1 Behavior & Sensory Strategies for Individuals with ASD
2 Kathleen Mo Taylor, OTR/L The Autism Programs Center for Development and Disability University of New Mexico
3 This presentation is made possible, in part, by the support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The content of this presentation is the sole responsibility of the author(s) and does not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government. The opinions and views expressed by the authors in this document do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of KPMG.
4 Training Objectives Have an improved understanding of the functions of behavior in persons with ASD. Have an understanding of the sensory issues for people with ASD. Have an understanding of the ABC s of behavior. Have an understanding of evidence based strategies used to support people with ASD.
5 Behaviors we have seen Examples: Running off Biting Pushing things away Screaming Rocking Biting Have you seen these?
6 Behaviors They all have a reason
7 What types of behaviors do you see from individuals with ASD?
8 Behavior Reasons
9 Functions of Behavior Escape from a person, task, environment, etc. Tangible desire for a specific item or activity. Attention the desire for attention from peers, adults, etc. Sensory the behavior feels good or meets a sensory need. Power and Control. V. Mark Durand, 1990
10 Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) Approaches to helping people improve their difficult behavior based on four principles.
11 The Principles of Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) Understanding that people (including caregivers) do not control others. Belief that there is a reason behind difficult behavior. Application, we will try what we know and change what we do. Conviction to move away from punishment and unpleasant events to manage behavior.
12 Behavioral strategies: Sensory strategies Understanding ABC s of behavior Reinforcement Being aware of the aggression cycle Knowing the steps of changing behavior
13 Sensory Integration Ability to take in, sort out, and connect information from the world around us. It s controlled by our central nervous system and information comes in through our senses. Sensory integration is the ability to make sense out of the environment in which we live.
14 Sensory Registration (Information Coming in Through Channels ) Taste Touch Movement Position Smell Sound Sight
15 Sensory Processing Making sense out of the information Information Comes In Sight Auditory Movement Position Taste Smell Touch Brain Respond
16 Response Behavioral Response: Reacting & responding to the information It s what we can see
17 Understanding the Cycle 2. Sensory Processing Making Sense of the Information 3. Behavioral Response 1. Sensory Registration Information coming in Reacting & responding to the information It s what we can see
18 We as educators: We can t change the brain and how it is processing sensory information. BUT We can change the sensory input going in And watch the behavioral response coming out.
19 Sensory Channels: Which ones work best for people with ASD? See Taste Smell Hear Position in space Move Touch
20 Sensory Channels Taste (hypersensitive) Smell See (Great Open road ) Hear (difficult) Position in space Move (can seek too much) Touch (needs to have control)
21 No Filter = Sensory Overload
22 Sensory overload = Too much sensory information coming into the brain at one time. The brain is not able to process all the information so the body reacts Fight Fright Freeze
23 Fight = These are the children who hit, kick, pinch, bite, and pull hair.
24 Fright = These are the children who run away, hide, and yell get away.
25 Freeze = These are the children that shut down and don t look like they are in our world. It is important for us to remember to help these children out by changing the sensory input coming in. These children often get left in their own little world too long.
26 Sensory input that can help regulate an individual Rhythmical movement Deep touch pressure Organized visual directions Decreased auditory input (noise) Heavy work activities (proprioception) Oral motor options
27 Sensory input that can escalate an individual Arrhythmic movement Light and unpredictable touch Disorganized visual input Environments with a lot of noise Too much movement Too much touch Too much talking
28 Sensory options at your establishment?
29 Having an understanding of sensory input can help change behavior This is a Positive Behavioral Support
30 What are the ABC s of Behavior? ABC Antecedents What happens before a particular behavior occurs Behavior What the person actually does in response to the antecedent Consequences What happens after a person performs a particular behavior
31 ABC s of Behavior B A C
32 Antecedents What happens before the behavior occurs: Setting events: could occur hours/days/weeks prior to the behavior (sleep pattern, illness, family issues, medication change, etc.) Immediate antecedents: act as triggers for the behavior (teacher says, peer takes a toy, schedule says cafe, etc.)
33 Behavior Positive or negative behaviors fall into this category Child can request a drink with a picture or verbally (positive behavior) Child can throw a cup onto the floor (negative behavior) Both are considered behaviors
34 Consequence What happens immediately following the target behavior Not always bad Reinforcement (causes an increase in behavior) Punishment
35 Example of ABC s Situation Antecedent Behavior Consequence At school playing a game & not sharing Told No don t do that or you ll lose your turn Says, No Mine! and runs off with the toy. Gets to keep toy, but teacher talks to him about empathy Child watching TV before dinner Mom turns off the TV for dinner, Let s eat Child screams, cries and turns on the TV Child gets to eat dinner on the couch while watching TV
36 ABC s of Changing Behavior B Reactive Intervention A Proactive Intervention C
37 Proactive Interventions: Visual schedule Routines Setting up the environment Sensory breaks Visual directions Time to process Partial participation Reinforcement plan
38 ABC s of Changing Behavior B Reactive Intervention A Proactive Intervention C
39 Reactive Interventions: Stay calm Keep the person with ASD and yourself safe Stop talking Give appropriate physical space Use visual supports and gestures Back your language down Adjust agenda accordingly
40 Keeping track of the ABC s Can help educators to be more proactive, therefore having less problem behaviors to deal with.
41 Reinforcement: Why do it? Helps people to do what needs to be done. Encourages people to try new things. Gives an end to an unfamiliar sequence. Help people deal better with stress and anxiety. May not be naturally reinforced by the activity itself.
42 What do you use for reinforcement at your establishment? We need to reinforce the small steps.
43 Reinforcing with strengths and interests is a key to supporting positive behavior with people with ASD because they are often not reinforced by the social interactions or the activity itself.
44 Behaviors They all have a reason And they have a level
45 Levels of Behavior Most severe Hurting themselves Aggressive toward others Damaging Property Less severe Irritating
46 The steps to changing behavior: 1. Determine the level 2. Determine the reason 3. Decide what you can replace the behavior with that is as fast and as easy 4. Determine how and who will teach the new behavior 5. Determine how you will reinforce the child for using the new behavior
47 Taking the time To follow the steps in changing behavior: Level of behavior Problem solve the reason Determining how to replace the behavior Decide how to teach the new behavior Teach it and reinforce the new behavior Will help in the Long Run
48 Aggression Cycle Post explosion Escalation Explosion
49 Being Aware of this cycle: Allows us to know when we may need to ride a tantrum out. Makes us aware that children need time to recover. Sometimes our interventions in the middle of a cycle make things worse.
50 Positive Behavioral Supports: Sensory strategies Understanding ABC s of behavior Reinforcement Being aware of the aggression cycle Knowing the steps of changing behavior
51 Understanding a child s behavior. Can help us understand their world!
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