Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds

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1 Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds

2 Mercury craters smooth plains, cliffs

3 Venus volcanoes few craters Radar view of a twinpeaked volcano

4 Mars some craters volcanoes riverbeds?

5 Moon craters smooth plains

6 Earth volcanoes craters mountains riverbeds

7 Why have the planets turned out so differently, when they formed at the same time from the same materials?

8 7.1 Earth as a Planet Our Goals for Learning Why is Earth geologically active? What processes shape Earth s surface? How does Earth s atmosphere affect the planet?

9 Why is Earth geologically active? What do we know about the interior of the Earth, and how do we know it? And 4.45 billion years after its formation, why is the Earth still hot?

10 What cools off faster? A. A large cup of coffee. B. A teaspoon of capuccino in the same cup.

11 What cools off faster? A. A large cup of coffee. B. A teaspoon of capuccino in the same cup.

12 What cools off faster? A. A big terrestrial planet. B. A tiny terrestrial planet.

13 What cools off faster? A. A big terrestrial planet. B. A tiny terrestrial planet. Why? (Hint: the answer is a ratio.)

14 Sources of Internal Heat in Planets 1) Gravitational potential energy of accreting planetesimals 2) Differentiation 3) Radioactivity

15 Differentiation: Why do water and oil separate? A. Water molecules repel oil molecules electrically. B. Water is denser than oil, so oil floats on water. C. Oil is more slippery than water, so it slides to the surface of the water. D. Oil molecules are bigger than the spaces between water molecules.

16 Differentiation: Why do water and oil separate? A. Water molecules repel oil molecules electrically. B. Water is denser than oil, so oil floats on water. C. Oil is more slippery than water, so it slides to the surface of the water. D. Oil molecules are bigger than the spaces between water molecules.

17 Differentiation Gravity sorts materials by density. Higher density materials sink below lighter density materials. Differentiation converts gravitational potential energy to heat.

18 How do we know what is inside the Earth? A. We can drill deep inside the Earth. B. We can use optical fibers to see deep inside the Earth. C. X ray machines allow us to view the inside of the Earth. D. Seismic waves generated by earthquakes probe the Earth s interior.

19 How do we know what is inside the Earth? A. We can drill deep inside the Earth. B. We can use optical fibers to see deep inside the Earth. C. X ray machines allow us to view the inside of the Earth. D. Seismic waves generated by earthquakes probe the Earth s interior.

20 How do we know what s inside a planet? P waves push matter back and forth. S waves shake matter side to side.

21 How do we know what s inside a planet? P waves go through Earth s core, but S waves do not. We conclude that Earth s core must have a liquid outer layer.

22 Internal Structure, by density

23 Internal structure, by rock strength The lithosphere is the cool rigid rock that forms a planet s outer layer: the crust and some of the mantle. The earth is relatively hot, so its lithosphere is relatively thin. The lithosphere floats on the lower layers.

24 The thickness of the lithosphere affects many geological processes

25 Internal Heat Drives Geological Activity Convection: hot rock rises, cool rock falls (because hot rock is less dense, just like hot air is less dense) 1 convection cycle on Earth takes about 100 million years

26 A large planet Is warm inside from formation, differentiation, and radioactivity Has a convecting mantle Has molten rock nearer the surface Has a thinner, weaker lithosphere...which makes it more geologically active

27 The four processes that shape the surfaces of planets, including Earth 1) 2) 3) 4) Impact cratering Volcanism Tectonics Erosion

28 #1: Impact Cratering

29 #1: Impact Cratering Moon must be hit as often as Earth. Where are Earth s craters? Erased by volcanic activity and erosion. The more craters, the older the surface

30 #2: Volcanism Molten rock rises when it is: Less dense than its surroundings. Squeezed by its surroundings. Pushed by expanding trapped gas (water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, sulfurous gasses)

31 #2: Volcanism Erases other geological features. Provided gas for our atmosphere (outgassing)......including steam (water in gas form), which cooled and became the water in our oceans.

32 Why doesn t Mars have as much volcanic activity as Earth? A. It s too far from the Sun, so it cooled off faster. B. It s smaller than the Earth, so it cooled off faster. C. It might, we just haven t seen them erupt yet.

33 Why doesn t Mars have as much volcanic activity as Earth? A. It s too far from the Sun, so it cooled off faster. B. It s smaller than the Earth, so it cooled off faster. C. It might, we just haven't seen them erupt yet.

34 #3: Tectonics Do rocks s t r e t c h? A. No rock is rigid and cannot deform without breaking. B. Yes but only if it is molten rock. C. Yes rock under strain may slowly deform.

35 #3: Tectonics Do rocks s t r e t c h? A. No rock is rigid and cannot deform without breaking. B. Yes but only if it is molten rock. C. Yes rock under strain may slowly deform.

36 #3: Tectonics and Plate Tectonics Tectonics: any surface reshaping from forces on the lithosphere Internal Heat Required! Plate tectonics: pieces of lithosphere moving around Only Earth has plate tectonics now, but Mars did in the past.

37 #4: Erosion Wearing down or building up of geological features by wind, water and ice (weather) Important on Earth why?

38 What have we learned? Why is Earth geologically active? Internal heat drives geological activity, and Earth retains plenty of internal heat because of its relatively large size for a terrestrial world. This heat causes mantle convection and keeps Earth s lithosphere thin, ensuring active surface geology. It also keeps part of Earth s core melted, and the circulation of this molten metal creates Earth s magnetic field.

39 What have we learned? What processes shape Earth s surface? The four major geological processes are impact cratering, volcanism, tectonics, and erosion. Earth has experienced many impacts, but most craters have been erased by other processes. We owe the existence of our atmosphere and oceans to volcanic outgassing. A special brand of tectonics plate tectonics shapes much of Earth s surface. Ice, water, and wind drive rampant erosion on our planet.

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