt in water refers to the amount of salt (solute) that is dissolved in water (solvent).

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Concentration Units The concentration of a dissolved salt in water refers to the amount of salt (solute) that is dissolved in water (solvent)."

Transcription

1 Concentration Units The concentration of a dissolved salt in water refers to the amount of salt (solute) that is dissolved in water (solvent). Chemists use the term solute to describe the substance of interest and the term solvent to describe the material in which the solute is dissolved. For example, in a can of soda pop (a solution of sugar in carbonated water), there are approximately twelve tablespoons of sugar (the solute) dissolved in the carbonated water (the solvent). In general, the component that is present in the greatest amount is termed the solvent. a mixture consisting of a solute and a solvent Solute: component of a solution present in the lesser amount Solvent: component of a solution present in the greater amount Concentration: amount of a solute present in a solution per amount of solvent There are many ways to express concentrations. Concentration may be expressed several different ways, using percent composition by mass, volume percent, mole fraction, molarity, molality, or normality. Some of the more common concentration units are: 1. Percent Composition by Mass (%) This is the mass of the solute divided by the mass of the solution (mass of solute plus mass of solvent), multiplied by 100. It is also called weight percent or percent by weight, this is simply the mass of the solute divided by the total mass of the solution and multiplied by 100%: The mass of the solution is equal to the mass of the solute plus the mass of the solvent. For example, a solution consisting of 30 grams of sodium chloride and 70 grams of water would be 30% sodium chloride by mass: [(30 g NaCl)/(30 g NaCl + 70 g water)] * 100% = 30%. To avoid confusion whether a solution is percent by weight or percent by volume, the symbol "w/w" (for weight to weight) is often used after the concentration such as "10% potassium iodide solution in water (w/w)". Example: Determine the percent composition by mass of a 100 g salt solution which contains 20 g salt. 20 g NaCl / 100 g solution x 100 = 20% NaCl solution. 2. Weight/Weight Percent (w/w%) This unit of concentration is often used for concentrated solutions, typically acids and bases. If you were to look on a bottle of a concentrated acid or base solution the concentration expressed as a weigh/weight percent. A weight/weight percent is defined as: Mass/mass concentrations are commonly expressed as parts per million, part per billion or parts per trillion. For example 1 mg of a solute placed in 1 kg of solvent 1

2 equals 1 ppmm. Part per million by mass (referred to a ppmm) is define as the number of units of mass of a chemical per million units of total mass. Mass/mass concentrations can also be reported with the units explicitly show (e.g mg/kg, µg/ kg). In soil and sediments, 1 ppmm equals 1 mg of pollutant per kg of solid (mg/kg) and 1 ppbm equals 1 µg/ kg. Percent by mass is analogously equals to the number of g pollutant per 100 g total. 3. Volume Percent (% v/v) Volume percent or volume/volume percent most often is used when preparing solutions of liquids. It is also called volume percent or percent by volume, this is typically only used for mixtures of liquids. Percent by volume is simply the volume of the solute divided by the sum of the volumes of the other components multiplied by 100%: Note that volume percent is relative to volume of solution, not volume of solvent. If we mix 30 ml of ethanol and 70 ml of water, the percent ethanol by volume will be 30% BUT the total volume of the solution will NOT be 100 ml (although it will be close). That's because ethanol and water molecules interact differently with each other than they do with themselves. To avoid confusion whether we have a percent by weight or percent by volume solution, we could label this as "50% ethanol in water (v/v)" where v/v stands for "volume to volume". The advantage of volume/volume units is that gaseous concentrations reported in these units do not change as a gas is compressed or expanded. Atmospheric concentrations expressed as mass/volume (e.g µg/m 3 ) decrease as the gas expanded, since the pollutant mass remain constant but the volume increases. For example, 70% v/v rubbing alcohol may be prepared by taking 700 ml of isopropyl alcohol and adding sufficient water to obtain 1000 ml of solution (which will not be 300 ml). 4. Mole Fraction (X) This is the number of moles of a compound divided by the total number of moles of all chemical species in the solution. Keep in mind, the sum of all mole fractions in a solution always equals 1. A fraction is defined as a part over a whole. Multiplying this fraction by 100 would give the percent. Thus, a mole fraction involves knowing the moles of solute or component of interest over the total moles of all components in the solution mixture: Example: What are the mole fractions of the components of the solution formed when 92 g glycerol is mixed with 90 g water? (molecular weight water = 18; molecular weight of glycerol = 92) 90 g water = 90 g x 1 mol / 18 g = 5 mol water 92 g glycerol = 92 g x 1 mol / 92 g = 1 mol glycerol total mol = = 6 mol x water = 5 mol / 6 mol = x glycerol = 1 mol / 6 mol = It's a good idea to check your math by making sure the mole fractions add up to 1: x water + x glycerol = =

3 5. Molarity (M) Molarity is probably the most commonly used unit of concentration. It is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution. For example, if we have 90 grams of sucrose (molar mass = 180 grams per mole) this is (90 g)/(180 g/mol) = 0.50 moles of sucrose. If we place this in a flask and add water until the total volume = 1 liter we would have a 0.5 molar solution. Molarity is usually denoted with a capital M, i.e. a 0.50 M solution. Recognize that molarity is moles of solute per liter of solution, not per liter of solvent!! Also recognize that molarity changes slightly with temperature because the volume of a solution changes with temperature. Molarity is the most common concentration unit involved in calculations dealing with volumetric stoichiometry. Example: What is the molarity of a solution made when water is added to 11 g CaCl 2 to make 100 ml of solution? 11 g CaCl 2 / (110 g CaCl 2 / mol CaCl 2 ) = 0.10 mol CaCl ml x 1 L / 1000 ml = 0.10 L molarity = 0.10 mol / 0.10 L molarity = 1.0 M. 6. Molality (m) Molality is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent. Notice the two key differences between molarity and molality. Molality uses mass rather than volume and uses solvent instead of solution. Unlike molarity, molality is independent of temperature because mass does not change with temperature. If we were to place 90 grams of sucrose (0.50 moles) in a flask and then add one kilogram of water we would have a 0.50 molal solution. Molality is usually denoted with a small m, i.e. a 0.50 m solution. Molality is often used as the concentration unit involved in calculations dealing with colligative properties, such as freezing point depression, boiling point elevation and osmotic pressure. Because the density of water at 25 C is about 1 kilogram per liter, molality is approximately equal to molarity for dilute aqueous solutions at this temperature. This is a useful approximation, but remember that it is only an approximation and doesn't apply when the solution is at a different temperature, isn't dilute, or uses a solvent other than water. Example: What is the molality of a solution of 10 g NaOH in 500 g water? 10 g NaOH / (4 g NaOH / 1 mol NaOH) = 0.25 mol NaOH 500 g water x 1 kg / 1000 g = 0.50 kg water molality = 0.25 mol / 0.50 kg molality = 0.05 M / kg molality = 0.50 m. 3

4 7. Normality (N) Normality is equal to the gram equivalent weight of a solute per liter of solution. A gram equivalent weight or equivalent is a measure of the reactive capacity of a given molecule. Normality is the only concentration unit that is reaction dependent. Example: 1 M sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) is 2 N for acid-base reactions because each mole of sulfuric acid provides 2 moles of H + ions. On the other hand, 1 M sulfuric acid is 1 N for sulfate precipitation, since 1 mole of sulfuric acid provides 1 mole of sulfate ions. 8. Mass per unit volume (mg/ml) For example, milligrams per milliliter (mg/ml) or milligrams per cubic centimeter (mg/cm 3 ). Note that 1 ml = 1 cm3 and that cm 3 is sometimes denoted as a "cc". Mass per unit volume is handy when discussing how soluble a material is in water or a particular solvent. For example, "the solubility of substance X is 3 grams per liter". In air pollution measurements, the mass of pollutant is expressed as micrograms of pollutant per cubic meter of air (1 millionth of a grams per cubic meter of air), µg/m 3 - mass of species per unit volume of air. Also it can be given in mg/m 3 and mg/l. In water, mass/volume concentration of mg/l and µg/m 3 are common. In most aqueous systems, ppmm is equivalent to mg/l. 9. Parts per million (ppm) Parts per million (1 in 1,000,000) works like percent by mass, but is more convenient when there is only a small amount of solute present. ppm is defined as the mass of the component in solution divided by the total mass of the solution multiplied by 10 6 (one million): A solution with a concentration of 1 ppm has 1 gram of substance for every million grams of solution. Because the density of water is 1 g per ml and we are adding such a tiny amount of solute, the density of a solution at such a low concentration is approximately 1 g per ml. Therefore, in general, one ppm implies one mg of solute per liter of solution. Since the amount of solute relative to the amount of solvent is typically very small, the density of the solution is to a first approximation the same as the density of the solvent. For this reason, parts per million may also be expressed in the following two ways: At 25 o C and 1 atm (101.3 kpa) pressure, the relationship between Parts per million and micrograms per cubic meter is given by 3 ppm x MW µ g / m =

5 where represented the multiplication of RT (8.205x10-5 x 298). R is the gas constant in m 3 atm/mole K. MW is the molecular weight of the species. For example, concentration of carbon monoxide (MW=28) is 1.5% by volume. It equals 1.5% by mole and equals 10 4 ppm. So when applying the above equation it gives 17.1 x 10 6 µg/m 3. Also the concentration of 415 µg/m 3 of sulfur dioxide (MW=64) equals ppm and the concentration of 118 µg/m 3 of ozone (MW=48) equals ppm and the concentration of 100 µg/m 3 of nitrogen dioxide (MW=46) equals 0.05 ppm. Finally, recognize that one percent = 10,000 ppm. Therefore, something that has a concentration of 300 ppm could also be said to have a concentration of (300 ppm)/(10,000 ppm/percent) = 0.03% percent by mass. 10. Parts per billion (ppb) This works like above, but we multiply by one billion (109; caution: the word billion has different meanings in different countries). A solution with 1 ppb of solute has 1 microgram (10-6 ) of material per liter. Owing to the dilute nature of the solution, once again, the density of the solution will be about the same as the density of the solvent. Thus, we may also express parts per billion as: 11. Parts per trillion (ppt) This works like parts per million and parts per billion except that we multiply by one trillion (10 12 ). There are few, if any, solutes which are harmful at concentrations as low as 1 ppt. Dilutions You dilute a solution whenever you add solvent to a solution. Adding solvent results in a solution of lower concentration. You can calculate the concentration of a solution following a dilution by applying this equation: MiVi = MfVf where M is molarity, V is volume, and the subscripts i and f refer to the initial and final values. Example: How many millilieters of 5.5 M NaOH are needed to prepare 300 ml of 1.2 M NaOH? 5.5 M x V1 = 1.2 M x 0.3 L V1 = 1.2 M x 0.3 L / 5.5 M V1 = L V1 = 65 ml So, to prepare the 1.2 M NaOH solution, you pour 65 ml of 5.5 M NaOH into your container and add water to get 300 ml final volume. 5

LECTURE I-UNITS OF CONCENTRATION

LECTURE I-UNITS OF CONCENTRATION Chemical concentration is one of the most important determinants in almost all aspects of chemical fate, transport and treatment in both environmental and engineered systems.

Other Units for Solution Concentrations

OpenStax-CNX module: m51016 1 Other Units for Solution Concentrations OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 By the end of

Chapter 14. Mixtures

Chapter 14 Mixtures Warm Up What is the difference between a heterogeneous and homogeneous mixture? Give 1 example of a heterogeneous mixture and 1 example of a homogeneous mixture. Today s Agenda QOTD:

Name Date Class. SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477)

16 SOLUTIONS SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477) This section identifies the factors that affect the solubility of a substance and determine the rate at which a solute dissolves. Solution

Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility

Dissolving Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility One very important property of a solution is the rate of, or how quickly a solute dissolves in a solvent. When dissolving occurs, there

0.279 M Change g to mol: g/mol = mol Molarity = mol L = mol 0.325L = M

118 ChemQuest 39 Name: Date: Hour: Information: Molarity Concentration is a term that describes the amount of solute that is dissolved in a solution. Concentrated solutions contain a lot of dissolved solute,

Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions

Sample Exercise 13.1 (p. 534) By the process illustrated below, water vapor reacts with excess solid sodium sulfate to form the hydrated form of the salt. The chemical reaction is Na 2 SO 4(s) + 10 H 2

Sample Exercise 13.1 Predicting Solubility Patterns

Sample Exercise 13.1 Predicting Solubility Patterns Predict whether each of the following substances is more likely to dissolve in the nonpolar solvent carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or in water: C 7 H

12.1 Expressing Concentration

12.1 Expressing Concentration The Amount of Solute in the solvent Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 201 Miramar College 1 Expressing Concentration Components of Solution Mixtures: Variable components, retains

Chapter 14 Solutions

Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute

Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions

13.4 Ways of Expressing Concentration All methods involve quantifying the amount of solute per amount of solvent (or solution). Concentration may be expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. The terms

2 Stoichiometry: Chemical Arithmetic Formula Conventions (1 of 24) 2 Stoichiometry: Chemical Arithmetic Stoichiometry Terms (2 of 24)

Formula Conventions (1 of 24) Superscripts used to show the charges on ions Mg 2+ the 2 means a 2+ charge (lost 2 electrons) Subscripts used to show numbers of atoms in a formula unit H 2 SO 4 two H s,

Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12

13 Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12 1. The molality of a solution is defined as a. moles of solute per liter of solution. b. grams of solute per liter of solution. c. moles of solute per kilogram

COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES:

COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES: A colligative property is a property that depends only on the number of solute particles present, not their identity. The properties we will look at are: lowering of vapor pressure;

From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116)

Chem 112 Solutions From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116) 1. Which of the following compounds are nonelectrolytes? A. NaF

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions

Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements

Chapter 12. Solutions. Lecture Presentation

12.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Shouldn t Drink Seawater 544 12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility 546 12.3 Energetics of Solution Formation 551 12.4 Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility

Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity

Prelab Assignment Before coming to lab: Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity Chemistry 162 - K. Marr Revised Winter 2014 This lab exercise does not require a report in your lab notebook.

Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry

Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Mole Unit of amount of substance the amount of substance containing as many particles (atoms, ions, molecules, etc.) as present

Solution concentration = how much solute dissolved in solvent

Solutions 1 Solutions Concentration Solution concentration = how much solute dissolved in solvent Coffee crystal = solute Water = solvent Liquid Coffee = solution so a solute is dissolved in solvent to

Test 1: Introduction to Chemistry

Name: Sunday, October 14, 2007 Test 1: Introduction to Chemistry 1. Two substances, A and Z, are to be identified. Substance A can not be broken down by a chemical change. Substance Z can be broken down

2. Why does the solubility of alcohols decrease with increased carbon chain length?

Colligative properties 1 1. What does the phrase like dissolves like mean. 2. Why does the solubility of alcohols decrease with increased carbon chain length? Alcohol in water (mol/100g water) Methanol

Unit 2: Quantities in Chemistry

Mass, Moles, & Molar Mass Relative quantities of isotopes in a natural occurring element (%) E.g. Carbon has 2 isotopes C-12 and C-13. Of Carbon s two isotopes, there is 98.9% C-12 and 11.1% C-13. Find

PREPARING LABORATORY SOLUTIONS AND REAGENTS I. Dr.Sarita Mangukiya GMCS

PREPARING LABORATORY SOLUTIONS AND REAGENTS I Dr.Sarita Mangukiya GMCS INTERPRETING RECIPES DEFINITIONS: SOLUTES -- substances that are dissolved SOLVENTS -- substance in which solutes are dissolved (usually

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

Chemical Reactions in Water

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Acids, Bases and Salts Acids dissolve in water to give H + ions. These ions attach

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another

Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Problems: 9-10, 13-17, 21-42, 44, 49-60, 71-72, 73 (a,c), 77-79, 84(a-c), 91 solution: homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent solute: solvent: component(s)

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual

Mole Relationships in Chemistry

Mole Relationships in Chemistry The Mole Concept and Atomic Masses The mole concept and molar mass is historically based on two laws from Joseph-Louis Proust in 1797 The Law of Definite Proportions This

Chemical Equations and Calculations

Chemical Equations and Calculations A chemical equation is a shorthand way of indicating what is going on in a chemical reaction. We could do it the long way Two molecules of Hydrogen gas react with one

Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law

Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law Aqueous Solutions In Chemistry, many reactions take place in water. This is also true for Biological processes. Reactions that take

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole

Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Chapter 4 Topics 1. Mole Quantities 2. Moles, Masses, and Particles 3. Determining Empirical Formulas 4. Chemical Composition of Solutions Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

CHAPTER 13: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08

CHAPTER 13: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08 13.21 The solubility of Cr(NO 3 ) 3 9 H 2 O in water is 208 g per 100 g of water at 15 C. A solution of Cr(NO 3 ) 3

A) HCl C) 52 g KCl in 100 g water at 80ºC A) temperature of the solution increases B) supersaturated D) low temperature and high pressure D) KClO3

1. Which compound becomes less soluble in water as the temperature of the solution is increased? A) HCl B) 2. The solubility of O3(s) in water increases as the A) temperature of the solution increases

Solutions and Their Concentrations

Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations Solutions for Practice Problems Section 8.3 Student Tetbook page 305 1. Problem What is the concentration in percent (m/v) of each solution? (a) 14.2 g of potassium

Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations. Chapter Objectives. Warning!! Chapter Objectives. Chapter Objectives

Larry Brown Tom Holme www.cengage.com/chemistry/brown Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations Jacqueline Bennett SUNY Oneonta 2 Warning!! These slides contains visual aids for learning BUT they

TOPIC 10. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS IV - solution stoichiometry.

TOPIC 10. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS IV - solution stoichiometry. Calculations involving solutions. Frequently reactions occur between species which are present in solution. One type of chemical analysis called

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions. Classification of Matter

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions Learning goals and key skills: Describe how enthalpy and entropy changes affect solution formation Describe the relationship between intermolecular forces and solubility,

Types of Solutions. Chapter 17 Properties of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions

Big Idea: Liquids will mix together if both liquids are polar or both are nonpolar. The presence of a solute changes the physical properties of the system. For nonvolatile solutes the vapor pressure, boiling

Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions

Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions Zumdahl 6 th Ed, Chapter 4 Sections 1-6. 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition

CHAPTER 14 Solutions

CHAPTER 14 Solutions The Dissolution Process 1. Effect of Temperature on Solubility 2. Molality and Mole Fraction Colligative Properties of Solutions 3. Lowering of Vapor Pressure and Raoult s Law 4. Fractional

Chapter 12: Solutions

Chapter 12: Solutions Problems: 3, 5, 8, 12, 14, 16, 22, 29, 32, 41-58, 61-68, 71-74 solution: homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent solute: solvent: component present in smaller amount

Concentration of Solutions and Molarity

Concentration of Solutions and Molarity The concentration of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent. A dilute solution is one that contains a small

Molecular Formula: Example

Molecular Formula: Example A compound is found to contain 85.63% C and 14.37% H by mass. In another experiment its molar mass is found to be 56.1 g/mol. What is its molecular formula? 1 CHAPTER 3 Chemical

Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight

Purpose: Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight The first purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the van't Hoff (i) factor for two different substances, sucrose

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY

CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in

R = J/mol K R = L atm/mol K

version: master Exam 1 - VDB/LaB/Spk This MC portion of the exam should have 19 questions. The point values are given with each question. Bubble in your answer choices on the bubblehseet provided. Your

The concept of concentration exists to answer the question: How much of the stuff is there?

Concentrations and Other Units of Measure (Nazaroff & Alvarez-Cohen, Section 1.C.1) The concept of concentration exists to answer the question: How much of the stuff is there? Definition: The concentration

Chapter 3 Calculation with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Chapter 3 Calculation with Chemical Formulas and Equations Practical Applications of Chemistry Determining chemical formula of a substance Predicting the amount of substances consumed during a reaction

Solutions & Colloids

Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 6 Solutions & Colloids Solutions Components of a Solution Solvent: The substance

Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen

Atomic mass: p + = protons; e - = electrons; n 0 = neutrons p + + n 0 = atomic mass o For carbon-12, 6p + + 6n 0 = atomic mass of 12.0 o For chlorine-35, 17p + + 18n 0 = atomic mass of 35.0 atomic mass

Molarity is used to convert between moles of substance and liters of solution.

Appendix C Molarity C.1 MOLARITY AND THE MOLE The molar mass is the mass of a mole of a pure substance while the molarity, M, is the number of moles of a pure substance contained in a liter of a solution.

1. Define the term colligative property and list those physical properties of a solution that can be classified as colligative properties.

Solutions Colligative Properties DCI Name Section 1. Define the term colligative property and list those physical properties of a solution that can be classified as colligative properties. Colligative

CHAPTER : 1 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY. 1 mark questions

CHAPTER : 1 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY 1 mark questions 1. What is Chemistry? Ans: It is a Branch of science deals with the study of composition, properties and interaction of matter. 2. What are

Chemical calculations

Chemical calculations Stoichiometry refers to the quantities of material which react according to a balanced chemical equation. Compounds are formed when atoms combine in fixed proportions. E.g. 2Mg +

13.3 Factors Affecting Solubility Solute-Solvent Interactions Pressure Effects Temperature Effects

Week 3 Sections 13.3-13.5 13.3 Factors Affecting Solubility Solute-Solvent Interactions Pressure Effects Temperature Effects 13.4 Ways of Expressing Concentration Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb Mole Fraction,

Osmolality Explained. Definitions

Osmolality Explained What is osmolality? Simply put, osmolality is a measurement of the total number of solutes in a liquid solution expressed in osmoles of solute particles per kilogram of solvent. When

PHASE CHEMISTRY AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

PHASE CHEMISTRY AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES Phase Diagrams Solutions Solution Concentrations Colligative Properties Brown et al., Chapter 10, 385 394, Chapter 11, 423-437 CHEM120 Lecture Series Two : 2011/01

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. 1 Aqueous Solutions Molarity (dilution calculations, solution stoichiometry); Solubility and Solubility Rules Molecular, Ionic and Net Ionic Equations Precipitation

Chapter 14 The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions

John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs Solubility & Intermolecular Forces Solution = homogeneous mixture of substances. It consists of: http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore solvent - component

Chapter 7, Reactions and Solutions

1. Classify the following reaction as precipitation, acid-base or oxidation-reduction: Ce4+(aq) + Fe2+(aq) Ce3+(aq) + Fe3+(aq) Ans. oxidation-reduction 2. Classify the following reaction as precipitation,

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296)

Name Date Class 10 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) This section defines the mole and explains how the mole is used to measure matter. It also teaches

Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations.

Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations. Major chemistry laws Avogadro's Law Equal volumes of gases under identical temperature and pressure conditions will contain

Chapter 13: Solutions

Ch 13 Page 1 Chapter 13: Solutions SOLUTION: A homogeneousmixture of two or more substances Composition can vary from one sample to another Appears to be one substance, though really contains multiple

Solution Stoichiometry Quantitative Preparation of Aqueous Solutions

Solution Stoichiometry Quantitative Preparation of Aqueous Solutions Introduction Page 1 of 11 In this week s lab, you and your lab partner will apply your prelab calculations to the preparation of aqueous

Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 01. Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 02. Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 04

Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 01 Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 02 Colligative Properties: Depend on the amount not on the identity There are four main colligative properties:

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry of Formulas and Equations

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry of Formulas and Equations Chapter 3 Outline: Mole - Mass Relationships in Chemical Systems 3.1 The Mole 3.2 Determining the Formula of an Unknown Compound 3.3 Writing and Balancing

Chemical Quantities: The Mole Chapter 7 Assignment & Problem Set

Chemical Quantities: The Mole Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Chemical Quantities: The Mole 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know

The core material is Sect B-D. The rest is optional; do individual sections as suits your interests or needs.

Solutions: Percentage. A. Introduction... 1 B. Comparisons; ratios; the idea of percentage... 1 C. The units of percent... 3 D. Weight percentage, %(w/w)... 5 E. Volume percentage, %(v/v)... 6 F. Weight/volume

Four common concentration units 1. Molarity 2. Weight Percent (Wt %), ppm, ppb 3. Molality 4. Mole Fraction. Molarity, M =

Four common concentration units 1. Molarity 2. Weight Percent (Wt %), ppm, ppb 3. Molality 4. Mole Fraction Molarity, M tells you how many s of solute are present in every liter of solution (solute-to-solution)

Essential Maths for Medics and Vets Reference Materials Module 2. Amount and Concentration.

2 Amount and concentration: making and diluting solutions 2 Amount and concentration; making and diluting solutions... 2A Rationale... 2B Distinguishing between amount and concentration, g and %w/v...

Colligative Properties

Colligative Properties Vapor pressures have been defined as the pressure over a liquid in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas phase in a closed system. The vapor pressure of a solution is different

n molarity = M = N.B.: n = litres (solution)

1. CONCENTRATION UNITS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances. If we have a solution made from a solid and a liquid, we say that the solid is dissolved in the liquid and

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test NAME Section 7.1 The Mole: A Measurement of Matter A. What is a mole? 1. Chemistry is a quantitative science. What does this term mean?

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

Formulas, Equations and Moles

Chapter 3 Formulas, Equations and Moles Interpreting Chemical Equations You can interpret a balanced chemical equation in many ways. On a microscopic level, two molecules of H 2 react with one molecule

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions

Name: Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions [Chapter 10] Objectives: 1. Students will be able to calculate solution concentration using molarity, molality, and mass percent. 2. Students will be able to interpret

Chemistry 101 Chapter 4 SOLUTIONS

SOLUTIONS Solutions are homogeneous mixture of two or more substances: (solute/s) dispersed throughout another substance (solvent) SOLUTION = SOLUTE(S) + SOLVENT (homogeneous mixture) substance being substance

Molarity. Why? Learning Objectives. Success Criteria. Prerequisites. Vocabulary

Why? Molarity When a substance (solute) is dissolved in a solvent, a solution is formed. A chemist often needs to know how much solute is present in a given volume of solution. In this activity you will

Stoichiometry Dr. M. E. Bridge

Preliminary Chemistry Course Stoichiometry Dr. M. E. Bridge What is stoichiometry? The meaning of the word: The word stoichiometry comes from two Greek words: (meaning element ) and (meaning measure )

UNITS OF CONCENTRATION

UNITS OF CONCENTRATION There are a number of different ways of expressing solute concentration that are commonly used. Some of these are listed below. Molarity, M = moles solute/liter of solution Normality,

Colligative Properties of Solutions Freezing Point Depression Objectives: To investigate the colligative property of freezing point depression; to examine the relationship between freezing point depression

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296)

10 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) This section defines the mole and explains how the mole is used to measure matter. It also teaches you how to calculate

Version 001 Calculating Concentrations WKST vanden bout (51165) 1

Version 001 Calculating Concentrations WKST vanden bout (51165 1 This print-out should have 22 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before answering.

) g /mol = 3.86!10"3 moles

Chem01, Winter 006 Midterm N1 01/6/06 Name Answer key SID 1. A solution is prepared by dissolving 5.8 grams on magnesium chloride (MgCl ) in water to produce 50.0 ml of solution. Molecular weight of the

Chapter 3 Test Practice DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PRACTICE EXAM

Chapter 3 Test Practice MOORE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PRACTICE EXAM 1. A sample of an element has a mass of 34.261 grams and a volume of 3.8 cubic centimeters. To which number of significant figures should

48 Practice Problems for Ch. 17 - Chem 1C - Joseph

48 Practice Problems for Ch. 17 - Chem 1C - Joseph 1. Which of the following concentration measures will change in value as the temperature of a solution changes? A) mass percent B) mole fraction C) molality

Mole - Mass Relationships in Chemical Systems

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Mole - Mass Relationships in Chemical Systems 3.1 The Mole 3.2 Determining the Formula of an Unknown Compound 3.3 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 3.4 Calculating the Amounts

Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1. A chemical equation. (C-4.4)

Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Question What is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction? What 3 things (values) is a mole of a chemical

HOW TO MAKE STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR CHEMISTRY

HOW TO MAKE STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR CHEMISTRY Phillip Bigelow Chemists make two common types of "standard solutions": Molar solutions Normal solutions Both of these solutions are concentrations (or strengths

Stoichiometry. 1. The total number of moles represented by 20 grams of calcium carbonate is (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 0.1; (4) 0.2.

Stoichiometry 1 The total number of moles represented by 20 grams of calcium carbonate is (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 01; (4) 02 2 A 44 gram sample of a hydrate was heated until the water of hydration was driven

Chem. 1A Final Exam Review Problems From ch. 11, 12 & 13

Chem. A Final Exam Review Problems From ch., 2 & 3 f Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.. Place the following cations in order from lowest to

One element, usually a metal, replaces another element in a compound. This forms a new compound and leaves behind a new free element!

124 SINGLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS One element, usually a metal, replaces another element in a compound. This forms a new compound and leaves behind a new free element! example: Copper loses electrons, goes

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

Chapter 13: Physical Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13: Physical Properties of Solutions Key topics: Molecular Picture (interactions, enthalpy, entropy) Concentration Units Colligative Properties terminology: Solution: a homogeneous mixture Solute: