ESO201A: Thermodynamics


 Gwendolyn Bradley
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 ESO201A: Thermodynamics Instructor: Sameer Khandekar First Semester: Lecture #1: Course File Introduction to Thermodynamics, Importance, Definitions Continuum, System: closed, open and isolated, Boundary: real and imaginary, Control mass and control volume, Properties of a system, State of a system, Equilibrium: Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical, Phase equilibrium, Quasiequilibrium process, Continuum Thermodynamics, Simplecompressible and complex systems, The State Postulate Lecture #2 Overview of 2stroke, 4stroke and Wankel engine (To highlight unsteady and nonuniform processes), Intensive and Extensive properties, Concept of temperature from Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Linear dependence of temperature on pressure for constant volume gas thermometers, temperature as a manifestation of kinetic energy, absolute thermodynamic scale of temperature  Kelvin scale, Other scales, Overview of temperature, measuring devices:liquid crystal sheet, RTD, infrared thermography, thermocouples, mercury thermometers, Pressure measurement  absolute and gauge pressure, piezoelectric transducer, manometer, Pascal s law, hydrostatic law, Barometer. Lecture #3 Classification of Energymechanical, electrical, chemical, thermal, nuclear, magnetic etc., Microscopic and Macroscopic forms, Internal energy, Macroscopic  kinetic, gravitational potential, Flow work, Mechanical forms of energy, Microscopic  translational, rotational and vibrational energies of atoms and molecules, electronic translational, rotational and spin, Chemical bond energy, Nuclear energy, Interactions in Open and Closed Systems, Latent and specific heat, manifestation of heat energy into either temperature or in other microscopic forms of energy. Lecture #4 Heat and Work interactions, Different processesadiabatic, isothermal, isobaric, isochoric, Sign convention for heat and work, Similarities between heat and work, Point and Path functions, Mechanical form of workdisplacement work, shaft work, surface tension work, spring work, stretching work, nonmechanical forms of workelectrical work, magnetic work, generalized expression for work done. Lecture #5 Overview of Energy conversion systems Examples (on PPT) jet engine, marine engine, roots blower, engine turbocharger, Pelton wheel etc., Introduction to First law of thermodynamics, Concept of Total energy and its change, Work done in an adiabatic process, Work done and energy change in a cyclic process, Thermodynamic efficiency of a subsystem and total efficiency of a system, Highlighting the connection between Energy and Environment.
2 Lecture #6 Definition of pure substance, phases: solids liquid and gases, principal phase and subphases, Demonstration of mechanical boiling, Introduction to phase diagrams, Tv diagram, Saturation pressure and saturation temperature, Sensible heating, Latent heat of vaporization, Compressed or subcooled liquid, Saturated liquid, Saturated and superheated vapor, Critical temperature, pressure and volume, Maintaining isothermal conditions for a system. Lecture #7 (On PPT) Phase diagrams and tables, PV, TV and PT diagrams, PVT surfaces (for substances which expand and contract on freezing, respectively), Reading phase diagrams, latent heat of fusion and evaporation, triple point, concept of regelation, allotropic forms of solid phases, Boyles law, Charles law for gas phases, Introduction to Property Tables, Enthalpy as a combination property. Lecture #8 Introduction to supercritical fluids, Phase diagram of CO 2, H 2O, Properties of wet mixture, dryness fraction or quality, locating a mixture on 2phase diagram, Formulation of mixture properties, isoquality lines on 2phase diagrams, quality as a thermodynamic property inside the 2phase dome, reading property data from superheated vapor, 2phase region and compressed liquid table, characteristics of superheated vapor and compressed liquids, 2 example problems Lecture #9 Ideal Gas law and its validity, reasons of deviation from ideal gas behavior, van der Waals correction for pressure and volume, Estimation of constants a and b using critical point data, BeattieBridgeman equation, Benedict Webb Ruben Equation, Virial equation, (On PPT)  solution of van der Waals equation of state, Comparison of percentage errors for different equations of state, Use of Ideal gas equation with compressibility chart. Lecture #10 Limitations of van der Waals equation, Introduction to metastable states, reduced pressure and temperature, generalized compressibility chart, Principle of corresponding states, 3 example problems on the use of charts and tables Lecture #11 First law applied to a closed system, Moving boundary work, boundary work done in different quasiequilibrium processes isobaric, isochoric, isothermal and polytropic processes, example problem involving shaft work, friction work and spring work, (On PPT) Pistons in different IC engine configurations. Lecture #12 Introduction to heat capacity, Expression for heat addition at constant pressure and constant volume, Calculation of u, h, C p, C v for an ideal gas, Relation between Cp and Cv for an ideal gas, heat capacity for solids and liquids. Lecture #13 Specific Heat Ratio for monoatomic, diatomic and polyatomic gases, adiabatic process for an ideal gas for a simple compressible system, Comparison of compression work done in adiabatic and isothermal processes, Slope of adiabatic and isothermal processes on P_V diagram, Constant internal energy process, (On
3 PPT) Different types of compressorsair cooled, water cooled, 2stage etc., one example problem. Lecture #14 First law applied to an open system, comparison of control mass and control volume approach, conservation of mass principle applied to an open system, steady and unsteady system, Incompressible system, Concept of flow work. Lecture #15 Derivation of energy equation for control volume, Examples of typical engineering systems, Turbines, Compressors, Heat Exchangers, Pipe flow, pumps. Lecture #16 Completion of discussion on steady flow processes, Mixing, Isenthalpic process, JouleThompson effect (only introduce), Discussion of Quiz #1, two example problems of Chapter 4. Lecture #17 Unsteady Control Volume Processes, Charging and discharging of gas cylinders, need for second law of thermodynamics, discussion on quality of energy, thermal efficiency and level of perfection of thermodynamic systems, concept of thermal source and sink, block diagram of a typical thermal power plant to illustrate second law. Lecture #18 Need of heat rejection in a cyclic process, Clausius and KelvinPlanck, statements of second law of thermodynamics, Efficiency analysis of a thermal power plant and a refrigeration cycle, coefficient of performance for refrigerator and heat pump cycle, equivalence of KelvinPlanck and Clausius statements. Lecture #19 Reversible and irreversible processes, internal, external and totally reversible processes and their examples, internally reversible isothermal process, heat transfer processes, The Carnot s heat engine cycle. Lecture #20 Carnot cycle implications, The Carnot principles, Thermodynamic temperature scale, Thermal efficiency of a reversible engine as a function of high and low temperature reservoirs and its functional form, Kelvin scale of temperature or absolute temperature scale, proof of Q_add/Q_rej = T_H/T_L Lecture #21 Clausius inequality its validity, Proof and implications, the increase of entropy principle. Lecture #22 Entropy change of a control mass during an irreversible process, entropy generation for reversible and irreversible processes, Entropy change for an isolated system, Discussion on equilibrium states w.r.t. increase of entropy principle MID TERM COMPLETE
4 Lecture #23 Property diagrams involving entropy, TdS relations, TS diagram, HS diagram, Representation of Carnot s cycle on TS, PV diagram. Entropy change for solid and liquid phases, Entropy change for an Ideal Gas, Isentropic processes for an Ideal Gas. Lecture #24 Entropy change in rate form, entropy balance for control mass and control volume, generalized equation for entropy change in a CV, entropy change and steady flow energy equation for reversible adiabatic process and reversible isothermal process, entropy change for an adiabatic nozzle, Bernoulli's equation derivation. Lecture #25 Isentropic efficiency of steady flow systems  gas turbine, steam turbine, nozzle, detailed analysis of a compressor, comparison of reversible adiabatic and reversible isothermal processes to get an ideal benchmarking process for a compressor, isentropic efficiency of a compressor, use of intercooler in intermediate stages of compression to achieve nearly isothermal process. Lecture #26 Condition for minimum work associated with compression with intercooling, reversible adiabatic and reversible isothermal efficiencies of compressor, Introduction to the concept of exergy or work potential, definitions, dead state, forms of exergy, exergy of kinetic and potential energy. Lecture #27 Exergy, reversible work, useful work, irreversibility (destruction of exergy), second law efficiency, Exergy calculation for a closed system (control mass), example problem, difference between first law and second law efficiency. Lecture #28 Exergy due to flowing mass, ways of increasing exergy of a system (heat, work and mass), exergy balance for a closed system, decrease of exergy principle, exergy of an isolated system for a completely reversible and irreversible system, exergy balance for a closed system. Lecture #29 Exergy balance equations in rate form (Similarities/differences of the functional form with energy conservation and entropy balance equation), Exergy analysis for a control volume and for a steady flow system, exergy destruction expression for an isentropic turbine, adiabatic nozzle and compressor, example problem  calculation of rate of entropy generation and rate of exergy destruction associated with heat transfer, system and extended system, second law efficiency (exergy based) of turbines and compressors. Lecture #30 Thermodynamic analysis of combustion, Conventional and nonconventional fuels, complete and incomplete combustion, stoichiometric analysis, air/fuel ratio, relative air/fuel ratio, equivalence ratio, constant volume and constant pressure combustion, heat of reaction at constant volume and constant pressure.
5 Lecture #31 Concept of higher and lower heating/calorific value, reference state for energy calculations, internal energy/enthalpy vs. temperature graph for reactants and products, Adiabatic flame temperature of fuel, concept of formation reaction, heat of formation, standard heat of formation, the net enthalpy of a substance relative to a standard state. Lecture #32 Introduction to thermodynamic power cycles, classification, gas power cycles, heat addition and rejection at constant temperature and pressure, characteristics of fuel (gasoline and diesel), operation of a typical four stroke engine, Limitations of Carnot cycle for realtime engineering systems, Lecture #33 Analysis of Otto and diesel cycles and derivation of thermal efficiencies, compression ratio and cutoff ratio, concept of relative efficiency, analysis of dual cycle (as homework), Real cycles and some brief differences, Solved problem. Lecture #34 Vapor Power cycles, Carnot cycle and its limitations, Modified Carnot cycle or Rankine cycle, Detailed analysis of components of Rankine cycle, heat input, work output and thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle, ways to improve thermal efficiency and network output from a Rankine cycle and their limitationsby increasing boiler pressure or lowering of condenser pressure, Reheating or turbine staging, super critical boilers. Lecture #35 Actual Rankine cycle, isentropic pump and turbine efficiencies, pressure drops in a typical power plant, ways to improve thermal efficiency, reheat and regeneration processes as a means of improving thermal efficiency of a plant, detailed analysis of regeneration, numerical problem on steam power plant with reheat. Lecture #36 Discussion on second law of thermodynamics and entropy, Refrigerator and heat pump, the reversed Carnot cycle as refrigeration cycle and its limitations, the reversed Rankine cycle and its limitations, the ideal and actual vapor compression refrigeration cycles, discussion on refrigerants to be used in the refrigeration cycles  ammonia, sulfur dioxide, Freon 12, R134a, criteria for selecting refrigerants and their limitations. Lecture #37 (Course reaction Survey completed in first 10 minutes) Introduction to Brayton Cycle, Pressure ration, Analysis and thermal efficiency, Gas refrigeration cycle, Reversed Brayton cycle and its COP, example problem on reversed Brayton cycle, Discussion on working fluids and tonnage rating of refrigerators. Lecture #38 Thermodynamic Potentials  Internal energy, Enthalpy, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, expressions for U, H, F, G in terms of measurable quantities, derivation of Maxwell equations using properties of partial
6 derivatives and point functions, extraction of primary definition of temperature, pressure and volume from thermodynamic potentials, derivation of Clapeyron and ClausiusClapeyron equations, slope of PT diagram. Lecture #39 Generalized relation for change of internal energy, enthalpy and entropy, recovering the ideal gas change relations from the generalized relations, Isothermal compressibility and Volumetric expansivity, Difference between Cp and Cv, Discussion on use of Maxewell equations for generating property tables.
FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS System: Quantity of matter (constant mass) or region in space (constant volume) chosen for study. Closed system: Can exchange energy but not mass; mass is constant
More informationESO 201A/202. End Sem Exam 120 Marks 3 h 19 Nov Roll No. Name Section
ESO 201A/202 End Sem Exam 120 Marks 3 h 19 Nov 2014 Roll No. Name Section Answer Questions 1 and 2 on the Question Paper itself. Answer Question 3, 4 and 5 on the Answer Booklet provided. At the end of
More informationThere is no general classification of thermodynamic cycle. The following types will be discussed as those are included in the course curriculum
THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES There is no general classification of thermodynamic cycle. The following types will be discussed as those are included in the course curriculum 1. Gas power cycles a) Carnot cycle
More informationUNITIII PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCE AND STEAM POWER CYCLE
UNITIII PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCE AND STEAM POWER CYCLE Pure Substance A Pure substance is defined as a homogeneous material, which retains its chemical composition even though there may be a change
More informationLesson 5 Review of fundamental principles Thermodynamics : Part II
Lesson 5 Review of fundamental principles Thermodynamics : Part II Version ME, IIT Kharagpur .The specific objectives are to:. State principles of evaluating thermodynamic properties of pure substances
More informationEntropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics (SL) Entropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics Explain and manipulate the second law State and illustrate by example the second law of thermodynamics Write both the
More informationLesson 10 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems
Lesson 0 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems Version ME, II Kharagpur he specific objectives of the lesson: his lesson discusses the most commonly used refrigeration system, ie Vapour compression
More informationApplied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture  10 Steam Power Cycle, Steam Nozzle Good afternoon everybody.
More information4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Work. Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics 41 Chapter 4 Thermodynamics 4.1 Introduction This chapter focusses on the turbine cycle:thermodynamics and heat engines. The objective is to provide enough understanding of the turbine
More informationEntropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Adiabatic Expansion of Gases
Lecture 7 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 15/08/07 The Adiabatic Expansion of Gases In an adiabatic process no heat is transferred, Q=0 = C P / C V is assumed to be constant during this process
More informationAn introduction to thermodynamics applied to Organic Rankine Cycles
An introduction to thermodynamics applied to Organic Rankine Cycles By : Sylvain Quoilin PhD Student at the University of Liège November 2008 1 Definition of a few thermodynamic variables 1.1 Main thermodynamics
More informationBasic Concepts of Thermodynamics
Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it. recise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and prevents possible
More informationUNIT 5 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
UNIT REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS Refrigeration Systems Structure. Introduction Objectives. Vapour Compression Systems. Carnot Vapour Compression Systems. Limitations of Carnot Vapour Compression Systems with
More informationThe First Law of Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics (FL) The First Law of Thermodynamics Explain and manipulate the first law Write the integral and differential forms of the first law Describe the physical meaning of each
More informationThe Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Second aw of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics asserts that processes occur in a certain direction and that the energy has quality as well as quantity. The first law places no restriction
More informationThe First Law of Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Processes (isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, adiabatic) Reversible and Irreversible Processes Heat Engines Refrigerators and Heat Pumps The Carnot
More informationPROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach Seventh Edition in SI Units Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles McGrawHill, 2011 Chapter 3 PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Mehmet Kanoglu University of Gaziantep Copyright
More informationEsystem = 0 = Ein Eout
AGENDA: I. Introduction to Thermodynamics II. First Law Efficiency III. Second Law Efficiency IV. Property Diagrams and Power Cycles V. Additional Material, Terms, and Variables VI. Practice Problems I.
More informationAPPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES
APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES INTRODUCTION This tutorial is designed for students wishing to extend their knowledge of thermodynamics to a more
More informationSheet 8:Chapter C It is less than the thermal efficiency of a Carnot cycle.
Thermo 1 (MEP 261) Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Yunus A. Cengel & Michael A. Boles 7 th Edition, McGrawHill Companies, ISBN9780073529325, 2008 Sheet 8:Chapter 9 9 2C How does the thermal
More informationTHE UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
THE UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD & TOBAGO FINAL ASSESSMENT/EXAMINATIONS JANUARY/APRIL 2013 Course Code and Title: Programme: THRM3001 Engineering Thermodynamics II Bachelor of Applied Sciences Date and Time:
More informationApplied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture  7 Ideal Gas Laws, Different Processes Let us continue
More informationME 211 TERMODYNAMICS I
ME 211 TERMODYNAMICS I Prof. Dr. Haşmet Türkoğlu Asst. Prof. Dr. Ekin Özgirgin YAPICI Çankaya University Faculty of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department Fall, 2016 1 CHAPTER 1: INTORDUCTION Thermodynamics
More informationUNIT 2 REFRIGERATION CYCLE
UNIT 2 REFRIGERATION CYCLE Refrigeration Cycle Structure 2. Introduction Objectives 2.2 Vapour Compression Cycle 2.2. Simple Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle 2.2.2 Theoretical Vapour Compression
More informationEsystem = 0 = Ein Eout
AGENDA: I. Introduction to Thermodynamics II. First Law Efficiency III. Second Law Efficiency IV. Property Diagrams and Power Cycles V. Additional Material, Terms, and Variables VI. Practice Problems I.
More informationENGINEERING COUNCIL CERTIFICATE LEVEL THERMODYNAMIC, FLUID AND PROCESS ENGINEERING C106 TUTORIAL 5 STEAM POWER CYCLES
ENGINEERING COUNCIL CERTIFICATE LEVEL THERMODYNAMIC, FLUID AND PROCESS ENGINEERING C106 TUTORIAL 5 STEAM POWER CYCLES When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to do the following. Explain
More informationStirling heat engine Internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) Diesel engine Steam engine (Rankine cycle) Kitchen Refrigerator
Lecture. Real eat Engines and refrigerators (Ch. ) Stirling heat engine Internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) Diesel engine Steam engine (Rankine cycle) Kitchen Refrigerator Carnot Cycle  is not very
More informationME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING. PartB (16Marks questions)
ME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING PartB (16Marks questions) 1. Drive and expression for the air standard efficiency of Otto cycle in terms of volume ratio. (16) 2. Drive an expression for the air standard efficiency
More informationOUTCOME 4 STEAM AND GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT. TUTORIAL No. 8 STEAM CYCLES
UNIT 61: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Unit code: D/601/1410 QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 4 STEAM AND GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT TUTORIAL No. 8 STEAM CYCLES 4 Understand the operation of steam and gas
More information Know basic of refrigeration  Able to analyze the efficiency of refrigeration system 
Refrigeration cycle Objectives  Know basic of refrigeration  Able to analyze the efficiency of refrigeration system  contents Ideal VaporCompression Refrigeration Cycle Actual VaporCompression Refrigeration
More informationAn analysis of a thermal power plant working on a Rankine cycle: A theoretical investigation
An analysis of a thermal power plant working on a Rankine cycle: A theoretical investigation R K Kapooria Department of Mechanical Engineering, BRCM College of Engineering & Technology, Bahal (Haryana)
More information1.5. Which thermodynamic property is introduced using the zeroth law of thermodynamics?
CHAPTER INTRODUCTION AND BASIC PRINCIPLES. (Tutorial). Determine if the following properties of the system are intensive or extensive properties: Property Intensive Extensive Volume Density Conductivity
More informationThe Second Law of Thermodynamics
Objectives MAE 320  Chapter 6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics The content and the pictures are from the text book: Çengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, McGrawHill,
More informationTHERMODYNAMICS NOTES  BOOK 2 OF 2
THERMODYNAMICS & FLUIDS (Thermodynamics level 1\Thermo & Fluids Module Thermo Book 2ContentsDecember 07.doc) UFMEQU201 THERMODYNAMICS NOTES  BOOK 2 OF 2 Students must read through these notes and
More informationFinal Exam Review Questions PHY Final Chapters
Final Exam Review Questions PHY 2425  Final Chapters Section: 17 1 Topic: Thermal Equilibrium and Temperature Type: Numerical 12 A temperature of 14ºF is equivalent to A) 10ºC B) 7.77ºC C) 25.5ºC D) 26.7ºC
More informationThermodynamics [ENGR 251] [Lyes KADEM 2007]
CHAPTER II Properties of Pure Substances II.1. What is a pure substance? A pure substance is defined as a substance that has a fixed chemical composition (example: water; Co 2 ; nitrogen; ). A mixture
More informationLecture 36 (Walker 18.8,18.56,)
Lecture 36 (Walker 18.8,18.56,) Entropy 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics Dec. 11, 2009 Help Session: Today, 3:104:00, TH230 Review Session: Monday, 3:104:00, TH230 Solutions to practice Lecture 36 final on
More informationChapter 11. Refrigeration Cycles
Chapter 11 Refrigeration Cycles The vapor compression refrigeration cycle is a common method for transferring heat from a low temperature space to a high temperature space. The figures below show the objectives
More informationChapter 5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Chapter 5 he Second aw of hermodynamics he second law of thermodynamics states that processes occur in a certain direction, not in just any direction. Physical processes in nature can proceed toward equilibrium
More informationMODULE SPECIFICATION FORM
MODULE SPECIFICATION FORM Module Title: Thermofluid and Propulsion Level: 5 Credit Value: 20 Module code: (if known) ENG538 Cost Centre: GAME JACS2 code: H141/H311/ H450 Semester(s) in which to be offered:
More informationTHERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 5 HEAT PUMPS AND REFRIGERATION. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following.
THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 5 HEAT PUMPS AND REFRIGERATION On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following. Discuss the merits of different refrigerants. Use thermodynamic tables for
More informationLaws of Thermodynamics
Laws of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is the study of the effects of work, heat, and energy on a system Thermodynamics is only concerned with macroscopic (largescale) changes and observations
More informationUNIVERSITY ESSAY QUESTIONS:
UNIT I 1. What is a thermodynamic cycle? 2. What is meant by air standard cycle? 3. Name the various gas power cycles". 4. What are the assumptions made for air standard cycle analysis 5. Mention the various
More informationApplied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture  1 Introduction & Some Definitions Good afternoon everybody.
More informationk is change in kinetic energy and E
Energy Balances on Closed Systems A system is closed if mass does not cross the system boundary during the period of time covered by energy balance. Energy balance for a closed system written between two
More informationThermodynamics  Example Problems Problems and Solutions
Thermodynamics  Example Problems Problems and Solutions 1 Examining a Power Plant Consider a power plant. At point 1 the working gas has a temperature of T = 25 C. The pressure is 1bar and the mass flow
More informationChapter 6: Using Entropy
Chapter 6: Using Entropy Photo courtesy of U.S. Military Academy photo archives. Combining the 1 st and the nd Laws of Thermodynamics ENGINEERING CONTEXT Up to this point, our study of the second law has
More informationSOLUTION MANUAL SI UNIT PROBLEMS CHAPTER 9 SONNTAG BORGNAKKE VAN WYLEN. FUNDAMENTALS of. Thermodynamics. Sixth Edition
SOLUTION MANUAL SI UNIT PROBLEMS CHAPTER 9 SONNTAG BORGNAKKE VAN WYLEN FUNDAMENTALS of Thermodynamics Sixth Edition CONTENT SUBSECTION PROB NO. Correspondence table ConceptStudy Guide Problems 20 Steady
More informationHeat as Energy Transfer. Heat is energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature
Unit of heat: calorie (cal) Heat as Energy Transfer Heat is energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature 1 cal is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature
More informationQUESTIONS THERMODYNAMICS PRACTICE PROBLEMS FOR NONTECHNICAL MAJORS. Thermodynamic Properties
QUESTIONS THERMODYNAMICS PRACTICE PROBLEMS FOR NONTECHNICAL MAJORS Thermodynamic Properties 1. If an object has a weight of 10 lbf on the moon, what would the same object weigh on Jupiter? ft ft ft g
More informationRefrigeration and Air Conditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No. # 18 Worked Out Examples  I Welcome back in this lecture.
More information1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy
1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy What is Thermodynamics? Essentially, thermodynamics can be defined as the study of energy. Granted, this is a pretty broad definition, which suits it well, because thermodynamics
More informationTHE CLAUSIUS INEQUALITY
Part IV Entropy In Part III, we introduced the second law of thermodynamics and applied it to cycles and cyclic devices. In this part, we apply the second law to processes. he first law of thermodynamics
More informationExam 4  PHYS 101. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Name: Class: Date: Exam 4  PHYS 101 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A steel tape measure is marked such that it gives accurate measurements
More informationReversible & Irreversible Processes
Reversible & Irreversible Processes Example of a Reversible Process: Cylinder must be pulled or pushed slowly enough (quasistatically) that the system remains in thermal equilibrium (isothermal). Change
More informationSecond Law of Thermodynamics Alternative Statements
Second Law of Thermodynamics Alternative Statements There is no simple statement that captures all aspects of the second law. Several alternative formulations of the second law are found in the technical
More informationWe will try to get familiar with a heat pump, and try to determine its performance coefficient under different circumstances.
C4. Heat Pump I. OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT We will try to get familiar with a heat pump, and try to determine its performance coefficient under different circumstances. II. INTRODUCTION II.1. Thermodynamic
More informationChapter 8 Maxwell relations and measurable properties
Chapter 8 Maxwell relations and measurable properties 8.1 Maxwell relations Other thermodynamic potentials emerging from Legendre transforms allow us to switch independent variables and give rise to alternate
More information20 m neon m propane 20
Problems with solutions:. A m 3 tank is filled with a gas at room temperature 0 C and pressure 00 Kpa. How much mass is there if the gas is a) Air b) Neon, or c) Propane? Given: T73K; P00KPa; M air 9;
More informationEngineering Software P.O. Box 2134, Kensington, MD 20891 Phone: (301) 9199670 Web Site:
Engineering Software P.O. Box 2134, Kensington, MD 20891 Phone: (301) 9199670 EMail: info@engineering4e.com Web Site: http://www.engineering4e.com Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Propulsion Application
More informationME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING UNIT I. PartA
UNIT I PartA 1. For a given compression ratio and heat addition explain why otto cycle is more efficient than diesel cycle? 2. Explain the effect of pressure ratio on the net output and efficiency of
More informationChapter 3 Properties of A Pure Substance
Chapter 3 Properties of A Pure Substance Pure substance: A pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition. Air is a mixture of several gases, but it is considered to be
More information1. Why are the back work ratios relatively high in gas turbine engines? 2. What 4 processes make up the simple ideal Brayton cycle?
1. Why are the back work ratios relatively high in gas turbine engines? 2. What 4 processes make up the simple ideal Brayton cycle? 3. For fixed maximum and minimum temperatures, what are the effect of
More information6.5 Simple Vapor Compression Refrigeration System:
6.5 Simple Vapor ompression Refrigeration System: A simple vapor compression refrigeration system consists of the following equipments: i) ompressor ii) ondenser iii) Expansion valve iv) Evaporator. B
More informationFundamentals of Refrigeration Part 5 Refrigerants
Refrigerants PH Chart Fundamentals of Refrigeration Part 5 Refrigerants This diagram shows a simplified pressure/ enthalpy chart for a non specified refrigerant. The area contained within the envelope
More informationME 201 Thermodynamics
ME 0 Thermodynamics Second Law Practice Problems. Ideally, which fluid can do more work: air at 600 psia and 600 F or steam at 600 psia and 600 F The maximum work a substance can do is given by its availablity.
More informationC H A P T E R T W O. Fundamentals of Steam Power
35 C H A P T E R T W O Fundamentals of Steam Power 2.1 Introduction Much of the electricity used in the United States is produced in steam power plants. Despite efforts to develop alternative energy converters,
More informationChapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57
Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity
More informationENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 1. In a reversible process the system: A. is always close to equilibrium states B. is close to equilibrium states only at the beginning and end
More informationChapter 11 Heat Engines and the. Thermodynamics
Chapter 11 Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics The laws of thermodynamics...are critical to making intelligent choices about energy in today s global economy. What Is a Heat Engine? How do
More informationFundamentals of THERMALFLUID SCIENCES
Fundamentals of THERMALFLUID SCIENCES THIRD EDITION YUNUS A. CENGEL ROBERT H. TURNER Department of Mechanical JOHN M. CIMBALA Me Graw Hill Higher Education Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, Wl
More informationThermodynamics I Spring 1432/1433H (2011/2012H) Saturday, Wednesday 8:00am  10:00am & Monday 8:00am  9:00am MEP 261 Class ZA
Thermodynamics I Spring 1432/1433H (2011/2012H) Saturday, Wednesday 8:00am  10:00am & Monday 8:00am  9:00am MEP 261 Class ZA Dr. Walid A. Aissa Associate Professor, Mech. Engg. Dept. Faculty of Engineering
More informationReservoir Fluids PETE 310
Reservoir Fluids PETE 31 Lab 2: Determination of the Vapor Pressure of Propane Learning Objectives When you complete this laboratory, you should be able to: Use closedcell and sightglass methods for
More informationREFRIGERATION (& HEAT PUMPS)
REFRIGERATION (& HEAT PUMPS) Refrigeration is the 'artificial' extraction of heat from a substance in order to lower its temperature to below that of its surroundings Primarily, heat is extracted from
More informationExergy: the quality of energy N. Woudstra
Exergy: the quality of energy N. Woudstra Introduction Characteristic for our society is a massive consumption of goods and energy. Continuation of this way of life in the long term is only possible if
More informationChemical Process calculation III
Chapter 7 Ideal and Real Gases Gas, Liquid, and Solid Chemical Process calculation III Gas: a substance in a form like air, relatively low in density and viscosity Liquid: a substance that flows freely
More informationPhysics 5D  Nov 18, 2013
Physics 5D  Nov 18, 2013 30 Midterm Scores B } Number of Scores 25 20 15 10 5 F D C } A A A + 0 059.9 6064.9 6569.9 7074.9 7579.9 8084.9 Percent Range (%) The two problems with the fewest correct
More informationFundamentals of Thermodynamics Applied to Thermal Power Plants
Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Applied to Thermal Power Plants José R. SimõesMoreira Abstract In this chapter it is reviewed the fundamental principles of Thermodynamics aiming at its application to power
More information= T T V V T = V. By using the relation given in the problem, we can write this as: ( P + T ( P/ T)V ) = T
hermodynamics: Examples for chapter 3. 1. Show that C / = 0 for a an ideal gas, b a van der Waals gas and c a gas following P = nr. Assume that the following result nb holds: U = P P Hint: In b and c,
More informationOUTCOME 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PERFORMANCE. TUTORIAL No. 5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
UNIT 61: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Unit code: D/601/1410 QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PERFORMANCE TUTORIAL No. 5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS 2 Be able to evaluate
More informationFEASIBILITY OF A BRAYTON CYCLE AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
FEASIBILITY OF A BRAYTON CYCLE AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM L. H. M. Beatrice a, and F. A. S. Fiorelli a a Universidade de São Paulo Escola Politécnica Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica Av. Prof.
More informationCHAPTER 14 THE CLAUSIUSCLAPEYRON EQUATION
CHAPTER 4 THE CAUIUCAPEYRON EQUATION Before starting this chapter, it would probably be a good idea to reread ections 9. and 9.3 of Chapter 9. The ClausiusClapeyron equation relates the latent heat
More informationSecond Law of Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics T8 Second Law of Thermodynamics Learning Goal: To understand the implications of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics explains the direction in which the thermodynamic
More informationChapter 11, Problem 18.
Chapter 11, Problem 18. Refrigerant134a enters the compressor of a refrigerator as superheated vapor at 0.14 MPa and 10 C at a rate of 0.12 kg/s, and it leaves at 0.7 MPa and 50 C. The refrigerant is
More informationMohan Chandrasekharan #1
International Journal of Students Research in Technology & Management Exergy Analysis of Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Using R12 and R134a as Refrigerants Mohan Chandrasekharan #1 # Department
More informationExpansion and Compression of a Gas
Physics 6B  Winter 2011 Homework 4 Solutions Expansion and Compression of a Gas In an adiabatic process, there is no heat transferred to or from the system i.e. dq = 0. The first law of thermodynamics
More informationThermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions
Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium
More informationCHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GASES
CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GASES The behavior of natural gas, whether pure methane or a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons and the nonhydrocarbons nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, must
More informationAP2 Thermal Physics. Answer: C
A canister of pressurized nitrogen gas at room temperature is cooled in a freezer. More nitrogen gas at room temperature is pumped into the canister until the canister returns to its initial pressure.
More informationDET: Mechanical Engineering Thermofluids (Higher)
DET: Mechanical Engineering Thermofluids (Higher) 6485 Spring 000 HIGHER STILL DET: Mechanical Engineering Thermofluids Higher Support Materials *+,./ CONTENTS Section : Thermofluids (Higher) Student
More informationChapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume
Chapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume Closed systems: The mass of the system remain constant during a process. Control volumes: Mass can cross the boundaries,
More informationLiquid Hydrogen. Properties of Cooper Pairs. Two forms of hydrogen molecule. Percent para H 2 vs. Temperature. Liquefaction of Gases
Liquefaction of Gases Hydrogen as an example See Flynn Ch. 3 and 6 Properties of Cooper Pairs Which of the following is true for Cooper pairs? A. All Cooper pairs have total spin S = 0 B. All Cooper pairs
More informationTHE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
1 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The FIRST LAW is a statement of the fact that ENERGY (a useful concept) is conserved. It says nothing about the WAY, or even WHETHER one form of energy can be converted
More informationChapter 19. Chemical Thermodynamics. The reverse reaction (two eggs leaping into your hand with their shells back intact) is not spontaneous.
Chapter 19. Chemical Thermodynamics SOURCE: Chemistry the Central Science: Prentice hall I. Spontaneous Processes Thermodynamics is concerned with the question: will a reaction occur? First Law of Thermodynamics:
More informationCHAPTER. Properties of Pure Substances
CHAPTER 2 Properties of Pure Substances A Pure Substance Is a substance that is chemically homogenous and fixed in chemical composition.(e.g. water, nitrogen, air & etc.) mixture of oil and water is not
More informationTHERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND CALCULATION. Academic Resource Center
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND CALCULATION Academic Resource Center THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES A quantity which is either an attribute of an entire system or is a function of position which is continuous and
More informationSustainable Energy Utilization, Refrigeration Technology. A brief history of refrigeration. Björn Palm
Sustainable Energy Utilization, Refrigeration Technology Björn Palm bpalm@energy.kth.se This email message was generated automatically. Please do not send a reply. You are registered for the following
More informationGas Turbine cycles and Propulsion system. Sarika Goel 3 rd year,chemical Engineering, IIT Delhi Guide : Prof. Gautam Biswas & Prof. S.
Gas Turbine cycles and Propulsion system Sarika Goel 3 rd year,chemical Engineering, IIT Delhi Guide : Prof. Gautam Biswas & Prof. S. Sarkar Outline Introduction Gas turbine cycles Applications of gas
More informationBasic Thermodynamics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Basic Thermodynamics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture  10 Second Law and Available Energy  I Good morning, I welcome you to this
More informationEngine Efficiency and Power Density: Distinguishing Limits from Limitations
Engine Efficiency and Power Density: Distinguishing Limits from Limitations Chris F. Edwards Advanced Energy Systems Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University Exergy to Engines
More information