H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation."

Transcription

1 CEMICAL REACTIONS 1 ydrogen + Oxygen Water 2 + O 2 2 O reactants product(s) reactant substance before chemical change product substance after chemical change Conservation of Mass During a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. - number of atoms of each element is same before, during and after reaction. Reconsider above example Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation O O (balanced equation) - This is an example of a balanced chemical reaction. BALANCING CEMICAL EQUATIONS - ensures # of reactant atoms = # of product atoms C O 2 CO O Both sides have 2 C atoms, 4 atoms and 6 O atoms. Cu + S 8 Cu 2 S Fe 2 O 3 + C Fe + CO 2 Sc 2 O O Sc(O) 3 C 3 N 2 + O 2 CO O + N 2

2 - Sometimes it is more convenient to balance groups of atoms than individual atoms. - i. e., balance polyatomic ions 2 KBr + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 KNO 3 + PbBr 2 - Balance NO 3 - ions rather than N and O atoms. Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + Ca(ClO 3 ) 2 Fe(ClO 3 ) 3 + CaSO 4 - Balance ClO 3 - and SO 4 2- ions Cu(C 2 3 O 2 ) 2 + NaO Cu(O) 2 + NaC 2 3 O 2 AgNO 3 + CaCl 2 Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + AgCl Ba(ClO 4 ) 2 + Na 2 SO 4 BaSO 4 + NaClO 4 IONIC EQUATIONS AND TE AQUEOUS PASE Aqueous Phase Q: What happens to salt when it is dissolved in water? - It is a physical change but, how can that be? A: Solid salt is a collection of ions, Na + and Cl -, assembled in a lattice - Ions are surrounded by each other. When dissolved, the ions are surrounded by water - Thus, the ions themselves don t change, only their environment O O + O O ion surrounded by other ions ion surrounded by water molecules (solvent cage) Ions (or sometimes molecules) that are surrounded by water are in the aqueous phase.

3 Ionic compounds which are soluble (that is, dissolve in water) dissociate (that is, break apart) into dissolved cations and anions. 3 Examples: NaCl (aq) = Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) K 2 O (aq) = 2 K + (aq) + O 2- (aq) - note 2 K + ions dissociate for every K 2 O unit. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) = Ca 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) - ions dissociate, but polyatomic ions remain covalently bonded. *Not all compounds dissociate into ions when in the aqueous phase, but we will ignore this temporarily.* Aside: phases of reactants and products (g) gas (l) liquid (s) solid (aq) aqueous IONIC EQUATIONS - molecular equations where all ions in aqueous solution are written in dissociated form NET IONIC EQUATIONS - ionic equations where spectator ions (ions unchanged in reaction) are not included Molecular Equation 2 KBr (aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 2 KNO 3 (aq) + PbBr 2 (s) Ionic Equation 2 K + (aq) + 2 Br - (aq) + Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) 2 K + (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) + PbBr 2 (s) Net Ionic Equation Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 Br - (aq) PbBr 2 (s) Note removing spectator ions clarifies important part of reaction. Molecular Equation ClO 4 (aq) + NaO (aq) 2 O (l) + NaClO 4 (aq) Ionic Equation + (aq) + ClO 4 - (aq) + Na + (aq) + O - (aq) 2 O (l) + Na + (aq) + ClO 4 - (aq) Net Ionic Equation

4 4 Molecular Equation Fe (s) + CuSO 4 (aq) FeSO 4 (aq) + Cu (s) Ionic Equation Net Ionic Equation GENERAL TYPES OF REACTIONS 1) Combination - two or more substances react two form a single substance Generic reaction: A + B C a) formation reactions - elements compound 4 Fe (s) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s) 8 C (s) (g) C 8 18 (l) The rusting of iron The formation of octane, i.e., gasoline theoretically! b) hydration reactions - addition of water CaO (s) + 2 O (l) Ca(O) 2 (s) CaO (lime) when heated emits a very bright white light (limelight). Ca(O) 2 (hydrated lime) is added to plaster to make it harder. P 2 O 5 (s) O (l) 2 3 PO 4 (aq) P 2 O 5 is a very effective dehydration agent. 2) Combustion - combination with O 2 (as in burning fuel) - products are CO 2, 2 O and N 2 2 C 8 18 (l) + 25 O 2 (g) 16 CO 2 (g) O (g) 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) is the major component of gasoline. 4 C 3 NO 2 (l) + 7 O 2 (g) 4 CO 2 (g) O (g) + 2 N 2 (g) Aminomethane is used as the fuel in top fuel dragsters.

5 3) Decomposition - one substance decomposing into two or more substances Generic reaction: A B + C Examples: 5 CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) Calcium carbonate is the major component of seashells and egg shells. 2 NaClO 3 (s) 2 NaCl (s) + 3 O 2 (g) Sodium chlorate is used in the manufacture of bleach (sodium hypochlorite, NaClO). 4) Single replacement reactions - when a metal ion in a compound is replaced with another metal ion - some metal atoms are more willing to give away electrons than other metal atoms - the willingness of a metal atom to give away its electrons is called its activity Example SnSO 4 (aq) + Ni (s) NiSO 4 (aq) + Sn (s) Sn 2+ (aq) + Ni (s) Ni 2+ (aq) + Sn (s) - Ni replaces Sn 2+ - Ni is more active than Sn Does the reverse reaction occur? NiSO 4 (aq) + Sn (s) SnSO 4 (aq) + Ni (s) - Sn is not more active than Ni NO!! Tin bonds with iron very well and helps prevent the corrosion of iron. Tin cans are steel(iron) with thin covering of tin. Predicting Spontaneous Single Replacement Reactions - In a reaction between metal ion (in aqueous phase) and metal, if metal is more active than metal ion, reaction will proceed. - We need to have an activity series to assess relative activity of metals. Abbreviated Activity Series Na Al Zn Cr Fe Ni Sn Pb Cu Ag Au Increasing activity (willingness to be ionized)

6 Does the reaction, Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Cu(s) Pb (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 occur? 6 Does the reaction, FeO (s) + Zn (s) Fe (s) + ZnO (s) occur? - reactant metals are Fe 2+ and Zn Because zinc is more active than iron, it is used to protect iron from rusting (galvanizing). Does the reaction, Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + 2 Cr (s) 2 Al (s) + Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) occur? - reactant metals are Al 3+ and Cr Chromium is added to iron to make stainless steel. 5) Metathesis (double replacement) reactions - cations and anions in two ionic compounds switch places Examples: Pb(ClO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 KCl (aq) PbCl 2 (s) + 2 KClO 3 (aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + Ba(C 2 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2 NaC 2 3 O 2 (aq) There are many types of metathesis reactions. We will examine two. A.) Precipitation - When ions switch places, a precipitate (solid) forms. - We need to know solubility rules to predict if precipitate is formed. Solubility Rules Generally Soluble Compounds Anion Exceptions NO - - 3, C 2 3 O 2 None Cl -, Br -, I - Ag +, Pb SO 4 Pb 2+, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+ Generally Insoluble Compounds Anion Exceptions S 2- All alkali metals, N + 4, and Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+ CO 2-, 3-3 PO 4 + All alkali metals, N 4 O -, O 2- All alkali metals and Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+ ** Note all alkali metal and ammonium compounds are soluble.**

7 Using solubility rules to predict reaction - Reaction happens if precipitate is formed. - Reaction does not happen if precipitate is not formed. 7 Does the following reaction occur and what are its products? Na 2 S (aq) + Fe(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) To answer question, switch ions to form potential products. Na 2 S (aq) + Fe(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) NaNO 3 ( ) + FeS ( ) Is NaNO 3 or FeS insoluble? According solubility rules, FeS is insoluble. Therefore reaction occurs Balanced molecular equation is Na 2 S (aq) + Fe(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 2 NaNO 3 (aq) + FeS (s) Ionic equation is 2 Na + (aq) + S 2- (aq) + Fe 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) 2 Na + (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) + FeS (s) Net ionic equation is Fe 2+ (aq) + S 2- (aq) FeS (s) Does the following reaction occur and if so, what are its products? Cesium chloride (aq) + Calcium nitrate (aq) CsCl (aq) + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) CsNO 3 ( ) + CaCl 2 ( ) Is CsNO 3 or CaCl 2 insoluble? According solubility rules, both are soluble. Therefore no reaction occurs. Balanced molecular equation is 2 CsCl (aq) + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 2 CsNO 3 (aq) + CaCl 2 (aq) Ionic equation is 2 Cs + (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) + Ca 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) 2 Cs + (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) + Ca 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) Net ionic equation is Zip, zero, nothing, nada!!! - All the ions are spectator ions, no reaction occurs.

8 Does the following reaction occur and what are its products? Ammonium sulfate (aq) + Barium acetate (aq) 8 (N 4 ) 2 SO 4 (aq) + Ba(C 2 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) N 4 C 2 3 O 2 ( ) + BaSO 4 ( ) Is N 4 C 2 3 O 2 or BaSO 4 insoluble? Balanced molecular equation is Ionic equation is Net ionic equation is Barium sulfate is ingested by X-ray patients to improve the visibility of GI tract to X-ray radiation. B.) Neutralization - When ions switch places and water is formed. - General neutralization reaction is acid + base salt + water - Salt is general name for an ionic compound. - Acids have + ion. - Bases have O - ion. This is a very simplified view of acids and bases. Cl (aq) + NaO (aq) 2 O (l) + NaCl (aq) acid base water salt Ionic equation + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + Na + + O - (aq) 2 O (l) + Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Net ionic equation + (aq) + O - (aq) 2 O (l) - all neutralization reactions have this net ionic equation 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 LiO (aq) 2 2 O (l) + Li 2 SO 4 (aq) acid base water salt

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

Steps for balancing a chemical equation

Steps for balancing a chemical equation The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation

More information

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

More information

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction Introduction Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical reactions occur all around us. How do we make sense of these changes? What patterns can we find? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 2004, 2002, 1989 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom used provided original copyright is included. David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator,

More information

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ Experiment 5 Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. To observe the various criteria that are used to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. 2. To convert word equations into balanced inorganic chemical

More information

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

More information

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up )

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up ) TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions can be classified into one of five categories by examining the types of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Knowing the types of reactions can help

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 11 Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions An oxidation and reduction reaction occurs in both aqueous solutions and in reactions where substances are burned

More information

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

More information

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1 Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name:

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name: 6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions a) Synthesis (A + B AB) Synthesis reactions are also known as reactions. When this occurs two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a. A + B AB, where A and

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution:

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 8.1 Evidence for a Reaction Which of the following is experimental evidence for a chemical reaction? (a) Pouring vinegar on baking soda gives foamy bubbles. (b) Mixing two solutions produces

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Reactions in Aqueous Solution CHAPTER 7 1. Water is the most universal of all liquids. Water has a relatively large heat capacity and a relatively large liquid range, which means it can absorb the heat liberated by many reactions while

More information

Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. AB A + B. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 A + B C. AB + C AC + B (or AB + C CB + A)

Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. AB A + B. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 A + B C. AB + C AC + B (or AB + C CB + A) 78 Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. It is convenient to classify chemical reactions into one of several general types. Some of the more common, important, reactions are shown below.

More information

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions.

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. A chemical equation is a concise shorthand expression which represents the relative amount of reactants and products involved in a chemical

More information

Aqueous Chemical Reactions

Aqueous Chemical Reactions Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Aqueous Chemical Reactions The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to three major categories of reactions that occur in aqueous solutions: precipitation reactions,

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept

Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept 3 Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept Content 3.1 Symbols, Formulae and Chemical equations 3.2 Concept of Relative Mass 3.3 Mole Concept and Stoichiometry Learning Outcomes Candidates should be

More information

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions Chemistry Themed Types of Reactions 1 2 Chemistry in the Community-2015-2016 Types of Reactions Date In-Class Assignment Homework T 10/20 TEST on Reactivity of Metals and Redox None W 10/21 Late Start

More information

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

More information

Stoichiometry Review

Stoichiometry Review Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen

More information

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

More information

Unit 4 Conservation of Mass and Stoichiometry

Unit 4 Conservation of Mass and Stoichiometry 9.1 Naming Ions I. Monatomic Ions A. Monatomic ions 1. Ions formed from a single atom Unit 4 Conservation of Mass and Stoichiometry B. Naming Monatomic Ions 1. Monatomic cations are a. Identified by the

More information

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS Problems: 1-6, 9-13, 16, 20, 31-40, 43-64, 65 (a,b,c,e), 66(a-d,f), 69(a-d,f), 70(a-e), 71-78, 81-82, 87-96 A compound will display the same properties (e.g. melting

More information

Balancing Reaction Equations Oxidation State Reduction-oxidation Reactions

Balancing Reaction Equations Oxidation State Reduction-oxidation Reactions Balancing Reaction Equations Oxidation State Reduction-oxidation Reactions OCN 623 Chemical Oceanography Balanced chemical reactions are the math of chemistry They show the relationship between the reactants

More information

EXPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions)

EXPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions) EPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions) PURPOSE a) Reactions of metals with acids and salt solutions b) Determine the activity of metals c) Write a balanced molecular equation, complete

More information

= 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact).

= 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact). CHAPTER 8 1. 100 washers 0.110 g 1 washer 100. g 1 washer 0.110 g = 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact). = 909 washers 2. The empirical formula is CFH from the structure given. The empirical formula

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Introduction This document is intended to help you review the basics of writing

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

1/7/2013. Chapter 9. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 9.

1/7/2013. Chapter 9. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 9. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby 9 Reactions in Aqueous s Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous s Kent L. McCorkle Cosumnes River College Sacramento, CA Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill

More information

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: Write the formulas for the following compounds: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate 2. Manganese (IV) sulfide 3. Barium permanganate 4. Sulfuric acid 5. Silver (I) carbonate 6. Aluminum acetate

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Gezahegn Chaka, Ph.D., and Sudha Madhugiri, Ph.D., Collin College Department of Chemistry Objectives Introduction To observe physical and chemical changes. To identify

More information

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS 1 CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS The Chemical Equation A chemical equation concisely shows the initial (reactants) and final (products) results of

More information

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units)

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units) CHEM 101/105 Stoichiometry, as applied to Aqueous Solutions containing Ionic Solutes Lect-05 MOLES - a quantity of substance. Quantities of substances can be expressed as masses, as numbers, or as moles.

More information

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily. The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

More information

Module Four Balancing Chemical Reactions. Chem 170. Stoichiometric Calculations. Module Four. Balancing Chemical Reactions

Module Four Balancing Chemical Reactions. Chem 170. Stoichiometric Calculations. Module Four. Balancing Chemical Reactions Chem 170 Stoichiometric Calculations Module Four Balancing Chemical Reactions DePauw University Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Page 1 Introduction to Module Four When making a cheeseburger you

More information

Santa Monica College Chemistry 11

Santa Monica College Chemistry 11 Types of Reactions Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are as follows: To perform and observe the results of a variety of chemical reactions. To become familiar with the observable signs of chemical

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Stoichiometry is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms.

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms. Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions 5.1 The Mole Collection Terms A collection term states a specific number of items. 1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts 1 ream of paper = 500 sheets 1 case = 24 cans 1

More information

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals.

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. 2.21 Ionic Bonding 100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. Forming ions Metal atoms lose electrons to form +ve ions. Non-metal

More information

Monatomic Ions. A. Monatomic Ions In order to determine the charge of monatomic ions, you can use the periodic table as a guide:

Monatomic Ions. A. Monatomic Ions In order to determine the charge of monatomic ions, you can use the periodic table as a guide: Monatomic Ions Ions are atoms that have either lost or gained electrons. While atoms are neutral, ions are charged particles. A loss of electrons results in a positive ion or cation (pronounced cat-eye-on

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Reduction. The gain of electron(s), causing the oxidation number of a species to

Reduction. The gain of electron(s), causing the oxidation number of a species to Reactions Word Coefficient Decomposition Double replacement Law of conservation of charge Law of conservation of energy Law of conservation of mass Mole ratio Oxidation Precipitate Product Reactant Reaction

More information

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions HOMEWORK 4A Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Indicate whether a reaction will occur or not in each of following. Wtiring a balcnced equation is not necessary. (a) Magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric

More information

Chapter 4. Review Skills

Chapter 4. Review Skills Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions ow that you understand the basic structural differences between different kinds of substances, you are ready to begin learning about the chemical changes

More information

Stoichiometry. What is the atomic mass for carbon? For zinc?

Stoichiometry. What is the atomic mass for carbon? For zinc? Stoichiometry Atomic Mass (atomic weight) Atoms are so small, it is difficult to discuss how much they weigh in grams We use atomic mass units an atomic mass unit (AMU) is one twelfth the mass of the catbon-12

More information

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES BUILDING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SESSIONS APPENDIX B: EXERCISES Molecular mass, the mole, and mass percent Relative atomic and molecular mass Relative atomic mass (A r ) is a constant that expresses the ratio

More information

Redox and Electrochemistry

Redox and Electrochemistry Name: Thursday, May 08, 2008 Redox and Electrochemistry 1. A diagram of a chemical cell and an equation are shown below. When the switch is closed, electrons will flow from 1. the Pb(s) to the Cu(s) 2+

More information

General Chemistry II Chapter 20

General Chemistry II Chapter 20 1 General Chemistry II Chapter 0 Ionic Equilibria: Principle There are many compounds that appear to be insoluble in aqueous solution (nonelectrolytes). That is, when we add a certain compound to water

More information

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems 1. What are the SI units for a. Wavelength of light b. frequency of light c. speed of light Meter hertz (s -1 ) m s -1 (m/s) 2. T/F (correct

More information

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document. If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to

More information

Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

More information

Decomposition. Composition

Decomposition. Composition Decomposition 1. Solid ammonium carbonate is heated. 2. Solid calcium carbonate is heated. 3. Solid calcium sulfite is heated in a vacuum. Composition 1. Barium oxide is added to distilled water. 2. Phosphorus

More information

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are composed of ions. An ion is an atom or molecule with an electrical charge. Monatomic ions are formed from single atoms that have gained or lost electrons.

More information

4.1 Aqueous Solutions. Chapter 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution. Electrolytes. Strong Electrolytes. Weak Electrolytes

4.1 Aqueous Solutions. Chapter 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution. Electrolytes. Strong Electrolytes. Weak Electrolytes Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution 4.1 Aqueous Solutions Solution homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances Solute the substance present in a smaller amount (usually solid in Chap. 4) Solvent the

More information

Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds. Section I: Writing the Name from the Formula

Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds. Section I: Writing the Name from the Formula Purpose: Theory: Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds 1. To become familiar with the rules of chemical nomenclature, based on the classification of compounds. 2. To write the proper name of the

More information

2. Write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following spontaneous reactions.

2. Write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following spontaneous reactions. 1. Using the Activity Series on the Useful Information pages of the exam write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following reactions. Identify all products phases as either (g)as,

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

More information

Unit 6 The Mole Concept

Unit 6 The Mole Concept Chemistry Form 3 Page 62 Ms. R. Buttigieg Unit 6 The Mole Concept See Chemistry for You Chapter 28 pg. 352-363 See GCSE Chemistry Chapter 5 pg. 70-79 6.1 Relative atomic mass. The relative atomic mass

More information

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu Calculations and Chemical Equations Atomic mass: Mass of an atom of an element, expressed in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit (amu): 1.661 x 10-24 g Atomic weight: Average mass of all isotopes of a given

More information

1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions

1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions 1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions Couple E 0 Couple E 0 Br 2 (l) + 2e 2Br (aq) +1.06 V AuCl 4 + 3e Au + 4Cl +1.00 V Ag + + e Ag +0.80 V Hg 2+ 2 + 2e 2 Hg +0.79 V Fe 3+ (aq) + e Fe 2+ (aq) +0.77 V Cu 2+

More information

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

More information

Atomic Structure. Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells

Atomic Structure. Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells Atomic Structure called nucleons Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells The number of protons equals the atomic number This

More information

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4)

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Chemical Equations 1. Balancing Chemical Equations (from Chapter 3) Adjust coefficients to get equal numbers of each kind of element on both sides of arrow.

More information

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual

More information

Question Bank Electrolysis

Question Bank Electrolysis Question Bank Electrolysis 1. (a) What do you understand by the terms (i) electrolytes (ii) non-electrolytes? (b) Arrange electrolytes and non-electrolytes from the following substances (i) sugar solution

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms in which some of the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed to give different chemical structures. In a chemical reaction,

More information

Types of Reactions. CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions. Introduction. General Information

Types of Reactions. CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions. Introduction. General Information Introduction CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions We often study chemistry to understand how and why chemicals (reactants) can be transformed into different chemicals (products) via a chemical reaction: Reactants

More information

Writing Chemical Equations

Writing Chemical Equations Writing Chemical Equations Chemical equations for solution reactions can be written in three different forms; molecular l equations, complete ionic i equations, and net ionic equations. In class, so far,

More information

Polyatomic ions can form ionic compounds just as monatomic ions.

Polyatomic ions can form ionic compounds just as monatomic ions. 1 POLYATOMIC IONS We have seen that atoms can lose or gain electrons to become ions. Groups of atoms can also become ions. These groups of atoms are called polyatomic ions. Examples: O hydroxide ion NO

More information

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses B. Calculations of moles C. Calculations of number of atoms from moles/molar masses 1. Avagadro

More information

CONSERVATION OF MASS During a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. - i. e. the number of atoms of each element remains constant

CONSERVATION OF MASS During a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. - i. e. the number of atoms of each element remains constant 1 CHEMICAL REACTINS Example: Hydrogen + xygen Water H + H + + - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation. reactants products + H + H (balanced equation)

More information

Common Ion Effects. CH 3 CO 2 (aq) + Na + (aq)

Common Ion Effects. CH 3 CO 2 (aq) + Na + (aq) Common Ion Effects If two reactions both involve the same ion, then one reaction can effect the equilibrium position of the other reaction. The ion that appears in both reactions is the common ion. Buffers

More information

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation INFORMATION Chemical equations are symbolic devices used to represent actual chemical reactions. The left side of the equation, called the reactants, is separated

More information

Chapter 3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry. Lecture Presentation. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT

Chapter 3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry. Lecture Presentation. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions and Reaction James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT The study of the mass relationships in chemistry Based on the Law of Conservation of Mass

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Sample Exercise 17.1 Calculating the ph When a Common Ion is Involved What is the ph of a solution made by adding 0.30 mol of acetic acid and 0.30 mol of sodium acetate to enough water to make 1.0 L of

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

More information