New Zealand s Climate Change Target. Our contribution to the new international climate change agreement - summary of consultation responses

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1 New Zealand s Climate Change Target Our cntributin t the new internatinal climate change agreement - summary f cnsultatin respnses

2 Disclaimer All reasnable measures have been taken t ensure the quality and accuracy f the infrmatin cntained in this reprt. The Ministry fr the Envirnment received ver 17,000 submissins in ttal. Over a thusand peple submitted multiple times. Once these duplicates have been merged, the ttal number f submitters is 15,639. This reprt cntains summaries f the views expressed thrugh these submissins. The views expressed in this reprt d nt necessarily represent thse f the Ministry fr the Envirnment r the New Zealand Gvernment. The Ministry fr the Envirnment des nt accept any respnsibility r liability whatsever whether in cntract, trt, equity r therwise fr any actin taken as a result f reading, r reliance placed n the Ministry fr the Envirnment because f having read, any part, r all, f this reprt r fr any errr, r inadequacy, deficiency, flaw in r missin frm the infrmatin prvided in this reprt. This reprt may be cited as: Ministry fr the Envirnment New Zealand s Climate Change Target Our cntributin t the new internatinal climate change agreement summary f cnsultatin respnses. Wellingtn: Ministry fr the Envirnment. Published in July 2015 by the Ministry fr the Envirnment Manatū Mō Te Taia PO Bx 10362, Wellingtn 6143, New Zealand ISBN: (electrnic) Publicatin number: ME 1203 Crwn cpyright New Zealand 2015 This dcument is available n the Ministry fr the Envirnment website: 2 Summary f cnsultatin respnses

3 Cntents Intrductin 4 Wh respnded t the cnsultatin? 5 Key themes frm the cnsultatin 5 Respnses t New Zealand s Climate Change Target ur cntributin t the new internatinal climate change agreement - discussin dcument by questin/theme 15 Summary f cnsultatin respnses 3

4 Intrductin The Gvernment cnsulted n a climate change target between 7 May and 3 June The cnsultatin fcused n what internatinal target the Gvernment wuld cntribute t the new internatinal climate change agreement as part f its intended natinally determined cntributin (INDC). The discussin dcument asked stakehlders t respnd t the key issues needed t infrm the decisin, rather than ptins fr the target itself. Over this perid, 15 public meetings and hui with iwi and hapū were held in 11 lcatins acrss the cuntry with apprximately 1,700 peple attending. The Ministry fr the Envirnment received ver 17,000 submissins in ttal. Over a thusand peple submitted multiple times. Once these duplicates have been merged, the ttal number f submitters is 15,639. It is imprtant t nte there was strng criticism abut: the cnsultatin prcess, including the shrt ntice, insufficient advertising and number f public meetings, with a particular cncern frm Iwi/Māri and cuncils that the shrt timeline left them unable t engage effectively the infrmatin prvided in the Discussin Dcument, in particular abut the representatin f the csts, and the need fr mre infrmatin fr stakehlders t make an infrmed submissin. In additin, there was a strng level f emtin expressed in the public meetings and written submissins. This included passin abut climate change and anger abut New Zealand s respnse t date. 4 Summary f cnsultatin respnses

5 Wh respnded t the cnsultatin? Of the 17,000 submissins received, apprximately 1,500 f these were unique 1 and the remainder were pr-frma submissins (drafted by particular rganisatins/grups and submitted by individuals) 2. Arund 85% f the unique submissins were frm individuals, with the remainder frm: iwi, hapū r Māri rganisatins, frestry and agriculture stakehlders, business and industry, lcal gvernment, plitical parties, academics and envirnmental cnsultants, nn-gvernment rganisatins (NGOs), and health prfessinals. The pr-frma submissins were created by the Green Party f Ateara New Zealand, Greenpeace, Generatin Zer, the Decnstructing Paris Prject 3, the 350.rg Mvement and the Waikat Envirnment Centre. The majrity f these came frm the Green Party, Greenpeace and Generatin Zer. Key themes frm the cnsultatin Overall themes Sme f the mst cmmn themes frm the cnsultatin were the fllwing: Climate change is an imprtant issue the Gvernment shuld address urgently t prtect New Zealanders, future generatins, and neighburing Pacific Island cuntries. There was a strng call fr an ambitius target and leadership frm the Gvernment (the mst cmmn target suggested by stakehlders was 40% belw 1990 levels r a target f zer carbn by 2050). Many related taking ambitius actin t prtecting ur internatinal reputatin. Businesses and ther stakehlders want greater invlvement and engagement n climate change. A large majrity f stakehlders highlighted that a target needs t be underpinned by a dmestic plan. There were frequent requests fr crss party cnsensus and an independent cmmissin n climate change. 1 Where an individual submitted a unique submissin as well as ne (r mre) pr-frma submissin, these submissins have been merged and cunted as unique in the final ttals. 2 Many submitters made amendments t the template pr-frma submissins. The Ministry fr the Envirnment has included these additinal cmments in its analysis f submissins. Hwever these adapted submissins have nt been included in the ttal figure given abve fr unique submissins. 3 Decnstructing Paris is a cllabrative prject undertaken by practicing lawyers, academics and law students at Victria University f Wellingtn, which aims t decnstruct the draft text and negtiatins in the lead up t COP21. Summary f cnsultatin respnses 5

6 Strng cncern was expressed that New Zealand is currently nt ding enugh t reduce emissins. Strng cncern was expressed that the csts described in the discussin dcument were misleading and did nt cnsider pssible benefits f acting r the csts f inactin. Cmments n target Arund 10,900 respndents cmmented n the level f target that New Zealand shuld table as part f its cntributin. Of these, arund 10,600 prvided suggestins n the specific (quantitative) target New Zealand shuld submit. Table 1 prvides an verview f the different targets that were suggested by different submitters. Table 1: Summary f submitters wh recmmended a target level (arund 70% f ttal submissins) Target Percentages 40% belw 1990 and higher 68.7% Zer (mainly carbn dixide) emissins by % 40% belw zer carbn emissins by % 20% belw 1990 levels and higher (up t 40%) 0.5% 10% belw 1990 levels and higher (up t 20%) 0.2% belw 10% belw 1990 levels 0.1% Other 0.2% Ambitius target As shwn in Table 1, the vast majrity (99%) f thse wh specified a target level recmmended New Zealand takes an ambitius target f 40% belw 1990 by 2030 r zer carbn by While a large number f these were pr-frma submissins, the unique submissins als heavily favured these tw target levels. A further 165 submitters suggested New Zealand s target shuld be ambitius, withut prviding a specific quantitative number. The main reasn identified fr an ambitius target was that ambitius actin is urgently needed t avid the harmful impacts f climate change. A number f submitters felt that actin n climate change was a mral respnsibility. Many related their respnse t needing t avid a temperature rise f mre than tw degrees. Other issues highlighted included prtecting ur vulnerable cmmunities, neighburing Pacific Islands and future generatins. A number f submissins stressed that taking little r n actin nw wuld simply defer csts t the future, fr example: As time ges n withut actin the path gets steeper." (Climate Change Iwi Leaders Grup, 9597) Emissin reductin targets are nt the end we seek but ne f many indicatrs f the prgress we are making tward achieving a high quality f life with a zer-net-emissin ecnmy." (Individual, 4736) 6 Summary f cnsultatin respnses

7 A wide range f submitters related ur target (and actin n climate change) t ur clean and green reputatin and image; they cnsidered this an imprtant characteristic f hw New Zealand is perceived as a cuntry. Many felt the rle New Zealand plays internatinally is imprtant, and cnsequently ur targets need t be as equally ambitius as ther cuntries. Almst 3,500 submissins highlighted they wuld like t see New Zealand as a leader n climate change, fr example: "Our view is that a small cuntry like New Zealand can have a disprprtinate impact n glbal climate ambitin when we take vigrus and ambitius actin, and this will have a glbally beneficial effect in terms f climate utcmes Leaving mitigatin f climate change t thers is als nt an ptin fr a cuntry whse internatinal reputatin, and s verseas trade pprtunities and ur ecnmy, depend n maintaining a clean green image. (Grup f academics, 9094) Withut a strng cmmitment frm New Zealand which has a respected reputatin n the envirnment, I fear there is little hpe f achieving a binding glbal agreement frm develping natins facing a far harder challenge." (Individual, 4476) "I urge yu t shw yur strength by making bld and ambitius targets. I urge yu t shw lve t the little players. I urge yu t step n tes, t stand ut as a pint f difference and shw nce again that NZ can be a wrld leader in the way that it prmtes the rights f all individuals, nt just thse with the ludest vices." (Individual, 9030) Mdest/realistic target In additin t thse shwn in Table 1, a further 19 submitters suggested we table a mre mdest r realistic/achievable target, withut specifying a level. Cmmn reasns prvided were t avid impacting the cmpetitiveness f New Zealand businesses, which culd result in businesses mving ffshre with ptentially mre emissins intensive practices (als knwn as carbn leakage ); and t ensure we take n a similar level f cst t ther cuntries. Other reasns included the small size f New Zealand s emissins r a need t fcus n adaptatin rather than mitigatin. When cnsidering what INDC target t set fr New Zealand, we need t remain cgnisant f the sectral ability t achieve this withut detrimentally affecting the dmestic and exprt cmpetitiveness f the businesses within New Zealand. (New Zealand Steel, 4727) N target Arund 0.5% f all submitters wh cmmented n the target level suggested that n target shuld be tabled at all. The majrity f these submitters questined the science f climate change, with mst believing either that the climate is nt warming and/r that human activities are nt respnsible. Target type (r cverage f different greenhuse gas emissins) Submissins frm Generatin Zer, including arund 2,500 pr-frma submissins, emphasised the need t fcus n carbn dixide as the lng term driver f climate change. These submitters Summary f cnsultatin respnses 7

8 cnsequently recmmended a target f zer carbn dixide emissins by A recmmendatin fr a zer carbn target was als highlighted by a large number f unique submissins 4. Regardless f what we d abut ther emissins frm agriculture, every cuntry ultimately needs t reduce CO2 emissins t zer t stp climate change and avid blwing the glbal carbn budget. That means shifting frm fssil fuels t clean energy and planting frests t absrb carbn. (Generatin Zer Pr-frma submissin) In additin t this, a number f submitters (particularly frm the agricultural sectr), recmmended a target with an alternative treatment fr the agriculture sectr. Nevertheless, many ther submitters emphasised it is imprtant t include all sectrs/all gases within the target including agriculture (see natinal circumstances belw fr further infrmatin). Dmestic plicies Althugh the cnsultatin fcused n the internatinal target, many stakehlders prvided feedback related t dmestic plicies. Sme f the key pints included the fllwing: Ensuring the target is based n a dmestic plan. This was a cre theme expressed by stakehlders and was raised in arund 14,500 submissins. Fr example: Setting New Zealand s INDC will pssibly be the mst imprtant decisin Ministers will make this year because f the ecnmic and fiscal csts it will end up impsing n New Zealand. But by the same tken, it is in New Zealand s lng term interests t cntinue t take steps twards a lw carbn future. Key t this is a plan ver the lng term that achieves leadership n reducing emissins while delivering ecnmic grwth, investment and jbs. (Business New Zealand, 4710) Target setting alne is nt enugh SBC [Sustainable Business Cuncil] members want t see integrated gvernment and business pririties and real, integrated lng term slutins (ie, beynd 2030) that tackle New Zealand s unique emissins prfile. (Sustainable Business Cuncil, 4694) There is n pint in setting targets unless a plan (with milestnes) is set in place t achieve them. (WWF New Zealand, 4498) "Withut a real actin plan t reduce climate pllutin, the Gvernment risks damaging ur glbal reputatin and wrecking ur ecnmy. But mst imprtantly, they are denying New Zealanders the cleaner, smarter and safer future that we all deserve. I want t see meaningful plicy changes that will start cutting New Zealand's emissins during this term f gvernment." (Individual, 4187) Over 3,300 submitters expressed the need fr cnsensus t be built arund climate change. A number requested a cllabrative stakehlder prcess and many suggested the initiatin f a Climate Change Cmmissin, crss party cnsensus n the issue, and/r that this be underpinned by dmestic climate change law. Fr example: "Putting New Zealand n a lng-term lw-carbn pathway means putting ur emissins targets at the heart f decisin-making and maintaining a cherent gvernment-wide effrt 4 Nte it was nt always clear whether the submitters were referring t carbn dixide r all greenhuse gases mre bradly. 8 Summary f cnsultatin respnses

9 t deliver n them. This culd be achieved by enacting similar legislatin t the UK Climate Change Act, which puts natinal emissins targets int dmestic law and requires each successive gvernment t reprt n its prgress and plans A Climate Cmmissin will fill a critical niche in New Zealand as an authritative and independent vice n climate change plicy. This will help depliticise the issue, which we believe many New Zealanders want t see." (Generatin Zer, 10450) There was cncern current plicies are nt enugh, and the New Zealand Emissins Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) needs t be strengthened r replaced with a carbn tax. Many stakehlders cnsidered that mre infrmatin abut New Zealand s lnger term carbn pathway is necessary t build plicies and targets frm the bttm up. There was a wealth f ideas and examples fr dmestic plicies that New Zealand culd implement. Cmmn themes included aiming fr a 100% renewable electricity target, prviding a mratrium n fssil fuels, investing in r incentivising use/develpment f public transprt and frestry and the need fr mre educatin n climate change. Many stakehlders highlighted the pprtunities assciated with using ur abundant renewable energy t ur advantage, incentivising electric vehicles and use f bifuels. Fr example: New Zealand is ideally placed t take advantage f an early transitin given ur wrldleading and subsidy free renewable electricity. (Mighty River Pwer, 9247) While sme supprted the use f carbn markets t meet targets, many did nt, and a number raised cautin abut managing the use f markets and ensuring they have envirnmental integrity. Fr example: "We supprt access t genuine internatinal emissin reductins as a cst effective means f meeting natinal targets. Cntinued access t internatinal permits will be an imprtant part f future plicy. This will invlve striking the balance between managing shrt term csts thrugh access t such units and als encuraging lnger term structural adjustment f the dmestic ecnmy." (Origin Energy, 886) The Parliamentary Cmmissiner fr the Envirnment als made tw recmmendatins related t dmestic plicy, but with respect t what is included within the INDC itself, namely: t the effect that a cllabrative prcess fr develping a plan fr mving New Zealand tward a lw-carbn ecnmy will be established. that the Gvernment will limit the purchase f carbn units t thse that represent real and verifiable emissin reductins. Summary f cnsultatin respnses 9

10 Feedback frm iwi/māri Submissins were received frm 16 iwi r hapū as well as frm the Climate Change Iwi Leaders Grup. In additin t the six scheduled hui, fficials frm the Ministry fr the Envirnment als met with iwi in Auckland and Napier thrugh jint Iwi/cuncil meetings. Overall, there was cncern frm many iwi/māri abut the shrt time and ntice f the cnsultatin restricting adequate engagement with iwi/māri. Cmmnly, submissins highlighted: The imprtance f kaitiakitanga and a hlistic envirnmental wrld view (with a particular cncern that the interrelatinships between the envirnment, fd and culture are threatened by climate change). That climate change is a symptm f brader prblems f sustainability. Equity is imprtant bth internatinally when setting the target and dmestically when implementing it. In particular, there was a cncern fr prtecting vulnerable cmmunities frm the impacts and csts related t climate change. The strng imperative t act, t prtect future generatins mō tātu, ā, mō kā uri ā muri ake nei [Fr us and ur descendants after us] (Ngāi Tahu, 9261) That frestry shuld be part f the slutin and there shuld be supprt fr agriculture t transitin t mre sustainable techniques. Many felt that the NZ ETS has nt been effective and needs t be fixed. That the INDC shuld recgnise and be cnsistent with the Treaty f Waitangi. This was a view als expressed mre bradly in the cnsultatin by ver 100 submitters. The need fr an ambitius target t prtect the envirnment, which in turn prtects human wellbeing. Sme cncern abut the envirnmental integrity f internatinal markets and ensuring that New Zealanders benefit frm the imprved health and envirnment that wuld cme frm dmestic actin. The Climate Change Iwi Leaders Grup (submissin number 9597) highlighted the need fr strng plitical leadership n this issue. Sme f the key messages within their submissin were: The need fr an ambitius target that is in line with the Eurpean Unin, USA and China. Cncern that the impact f climate change and actins t address it will have disprprtinate impact n Māri cmmunities. Previus research and analysis has established the impact f climate change and emissins reductin measures bth have an impact n the Mari ppulatin that is disprprtinate t the knwn bases fr cmparisn with the nn-mari ppulatin. Desire t wrk further with Gvernment t develp dmestic plicy, including supprt fr vulnerable cmmunities. 10 Summary f cnsultatin respnses

11 Feedback frm stakehlder grups verleaf highlights key themes frm sme stakehlder grups. In additin, submissins were received frm the fllwing plitical parties: New Zealand Labur party Green party f Ateara New Zealand NZ Climate party 5 Alliance party. 4 The Parliamentary Cmmissiner fr the Envirnment als prvided a submissin, emphasising the need fr a dmestic plan and strnger dmestic respnse n climate change. 5 Nte the NZ Climate Party and the Alliance Party are nt currently registered plitical parties. Summary f cnsultatin respnses 11

12 Table 2: Sme key themes frm submissins Grup Number f Submitters Sme key themes frm submissins Business and industry (excluding agriculture and frestry) Agriculture stakehlders 39 Submissins frm business and industry were diverse. While sme utlined the benefits f early actin, the imprtance f ambitius targets t prtect ur reputatin, and pprtunities fr New Zealand f transitining t a lw carbn ecnmy, thers suggested a mre cautius apprach and were cncerned abut csts. A few themes included the fllwing: The need t take a fair target cmparable with ther cuntries (including n an equal cst basis). Cncern abut the impact n exprt cmpetitiveness (and the ptential fr carbn leakage ). A desire frm business t be invlved in develping plicies r a plan t meet ur target particularly frm Business New Zealand and the Sustainable Business Cuncil. Many submitters frm business and industry agreed with the least cst apprach t meeting targets (ie, thrugh market mechanisms) and were cncerned abut csts t the ecnmy f targets r higher carbn prices. 10 Agricultural stakehlders generally recgnised the need t act t address climate change, but expressed cncern abut the impact f setting targets n the agricultural industry. Many cnsidered that n farm bilgical emissins shuld be treated differently t the rest f the ecnmy in New Zealand s target. There was cncern that placing csts n farmers wuld have a high ecnmic impact fr New Zealand. Mst suggested that New Zealand s target shuld be cnditinal n sme r all f: availability f technlgies in agriculture access t markets rules f the internatinal agreement the actin f ther cuntries. Submissins generally prvided strng supprt fr further research and innvatin, and sharing this knwledge with cuntries verseas t reduce emissins glbally. 12 Summary f cnsultatin respnses

13 Grup Number f Submitters Sme key themes frm submissins Frestry stakehlders 12 Frestry stakehlders were keen t highlight their rle in the transitin t a lw carbn ecnmy. They suggested that t meet a bld cntributin there shuld be a fcus n frestry in the shrt term, while develping technlgy in agriculture ver the lnger term. Many cnsidered it is nt credible fr New Zealand t subsidise emitting industries and rely n the purchase f internatinal units. Submissins highlighted that it is imprtant t cnsider the c-benefits as well as the csts. Submissins nted that frestry needs strnger Gvernment plicy t incentivise the scale f new planting needed. Many cmmented n the NZ ETS and had suggestins fr its settings. Lcal gvernment 8 Submissins frm lcal gvernment ften expressed cncerns abut the increasing csts f inactin and adaptatin, and the impacts that climate change will have n regins. Sme cuncils raised cncerns abut being unable t submit in the shrt cnsultatin timeframe. Many called fr ambitius targets t be based n science. Sme nted the imprtance f the natinal brand and clean, green image fr turism. There was a strng call fr a dmestic plan and sme cncern that ffsetting des nt help the New Zealand ecnmy. Sme cuncils suggested a fcus fr reducing emissins frm nn-agricultural sectrs. NGOs 67 Submissins frm Envirnmental NGO s ften were quite critical f the mdelling and infrmatin prvided in the discussin dcument, and stressed the imprtance f acting n climate change. Sme f the key themes were: That New Zealand has a respnsibility t act because f ur strng ecnmy and high per capita emissins, as well as the mral nature f the issue and ethical imperative t act. That New Zealand s clean, green reputatin is imprtant, and cncern this reputatin is being erded. An ambitius target is needed. Many called fr 40% belw 1990 levels by There is a need fr transparency arund the cnsultatin, and decisin-making prcess as well as a dmestic plan and crss Summary f cnsultatin respnses 13

14 Grup Number f Submitters party agreement. Sme key themes frm submissins Health prfessinals and assciatins Academics and research rganisatins 30 The cnsultatin received a significant prprtin f feedback frm health prfessinals. Submitters highlighted: Cncern that health cnsideratins did nt feature in the discussin dcument r in climate change plicy mre bradly (including Health Impact Assessments). That urgent and ambitius actin is vital fr health, equity, human rights and climate justice and that the precautinary principle cmpels us t act nw. That actin n climate change imprves health and wellbeing (resulting in csts savings), which shuld be given as much weight as csts t the ecnmy in climate change plicy. A desire t be mre strngly engaged in climate change plicy, including a request fr a parliamentary climate change and health summit and mre invlvement by the Ministry f Health. 44 The fci f academic submissins varied, hwever, a number f submissins highlighted the need fr a lng term fcus in regards t climate change. Sme ideas highlighted: That New Zealand s actin shuld be cnsistent with its lng-term trajectry, including mving twards its 2050 target. That carbn dixide is an imprtant driver f temperature rise, and that an apprpriate lng term target fr New Zealand and glbally may be a zer carbn dixide target by sme date in the future. That lw-carbn pathways entail a number f c-benefits and can lead t technlgical imprvements that reduce csts and spur further ecnmic innvatin and grwth. 14 Summary f cnsultatin respnses

15 Respnses t New Zealand s Climate Change Target ur cntributin t the new internatinal climate change agreement - discussin dcument by questin/theme Objectives Arund 1,100 peple cmmented n the Gvernment s prpsed bjectives. Arund 70% f thse respndents agreed, r partly agreed, with the bjectives. Of thse wh expressed a preference, the majrity cnsidered Objectives 1 (that the target be fair and ambitius) and/r Objective 3 (lng term transitin) mre imprtant than Objective 2. Many submitters did nt agree with the bjectives and cnsidered them vague r unclear. Sme cmmn suggestins n the bjectives were: Objective 1 shuld be framed that New Zealand is ambitius and fair nt that it is seen t be. Objective 2 shuld include benefits (ie, that the csts, benefits, and impacts are apprpriately managed). Objective 3 shuld prvide a greater sense f urgency abut the need t act in the shrt term as well as lng term (ie, that it guides New Zealand in the shrt and lng term transitin t a lw emissins wrld). Many submitters prvided ther infrmatin abut what was mst imprtant t them. Sme cmmn tpics raised were leadership, equity, taking urgent and bld actin (grunded in science), taking a fair target n a per capita basis, prtecting future generatins, and achieving dmestic emissins reductins in New Zealand. Fr example: Iwi leaders are seeking strng plitical leadership aligned t the bjectives [fr New Zealand s (INDC)]; twards stable dmestic climate change plicy that takes a lng term view, is fair and equitable t the interests f iwi and will transitin New Zealand twards a lw emissin ecnmy. (Climate Change Iwi Leaders Grup submissin, 9597) That New Zealand takes significant, immediate actin t address this mst serius issue. Sacrifices will have t be made fr the greater gd - it's nt easy but sme hard chices nw will lessen the impacts we'll get later n. (Individual, 9224) Natinal circumstance Arund 1,000 submitters respnded abut the nature f ur natural circumstance when setting ur target. Of thse: Arund half felt the nature ur natinal circumstances meant that we shuld d mre (ie, table a higher target than previusly). Sme cmmn reasns fr this were that New Zealand is a relatively wealthy cuntry with the capacity t table a higher target, that we have high per capita emissins, and that ur ecnmy is vulnerable t the impacts f climate change. As New Zealand is a develped cuntry, it is reasnable t expect us t reduce emissins by mre than ther cuntries with fewer resurces. (Individual, 4206) Summary f cnsultatin respnses 15

16 Arund a quarter felt that the nature f ur circumstances is irrelevant t setting ur target (r rather, ur natinal circumstances shuld nt be used t justify less actin). Many submitters cnsidered the discussin dcument verstated the challenges assciated with ur natinal circumstances, and suggested it shuld have emphasised pprtunities that we d have, particularly in the energy and transprt sectr. A number f submitters nted that all cuntries have unique circumstances. "The well-wrn, tw decades-ld list f cnstraints and uncertainties - explaining what New Zealand can't d - shuld be ditched in favur f a mre psitive narrative f what NZ can d. We shuld nt have t aplgise fr having 80% and grwing renewable electricity, fr example." (Individual, 9122) Arund ten per cent suggested ur natinal circumstances mean we shuld take different levels f actin within different sectrs. Of these submitters, sme emphasised the pprtunity r flexibility prvided in the negtiatins t better design ur target t suit ur natinal circumstances. Of these, sme submitters highlighted the imprtance f reducing carbn dixide emissins t net zer within the next thirty years, and cnsequently recmmended a target fcused n carbn dixide emissins (ver methane/nitrus xide). Sme submitters suggested different targets fr different sectrs. In particular, mst submitters frm the agriculture sectr (arund 90%) recmmended an abslute target fr sectrs ther than agriculture and an alternative apprach fr the agricultural sectr (fr example an intensity based apprach). Fr example: The target fr agriculture is uncertain and difficult t establish.(individual 9211). We can hwever, with existing knwledge and technlgies, establish targets fr all the ther surces f greenhuse gas (GHG) emissins withut necessarily destrying ur ecnmy. The target fr all these ther sectrs must be zer. (Individual 9211) If we were t adpt separate reductin targets fr majr surces such as agriculture, transprt, electricity generatin, industry we might help us mve frward mre effectively. (Individual, 2400) Plicies that impse csts n farmers that are unable t be mitigated are likely t displace fd prductin t less-efficient prducers, resulting in a net increase in glbal emissins. T address this risk, Fnterra believes that an intensity apprach shuld be cnsidered as part f an alternative framewrk t address agricultural emissins. (Fnterra, 4738) While sme submitters suggested treating agriculture (r methane/nitrus xide) differently, a large number f stakehlders rather felt that we need t fcus n reducing emissins frm agriculture sectr, given that it is respnsible fr the largest prprtin f emissins. Many submitters cnsidered that New Zealand shuld diversify its ecnmy t becme mre resilient in the glbal transitin, r imprving agricultural practices. Fr t lng we have been putting all ur eggs in ne basket by relying n an unstainable level f dairying. (Individual, 4165) Sme submitters suggested a shrt term fcus n reducing emissins frm particular sectrs, in particular transprt, energy r frestry, while we find slutins t agriculture ver the lnger term. 16 Summary f cnsultatin respnses

17 A small prprtin suggested ur natinal circumstances mean we shuld d less. A cmmn reasn was that actin in New Zealand will nt make a substantial difference t glbal emissins, ur natinal circumstance makes it challenging, and/r that climate change is nt happening. We are already a lw user f cal and il fr energy s cannt be expected t d any better. (Individual, 4468) Csts t the ecnmy The verwhelming majrity f submitters (arund 14,800) criticised the csts in the Discussin Dcument as prviding misleading infrmatin abut the true cst f actin, nt taking int accunt the cst f inactin, the effect f c-benefits, r technlgical innvatin: the wrld that the Gvernment has asked the mdellers t explre bears little resemblance t the ne we live in, and that this serves t distrt and limit rather than infrm and illuminate the debate." (Greater Wellingtn Reginal Cuncil, 04730) Arund 1,100 submitters respnded t the questin abut csts, and f these: Arund a quarter did nt agree that reducing emissins is a cst. Many were cncerned that framing actin n climate change as a cst was misleading. References t the New Climate Ecnmy Reprt were ften prvided as evidence that cuntries can act n climate change, while cntinuing t grw their ecnmies. Dn t frame issues in a subjective, negative way. The Discussin Paper prtrays reducing GHGs as a cst nt as an investment. (Individual, 4799) D yu want a future fr yur whānau r just have [yur] mney nw? Requires a cultural shift that mves away frm mney as the pririty t lking after Paptūānuku f the planet fr future generatins. (Te Wakahuia Manawatu Haura, 4422) Arund 15% cnsidered that any cst is apprpriate, r whatever cst is needed t halt temperature rise abve 2 degrees. We need t pay whatever it takes t ensure that ur descendants cntinue t live in a safe envirnment. (Individual, 03695) Almst 200 submitters prvided a particular level f cst they thught was reasnable. The majrity f these (140) prvided a respnse in terms f cst t husehlds. A cst f $1,800 per year was the mst cmmnly suggested figure (at arund 70% f thse wh suggested a husehld cst), which is the cst prvided in the Discussin Dcument fr a 40% emissins reductin target. A further 26 prvided a percentage f husehld incme that they wuld be willing t freg, with the mst cmmn respnse being 2-3%. A number f submitters felt that the csts presented in the Discussin Dcument, and the difference between a 5% and 40% target, seemed a reasnable price t pay fr a mre ambitius target. Basically these figures prve that saving the planet actually cmes at a very mdest cst t the average husehld and ur natin, and is nt in any sense a serius impediment t reducing ur greenhuse gas emissins, cntrary t what s much f this paper is suggesting. (Individual, 04775) Summary f cnsultatin respnses 17

18 Apprximately 7% suggested we shuld bear n cst, with many nt agreeing with the science f climate change r the need t act t reduce emissins. Overall, a large number f submitters were cncerned abut wh wuld bear the csts and that it wuld be equitable, including acrss generatins. Sme felt the csts shuld fall n thse wh made the mst emissins, and nt fall n vulnerable husehlds r future generatins. Sme felt it was inapprpriate t include husehld csts in the Discussin Dcument when csts t the ecnmy shuld take a plluter pays apprach. Respnses t climate change must be distributed between different private and public actrs accrding t their carbn (and ther greenhuse gas) ftprint. While everyne must play a part, the csts will nt fall equally n individual husehlds and shuld nt be framed as such. This is nly part f the picture. (Decnstructing Paris Grup Pr-frma Submissin) Sme submitters were cncerned abut the cst t their industry r sectr: "When setting New Zeland s INDC the Gvernment shuld take int cnsideratin the dairy sectr's cntributin t New Zealand s ecnmy and the ptential impacts n dairy farmers and rural cmmunities." (DairyNZ, 4734) Opprtunities Over 3,300 peple wrte abut the pprtunities f taking actin t reduce emissins dmestically. The mst cmmnly cited benefits were maximising ur renewable energy resurces ( such as thrugh electrificatin f transprt) and an imprved envirnment (such as better air quality and warmer hmes). All f the pprtunities highlighted in the Discussin Dcument received supprt by many submitters, and were seen as valuable and imprtant pprtunities t pursue. A key theme is the Gvernment s respnsibility t ensure these pprtunities are seized. Submitters expressed cncerns that under the status qu, many f these c-benefits wuld be missed; and a reliance n internatinal purchasing wuld prevent New Zealanders frm benefiting frm these changes. Fr example: We already have the technlgy and plicies at hand t reduce these emissins we nw need the crss-party plitical will t put them in place. (New Zealand Cllege f Public Health Medicine, 9131) Many submitters identified a number f additinal benefits f transitining t a lw carbn ecnmy in New Zealand. These included: an enhanced internatinal reputatin enhanced bidiversity and ersin cntrl imprved agricultural practices and the pprtunity t develp new technlgies a mre diversified and therefre mre stable ecnmy healthier and strnger cmmunities. In additin, a large number f respndents wrte abut the pprtunities that exist within New Zealand t reduce emissins, and prvided suggestins fr plicies and measures. 18 Summary f cnsultatin respnses

19 A few respndents mentined pprtunities t reduce emissins utside f New Zealand. Fnterra believe that New Zealand can make significant cntributin t glbal emissins reductin thrugh sharing its knwledge f emissins efficient practices with ther dairy prducing cuntries. (Fnterra, 4738) Dealing with uncertainty Arund 900 submitters respnded abut hw New Zealand shuld take accunt f future uncertainties. Of these: Arund 50% suggested that uncertainty arund technlgy and cst is irrelevant t setting ur target. In this cntext, sme submitters suggested that the Gvernment has a rle t play in remving uncertainty by setting targets r investing in research and develpment (R&D). Many submitters emphasized that it is imprtant t take a precautinary apprach when addressing uncertainty arund climate change. Sme submitters suggested there is already lw carbn technlgy available and we need t use that as a basis t set New Zealand s targets: Uncertainties are verstated. Uncertainty in frm is nt sufficient t justify allwing the issue t stagnate, we cannt wait fr a magic bullet. Make the mst f currently available technlgy. (Decnstructing Paris Pr-frma submissin) A quarter f respndents suggested uncertainty arund technlgy and cst meant we shuld d mre (ie, table a higher target): Take the massive ptential fr future technlgies int accunt. We shuld seize the mment and see these targets as grwth engines fr the ecnmy, nt as risks, uncertainties r csts. (Individual, 1926) 4% f respndents suggested uncertainty arund technlgy and cst meant either we shuld d less r nt take a target. A further 2% suggested the target shuld be prvisinal n varius factrs such as: future technlgies, rules, climate change happening, use f markets, and/r the actin f ther cuntries. A few submitters suggested that the target shuld be presented as a range, rather than a single number. Any aggregated numeric target shuld be expressed as a brad range, with clearly stated assumptins. A numeric target shuld be the utcme f sectr plicies and activities, nt the driver." (New Zealand Green Building Cuncil, 9186) Summary f cnsultatin respnses 19

20 Summary f public meetings The Ministry fr the Envirnment held 15 public meetings and hui in 11 lcatins. Apprximately 1,700 peple attended, and the verwhelming majrity spke passinately and intelligently abut the need t take actin n climate change. Many f the issues raised were als cmmn in written submissins, such as the pprtunities that New Zealand culd seize by reducing emissins, and the urgency with which we need t act. Hwever, sme themes were mre cmmn at the meetings than in written submissins. Fr instance, a large number f peple spke abut climate change being a mral cause, and that the need t take actin was a mral respnsibility. Similarly, attendees at public meetings were mre likely t say that they were willing t pay any cst t slve the prblem, and that the Gvernment shuld nt be using internatinal carbn ffsets t meet emissins reductin targets. 20 Summary f cnsultatin respnses

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