Regulations and Emissions Control Technologies

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1 Japan s Automotive Emissions Regulations and Emissions Control Technologies for 2005 and Later Akio Tamano Emission & Fuel Efficiency Subcommittee Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. 1

2 Current Status of Air Pollution Automotive Emissions Regulations Automotive Emissions Control Technologies 2

3 Trends in Annual Average of Air Pollutants in Japan Average of Roadside Monitoring Stations on Con ncentrati Year 3

4 Attainment Rate of Environmental Quality Standard in 2006 NO2 SPM All Regions NoxPM Law Measures Regions All Regions NoxPM Law Measures Regions Oxidant All Regions SO2 All Regions CO All Regions 4

5 Current Status of Air Pollution Automotive Emissions Regulations Automotive Emissions Control Technologies 5

6 Emissions Regulations for Gasoline Passenger Cars in Japan 1965 = HC NOx regulations 2005 New long-term regulations 50 CO 2000 New short-term regulations

7 Exhaust Emissions Standards for Passenger Cars Gasoline New Long-term Standard Diesel New Long-term Standard Diesel Post New Long-term Standard Gasoline 3 Gasoline 4 7

8 Emissions Standards for Heavy duty Diesel Vehicles 0.3 PM (g/kwh) Long-term regulations (starting 1997) New long-term regulations (starting 2005) Post New long- term regulations (starting 2009) 0.15 New short-term regulations (starting 2003) 0.1 New short-term regulations Ultra-low low PM vehicle PM certification PM standards NOx (g/kw/h) 8

9 Low Emission Vehicle Certification System Mode Combined Mode NOx (g/km) NOx (g/km) [2000 Regulations] HC (g/km) CO (g/km) [ Regulations] J-ULEV J-ULEV J-SULEV NMHC (g/km) CO (g/km) 9

10 Introduction of Certified Low Emission i Passenger Cars in Japan 1,000) 5,000 4,000 Total units shipped pped ( Units shi 3,000 2,000 1, Year 3.9 million low emission vehicles (3, 4 ) ) shipped in 2006, 90% or more of all passenger cars 10

11 Future Automotive Emissions Regulations in Japan Gasoline vehicle Passenger car Light- and Medium-truck New Long-term Reg. JC08 mode(cold) High-level OBD JC08 mode(hot) 2015 Fuel Efficiency Standard Heavy-duty y vehicle JE05 mode 2010 Fuel Efficiency Standard (1015mode) 15mode JC08 cold/hot Diesel vehicle Passenger car Light- and Medium-truck Post New Long-term Reg Fuel efficiency standard Heavy-duty vehicle JE05 mode NOx Challenge Target? JE05 mode 11

12 New Emission Test Mode (JC08 Mode) 1015 Mode for Vehicles with GVW of 3,500kg or less Distance4.165km Ave. speed22.7km Max. speed70km/h JC08 Mode Distance8.159km Ave. speed24.4km/h Max. speed81.5km/h In order to accurately assess the performance of exhaust emissions in real world 12

13 speed New Emission Test Mode (JE05 Mode) for Vehicles with GVW of over 3,500kg Representative Running Mode As the Basis of Test Mode Distance:13.9km, Ave. speed:27.3km/h, Max.speed:87.6km/h Time (sec) Actual Max. Torque Curve Measured Data Simulation Vehicle Specification Data Conversion to Engine RPM and Torque Engine Operation on Engine Dynamometer 13

14 Worldwide Harmonization of Environment Emission Test Procedure - Better Air Quality - Lower GHG Manufacturer Improvement of R&D Efficiency Promotion P i of fadvanced dtechnologies Government - Easy-to-understand rulemaking - Easy-to-evaluate each country policy Consumer -EFV will be available more cheaper -Greater freedom in selection of vehicles Motorcycle Heavy-duty Vehicle Light-duty Vehicle UN/ECE/WP.29 WMTC WHDC WLTP GTR GTR 14

15 Current Status of Air Pollution Automotive Emissions Regulations Automotive Emissions Control Technologies 15

16 Emissions Regulations and Main Control Technologies in Japan 1965 = 100 (Gasoline passenger car) HC CO - Engine improvements NOx - Oxidation catalyst - 3-way catalyst (O 2 sensor) - Microprocessor engine control - Catalyst improvements -2 O 2 sensors - Air assist injection - NOx storage-reduction catalyst - Air-fuel ratio sensor - VVTi New long-term regulations 16

17 Emissions Control Technologies (Gasoline vehicles) Cold emission Hot emission Reduction Technology Move catalyst forward Cascade catalyst HC adsorption system Supercharging Double-wall exhaust manifold VVT Better control of transient A/F Reduce crevice volume Improve catalyst Strengthen swirl Increase catalyst size and carrier volume Improve NOx catalyst Electronically controlled EGR NOx HC 17

18 Future Technologies to Reduce Emissions from Gasoline Vehicles Points: Improve combustion, Warm up faster, Activate catalyst faster, Restrain deterioration, Improve control Develop engine control Develop control technology Improve engine - Increase control precision for A/F ratio, ignition timing combustion - Improve OBD detection performance Develop valve mechanism Develop control parts Develop sensors Use thermal energy - Heat cylinder head, port - Heat intake air etc. Develop exhaust system parts - Reduce heat capacity - Secondary air - Control exhaust temperature Improve catalyst performance -Improve catalyst Low-temperature activation Good heat resistance - Adsorption purification catalyst - New catalysts 18

19 Engine Diesel Emissions Control Technologies ion system Fuel inject Year Emissions Regulations Shortterm Longterm Retarded injection timing Improved injection nozzle Higher injection pressure CR, UI Variable injection rate Multi-injection (common rail, etc.) New Shortterm Improved combustion chamber Supercharger with intercooler eimproved combustion chamber Aftertreatme ent ke system Inta EGR sys stem Inertial supercharging, Supercharger with W/G, etc. Variable nozzle turbocharging Variable swirl Internal EGR EGR External hot EGR Cooled EGR PM Oxidation catalyst reduction NOx reduction DPF NO catalyst 19

20 Diesel Emission Control o Technologies og es for New Long-term Regulation (1) Urea selective reduction catalyst t (SCR) + High-pressure fuel injection unit + Cooled EGR EGR valve Intercooler (Intake air cooler) EGR cooler Intake air High-pressure injector unit High-pressure common rail Urea NOx selective reduction catalyst Oxidation catalyst Oxidation catalyst Exhaust Added module Urea-water tank Air tank Urea-water adding unit 20

21 Diesel Emission Control Technologies for New Long-term Regulation (2) DPF + High-pressure fuel injection unit + Cooled EGR EGR valve High-pressure common rail Intake air throttle Intercooler (Intake air cooler) EGR cooler Intake air Oxidation catalyst DPF (Ceramic filter) Exhaust VG turbo 21

22 22

23 23

24 Future Diesel Emission Control Technology (1) DPF + NOx storage-reduction red catalyst system 0.25 PM Common rail high-pressure 0.20 (g/kwh) injection unit 0.15 Intake air throttle EGR valve 0.10 EGR cooler 0.05 HC oxidation catalyst Inter-Cooler Intercooler 1998 HDV Current 2003 HDV (1) EM (2) De-NOx Cat. (3) DPF 2005 HDV NOx (g/kwh) NOx catalyst + DPF Intake air Exhaust Unit to add fuel to exhaust 24

25 (2) Urea SCR System PM (g/kwh) 1998 HDV 2003 HDV. Current Ultra-high pressure injection Intake air throttle Intercooler EGR valve HDV Urea SCR NOx (g/kwh) Ultra-high pressure fuel injection EGR cooler Intake air DPF Ammonia oxidation catalyst Electronically controlled turbo Urea-water injection controller Urea-water tank Exhaust High-performance selective reduction catalyst 25

26 26

27 Thank you for your attention 27

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