1 Chapter 3! : Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
2 Anatomy of a Chemical Equation CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (g)
3 Anatomy of a Chemical Equation CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (g) Reactants appear on the left side of the equation.
4 Anatomy of a Chemical Equation CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (g) Products appear on the right side of the equation.
5 Anatomy of a Chemical Equation CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (g) The states of the reactants and products are written in parentheses to the right of each compound.
6 Anatomy of a Chemical Equation CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (g) Coefficients are inserted to balance the equation.
7 Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information Subscripts tell the number of atoms of each element in a molecule
8 Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information Subscripts tell the number of atoms of each element in a molecule Coefficients tell the number of molecules (compounds).
9 Reaction Types!
10 Combination Reactions Two or more substances react to form one product Examples: N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) C 3 H 6 (g) + Br 2 (l) C 3 H 6 Br 2 (l) 2 Mg (s) + O 2 (g) 2 MgO (s)
11 2 Mg (s) + O 2 (g) 2 MgO (s)
12 Decomposition Reactions One substance breaks down into two or more substances Examples: CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) 2 KClO 3 (s) 2 KCl (s) + O 2 (g) 2 NaN 3 (s) 2 Na (s) + 3 N 2 (g)
13 Combustion Reactions! Rapid reactions that have oxygen as a reactant sometimes produce a flame Most often involve hydrocarbons reacting with oxygen in the air to produce CO 2 and H 2 O. Examples: CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (g) C 3 H 8 (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 3 CO 2 (g) + 4 H 2 O (g) 2H 2 + O H 2 O
14 Formula Weights!
15 The amu unit Defined (since 1961) as: 1/12 mass of the 12 C isotope. 12 C = 12 amu
16 Formula Weight (FW)! Sum of the atomic weights for the atoms in a chemical formula So, the formula weight of calcium chloride, CaCl 2, would be Ca: 1(40.1 amu) + Cl: 2(35.5 amu) amu These are generally reported for ionic compounds
17 Molecular Weight (MW) Sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule For the molecule ethane, C 2 H 6, the molecular weight would be C: 2(12.0 amu) + H: 6(1.0 amu) 30.0 amu
18 Percent Composition One can find the percentage of the mass of a compound that comes from each of the elements in the compound by using this equation: % element = (number of atoms)(atomic weight) (FW of the compound) x 100
19 Percent Composition So the percentage of carbon and hydrogen in ethane (C 2 H 6, molecular mass = 30.0) is: %C = (2)(12.0 amu) (30.0 amu) 24.0 amu = x 100 = 80.0% 30.0 amu %H = (6)(1.01 amu) (30.0 amu) 6.06 amu = x 100 = 20.0% 30.0 amu
21 Atomic mass unit and the mole amu definition: 12 C = 12 amu. The atomic mass unit is defined this way. 1 amu = x g How many 12 C atoms weigh 12 g? 6.02x C weigh 12 g. Avogadro s number The mole
22 Atomic mass unit and the mole amu definition: 12 C = 12 amu. 1 amu = x g How many 12 C atoms weigh 12 g? 6.02x C weigh 12 g. Avogadro s number The mole #atoms = (1 atom/12 amu)(1 amu/1.66x10-24 g)(12g) = 6.02x C weigh 12 g
23 Therefore: Any 6.02 x mole of 12 C has a mass of 12 g
24 The mole The mole is just a number of things 1 dozen = 12 things 1 pair = 2 things 1 mole = x10 23 things
25 Molar Mass The trick: By definition, this is the mass of 1 mol of a substance (i.e., g/mol) The molar mass of an element is the mass number for the element that we find on the periodic table The formula weight (in amu s) will be the same number as the molar mass (in g/mol)
26 Using Moles Moles provide a bridge from the molecular scale to the real-world scale The number of moles correspond to the number of molecules. 1 mole of any substance has the same number of molecules.
27 Mole Relationships One mole of atoms, ions, or molecules contains Avogadro s number of those particles One mole of molecules or formula units contains Avogadro s number times the number of atoms or ions of each element in the compound
28 Finding Empirical Formulas
29 Combustion Analysis gives % composition C n H n O n + O 2 nco 2 + 1/2nH 2 O Compounds containing C, H and O are routinely analyzed through combustion in a chamber like this %C is determined from the mass of CO 2 produced %H is determined from the mass of H 2 O produced %O is determined by difference after the C and H have been determined
30 Calculating Empirical Formulas One can calculate the empirical formula from the percent composition
31 Calculating Empirical Formulas The compound para-aminobenzoic acid (you may have seen it listed as PABA on your bottle of sunscreen) is composed of carbon (61.31%), hydrogen (5.14%), nitrogen (10.21%), and oxygen (23.33%). Find the empirical formula of PABA.
32 Calculating Empirical Formulas Assuming g of para-aminobenzoic acid, C: g x 1 mol = mol C g H: 5.14 g x 1 mol 1.01 g = 5.09 mol H N: g x 1 mol g = mol N O: 1 mol g x g = mol O
33 Calculating Empirical Formulas Calculate the mole ratio by dividing by the smallest number of moles: mol C: = mol 5.09 mol H: = mol mol N: = mol mol O: = mol
34 Calculating Empirical Formulas These are the subscripts for the empirical formula: C 7 H 7 NO 2 O H 2 N O -
35 Elemental Analyses Compounds containing other elements are analyzed using methods analogous to those used for C, H and O
36 Stoichiometric Calculations The coefficients in the balanced equation give the ratio of moles of reactants and products
37 Stoichiometric Calculations From the mass of Substance A you can use the ratio of the coefficients of A and B to calculate the mass of Substance B formed (if it s a product) or used (if it s a reactant)
38 Stoichiometric Calculations Example: 10 grams of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) react in a combustion reaction. How many grams of each product are produced? C 6 H 12 O 6(s) + 6 O 2(g) 6 CO 2(g) + 6 H 2 O (l) 10.g? +? Starting with 10. g of C 6 H 12 O 6 we calculate the moles of C 6 H 12 O 6 use the coefficients to find the moles of H 2 O & CO 2 and then turn the moles to grams
39 Stoichiometric calculations C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O 10.g? +? MW: 180g/mol 44 g/mol 18g/mol #mol: 10.g(1mol/180g) mol 6(.055) 6(.055mol) 6(.055mol)44g/mol #grams: 15g 5.9 g 6(.055mol)18g/mol
40 Limiting Reactants
41 How Many Cookies Can I Make? You can make cookies until you run out of one of the ingredients Once you run out of sugar, you will stop making cookies
42 How Many Cookies Can I Make? In this example the sugar would be the limiting reactant, because it will limit the amount of cookies you can make
43 Limiting Reactants The limiting reactant is the reactant present in the smallest stoichiometric amount 2H 2 + O > 2H 2 O #moles Left:
44 Limiting Reactants In the example below, the O 2 would be the excess reagent
45 Limiting reagent, example: Soda fizz comes from sodium bicarbonate and citric acid (H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 ) reacting to make carbon dioxide, sodium citrate (Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 ) and water. If 1.0 g of sodium bicarbonate and 1.0g citric acid are reacted, which is limiting? How much carbon dioxide is produced? 3NaHCO 3(aq) + H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7(aq) > 3CO 2 (g) + 3H 2 O(l) + Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 (aq) 1.0g 1.0g 84g/mol 192g/mol 44g/mol 1.0g(1mol/84g) 1.0(1mol/192g) mol mol (if citrate limiting) (3)= mol So bicarbonate limiting: mol 0.012(1/3)=.0040mol moles CO 2 44g/mol(0.012mol)=0.53g CO =.0012mol left mol(192 g/mol)= g left.
46 Theoretical Yield The theoretical yield is the amount of product that can be made In other words it s the amount of product possible from stoichiometry. The perfect reaction. This is different from the actual yield, the amount one actually produces and measures
47 Percent Yield A comparison of the amount actually obtained to the amount it was possible to make Actual Yield Percent Yield = x 100 Theoretical Yield
48 Example Benzene (C 6 H 6 ) reacts with Bromine to produce bromobenzene (C 6 H 6 Br) and hydrobromic acid. If 30. g of benzene reacts with 65 g of bromine and produces 56.7 g of bromobenzene, what is the percent yield of the reaction? C 6 H 6 + Br > C 6 H 5 Br + HBr 30.g 65 g 56.7 g 78g/mol 160.g/mol 157g/mol 30.g(1mol/78g) 65g(1mol/160g) 0.38 mol 0.41 mol (If Br 2 limiting) 0.41 mol 0.41 mol (If C 6 H 6 limiting) 0.38 mol 0.38 mol 0.38mol(157g/1mol) = 60.g 56.7g/60.g(100)=94.5%=95%
49 Example, one more React 1.5 g of NH 3 with 2.75 g of O 2. How much NO and H 2 O is produced? What is left? 4NH 3 + 5O > 4NO + 6H 2 O 1.5g 2.75g?? 17g/mol 32g/mol 30.g/mol 18g/mol 1.5g(1mol/17g)= 2.75g(1mol/32g)=.088mol.086 (If NH 3 limiting):.088mol.088(5/4)=.11 O 2 limiting:.086(4/5)=.086 mol.086 mol(4/5)=.086(6/5)=.069mol.069 mol.10mol.069mol(17g/mol).069mol(30.g/mol).10mol(18g/mol) 1.2g 2.75g 2.1 g 1.8g
51 Gun powder reaction 10KNO 3(s) + 3S (s) + 8C (s) K 2 CO 3(s) + 3K 2 SO 4(s) + 6CO 2(g) + 5N 2(g) Salt peter sulfur charcoal And heat. What is interesting about this reaction? What kind of reaction is it? What do you think makes it so powerful?
52 Gun powder reaction Oxidizing agent Oxidizing agent Reducing agent 10KNO 3(s) + 3S (s) + 8C (s) K 2 CO 3(s) + 3K 2 SO 4(s) + 6CO 2(g) + 5N 2(g) Salt peter sulfur charcoal And heat. What is interesting about this reaction? Lots of energy, no oxygen What kind of reaction is it? Oxidation reduction What do you think makes it so powerful and explosive? Makes a lot of gas!!!!
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