Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions

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1 Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions #1) Describe Pavlov's demonstration of classical conditioning and the key elements in this form of learning (pp ) What is classical conditioning? What are the four terms used to describe the process of classical conditioning, and what does each of the terms mean? Thinking about Pavlov s experiment, identify the UCS, CS, UCR, and CR on the graphic below: o What is the meat powder? o What is the tone? o What is the dog s salivation? If the dog s salivation is both the UCR and CR, then: When is it considered to be the UCR? When it is elicited by the meat powder or by the tone? When is it considered to be the CR? When it is elicited by the meat powder or by the tone? CS + UCS UCR & CR #2) Discuss how classical conditioning may shape phobias and physiological processes, including sexual arousal (pp & p 200) Does classical conditioning play a role in shaping the following everyday responses? If so, list the examples that are used in your text to demonstrate each of the conditioned responses. o Fear and phobias? o Anxiety? o Pleasant emotional responses? Does classical conditioning play a role in advertising? If so, what are the advertisers trying to achieve through the use of classical conditioning?

2 #3) Describe the classical conditioning phenomena of acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery (pp Table 6.1) What is stimulus contiguity, and why is it important in classical conditioning? What is extinction, and how does it occur in classical conditioning? What does spontaneous recovery mean in classical conditioning? #4) Describe the processes of generalization and discrimination and summarize the classic study of Little Albert (pp Table 6.1) What is stimulus generalization, and what is the basic law that governs it in classical conditioning? After Little Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat, his fear generalized to what other types of stimuli? What is stimulus discrimination, and what is the basic law that governs it in classical conditioning? #5) Describe Skinner's principle of reinforcement and the prototype experimental procedures used in studies of operant conditioning (pp ) What is operant conditioning, and what is the fundamental principle behind it? What is reinforcement, and what does it do to a person s tendency to repeat a certain response? Behavior Consequence (reinforcement or punishment) #6) Describe the operant conditioning phenomena of acquisition, shaping, and extinction (pp Table 6.1) What is shaping, and when is it used in operant conditioning? To acquire or maintain new behaviors? What is extinction, and how does it occur in operant conditioning? #7) Explain how stimuli govern operant behavior and how generalization and discrimination occur in operant conditioning (pp Table 6.1) What is stimulus generalization, and when is it most likely to occur in operant conditioning? With similar or dissimilar stimuli? What is stimulus discrimination, and when is it most likely to occur in operant conditioning? With similar or dissimilar stimuli?

3 #8) Explain the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement (p complete the table at the end of this document to use as a study aid for this objective) What are the two forms of reinforcement, and what do they do to a person s tendency to repeat a certain response? Do they strengthen (increase) or weaken (decrease) it? Which type of reinforcement involves the presentation of a rewarding stimulus? Which type of reinforcement involves the removal of an aversive (unpleasant or punishing) stimulus? #9) Describe and distinguish between escape learning and avoidance learning (pp ) Which type of learning allows you to escape an aversive stimulus? Which type of learning allows you to avoid an aversive stimulus before it even occurs? #10) Describe punishment and distinguish between punishment and negative reinforcement (pp complete the table at the end of this document to use as a study aid for this objective) What is punishment, and what does it do to a person s tendency to repeat a certain response? Does it strengthen (increase) or weaken (decrease) it? Which type of punishment involves the presentation of an aversive stimulus? Positive or negative punishment? (Refer to the table at the end of this document) Which type of punishment involves the removal of a pleasant stimulus? Positive or negative? How is punishment different from negative reinforcement? Specifically, how do they differ with regard to their effect on a person s tendency to repeat a particular behavior? #11) Discuss the phenomena of conditioned taste aversion (pp ) When a person develops an aversion to food because it was followed by nausea, what is it called? How is this type of taste aversion acquired? Through classical or operant conditioning? #12) Discuss the nature and importance of observational learning (p 192) What is observational learning, and what do you call the person who is being observed? Is observational learning an entirely separate process from classical and operant conditioning, or can both classical and operant conditioning occur through observational learning? #13) Discuss research on observational learning as it relates to the controversy about the effects of media violence (pp ) What are the short term effects of media violence on aggressive behavior? What are the long term effects of media violence on aggressive behavior?

4 #14) Describe how to specify your target behavior and gather baseline data for a self modification program (pp ) What is the first step in behavior modification, and what type of behavioral description is best? A vague description of a personality trait (e.g., I m too irritable ) or a precise description of the specific behavior you want to change (e.g., I want to stop arguing with everyone )? What is the second step in behavior modification, and what are the three things that you should monitor during this step?

5 Complete the table below to help you visualize the difference between reinforcement and punishment. By comparing and contrasting information in this type of format, you should be able to learn and remember it better. Positive Negative Positive (or presentation) Negative (or removal) Examples Receiving: food gifts money attention Escaping: shock by running to another chamber rain by using umbrella headache by taking aspirin Being: spanked yelled at embarrassed in front of others made to stay after school Losing: television privileges car privileges cell phone privileges money (as in a fine) Is the consequence presented or removed? Does the consequence increase or decrease the tendency to repeat the behavior?

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