Summer Assignment Coversheet

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1 Summer Assignment Coversheet Course: A.P. Chemistry Teachers Names: Mary Engels Assignment Title: Summer Assignment A Review Assignment Summary/Purpose: To review the Rules for Solubility, Oxidation Numbers, Significant Figures and Ions. It also reviews how to write and name binary ionic and binary covalent compounds, writing and balancing equations, and stoichiometry. When Assigned: End of current school year When Due: 3 rd Class Meeting Estimated time needed to complete the assignment: Approximately 6 hours. Description of how the assignment will be assessed and when: It will be graded for completion and correctness. Grade impact to overall grade (i.e. 5% of semester grade, 10% of quarter grade etc): Approximately 4% of the first quarter grade. Tools/resources needed to complete the assignment and where student can obtain them: Periodic table, calculator. A periodic table can be obtained online. If the student does not have a calculator, one needs to be purchased. (Scientific or graphing) Contact information if there are questions: Name: Mary Engels

2 A.P. Chemistry Summer Assignment for Instructor: Mary Engels Please review the Rules for Solubility, Oxidation Numbers, Significant Figures and Ions. Also review how to write and name binary ionic and binary covalent compounds. Complete the enclosed assignment. It reviews nomenclature/formula writing, writing and balancing equations, and stoichiometry. If you have any questions I may be contacted at the following address: Please be patient for a response as I will not be checking my on a daily basis. Please purchase an AP Chemistry Review book (your choice of author/publisher) for next year.

3 Please review the following rules below: Solubility Rules for Salts in Water 1. Most nitrate (NO 3 1 ) salts are soluble. 2. Most salts containing the alkali metals ions (Li +, Na +, K +, Cs +, Rb +, and the ammonium ion (NH 4 + ) are soluble. 3. Most chloride, bromide, and iodide salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are salts containing the Ag +, Pb +2, and Hg Most sulfates are soluble. Notable exceptions are BaSO 4, PbSO 4, Hg 2 SO 4, and CaSO Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. The important soluble hydroxides are NaOH and KOH. The compounds Ba(OH) 2, Sr(OH) 2, and Ca(OH) 2 are marginally soluble. 6. Most sulfides (S ), carbonates (CO 3 ) and phosphates (PO 4 3 ) salts are only slightly soluble. Rules for Assigning Oxidation States 1. An atom in a free element is zero, A monatomic ion is the same as its charge. 3. Fluorine is 1 in its compounds. 4. Oxygen is usually in compounds, except in peroxides in which case it is Hydrogen is +1 in a compound, except in metal hydrides in which case it is In a compound, the sum of all the oxidation numbers must total 0. Rules for Significant Figures 1. In multiplication/division, your answer must have the same number of significant figures as the value with the least number of significant figures. 2. In addition/subtraction, your answer must have the same number of decimal places as the value with the least number of decimal places. 3. Exact numbers, which may be due to counting or equalities such as 1 mol = 6.02 X atoms, never limit the number of significant figures in a calculation. 4. All nonzero digits are always significant. 5. Zero s: a. Leading zeros are never significant. b. Sandwiched zeros, zeros between nonzero numbers are always significant. c. Trailing zeros, are significant if there is a decimal and are not significant if there is no decimal.

4 Symbols & Charges for Ions Reference Sheet You are responsible for knowing the following symbols, their charges, and names. You are also responsible for using them correctly for writing chemical formulas and naming compounds. Practice!!!!!!! Monatomic Ions: Cation Symbol Name Anion Symbol Name H + hydrogen ion H hydride Li + lithium ion F fluoride Na + sodium ion Cl chloride K + potassium ion Br bromide Mg +2 magnesium ion I iodide Ca +2 calcium ion O oxide Sr +2 strontium ion S sulfide Ba +2 barium ion N 3 nitride Ag +1 silver ion P 3 phosphide Zn +2 zinc ion Al +3 aluminum ion Polyatomic Ions: Formula Name Formula Name NO 3 nitrate CrO 4 chromate NO 2 nitrite CrO 7 dichromate MnO 4 permanganate CN cyanide OH hydroxide O 2 peroxide CO 3 carbonate SO 3 sulfite 1 HCO 3 hydrogen carbonate 3 PO 3 phosphite SO 4 sulfate ClO 4 perchlorate 3 PO 4 phosphate ClO 2 chlorite + NH 4 ammonium ClO hypochlorite ClO 3 chlorate C 2 O 4 oxalate C 2 H 3 O 2 acetate S 2 O 3 thiosulfate The following symbols and charges are for reference purposes. You are expected to know these symbols and be able to determine charges from formulas or the name. Transition Metals: Cation Symbol IUPAC Name Cation Symbol IUPAC Name Cu +1 Copper (I) +2 Hg 2 Mercury (I) Cu +2 Copper (II) Hg +2 Mercury (II) Fe +2 Iron (II) Pb +2 Lead (II) Fe +3 Iron (III) Pb +4 Lead(IV) Sn +2 Tin (II) Co +2 Cobalt (II) Sn +4 Tin (IV) Co +3 Cobalt (III) Cr +2 Chromium (II) Ni +2 Nickel (II) Cr +3 Chromium (III) Ni +4 Nickel (IV) Mn +2 Manganese (II) Au +1 Gold (I) Mn +3 Manganese (III) Au +3 Gold (III)

5 AP Chemistry Summer Assignment Due: The 3 rd meeting of class Part I For the following: Answer on a separate sheet of paper Clearly label each answer Write and balance the equation (include phases of matter) You may need to predict the products for some reactions Identify the type of reaction Perform the indicated stoichiometry problem (show all work, units and significant figures) 1. How many grams of water are produced when g of ethane gas burn in the presence of excess oxygen? g of solid lithium hydroxide is added to an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. How many grams of lithium sulfate can be produced? g of aluminum wire complete react with excess copper (II) nitrate in solution. How many grams of copper metal are produced? 4. If 10.0 g of liquid hydrogen peroxide decomposes to form liquid water and oxygen gas. How may liters of oxygen gas at STP conditions? g Magnesium metal reacts with g of nitrogen to form magnesium nitride. How many grams of magnesium nitride are formed? Part II 1. Suppose a stable element with atomic number 120, symbol Q, has been discovered. a. Write the electron configuration for Q and circle the valence electron(s). b. Would Q be a metal or nonmetal? Explain. c. On the basis of periodic trends, would Q have the largest atomic radius in its group or would it have the smallest? Explain in terms of electronic structure. d. What would the most likely charge of the Q ion in stable compounds? e. Assume Q reacts to form a compound with the phosphate ion, PO 4 3. i. Write the formula for this compound. ii. Predict whether or not this compound would dissolve in water. Explain.

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