# Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems. Matrix Factorization

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1 Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems Matrix Factorization Numerical Analysis (9th Edition) R L Burden & J D Faires Beamer Presentation Slides prepared by John Carroll Dublin City University c 2011 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning

2 Outline 1 Computation Cost Rationale & Basic Solution Strategy Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 2 / 46

3 Outline 1 Computation Cost Rationale & Basic Solution Strategy 2 Constructing the Matrix Factorization Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 2 / 46

4 Outline 1 Computation Cost Rationale & Basic Solution Strategy 2 Constructing the Matrix Factorization 3 Example: LU Factorization of a 4 4 Matrix Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 2 / 46

5 Outline 1 Computation Cost Rationale & Basic Solution Strategy 2 Constructing the Matrix Factorization 3 Example: LU Factorization of a 4 4 Matrix 4 The LU Factorization Algorithm Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 2 / 46

6 Outline 1 Computation Cost Rationale & Basic Solution Strategy 2 Constructing the Matrix Factorization 3 Example: LU Factorization of a 4 4 Matrix 4 The LU Factorization Algorithm 5 Permutation Matrices for Row Interchanges Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 2 / 46

7 Outline 1 Computation Cost Rationale & Basic Solution Strategy 2 Constructing the Matrix Factorization 3 Example: LU Factorization of a 4 4 Matrix 4 The LU Factorization Algorithm 5 Permutation Matrices for Row Interchanges Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 3 / 46

8 Matrix Factorization Background Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 4 / 46

9 Matrix Factorization Background Gaussian elimination is the principal tool in the direct solution of linear systems of equations. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 4 / 46

10 Matrix Factorization Background Gaussian elimination is the principal tool in the direct solution of linear systems of equations. We will now see that the steps used to solve a system of the form Ax = b can be used to factor a matrix. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 4 / 46

11 Matrix Factorization Background Gaussian elimination is the principal tool in the direct solution of linear systems of equations. We will now see that the steps used to solve a system of the form Ax = b can be used to factor a matrix. The factorization is particularly useful when it has the form A = LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 4 / 46

12 Matrix Factorization Background Gaussian elimination is the principal tool in the direct solution of linear systems of equations. We will now see that the steps used to solve a system of the form Ax = b can be used to factor a matrix. The factorization is particularly useful when it has the form A = LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Although not all matrices have this type of representation, many do that occur frequently in the application of numerical techniques. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 4 / 46

13 Matrix Factorization Computational Cost Considerations Gaussian elimination applied to an arbitrary linear system Ax = b requires O(n 3 /3) arithmetic operations to determine x. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 5 / 46

14 Matrix Factorization Computational Cost Considerations Gaussian elimination applied to an arbitrary linear system Ax = b requires O(n 3 /3) arithmetic operations to determine x. However, to solve a linear system that involves an upper-triangular system requires only backward substitution, which takes O(n 2 ) operations. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 5 / 46

15 Matrix Factorization Computational Cost Considerations Gaussian elimination applied to an arbitrary linear system Ax = b requires O(n 3 /3) arithmetic operations to determine x. However, to solve a linear system that involves an upper-triangular system requires only backward substitution, which takes O(n 2 ) operations. The number of operations required to solve a lower-triangular systems is similar. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 5 / 46

16 Matrix Factorization Solution Strategy Suppose that A has been factored into the triangular form A = LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 6 / 46

17 Matrix Factorization Solution Strategy Suppose that A has been factored into the triangular form A = LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Then we can solve for x more easily by using a two-step process: Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 6 / 46

18 Matrix Factorization Solution Strategy Suppose that A has been factored into the triangular form A = LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Then we can solve for x more easily by using a two-step process: First we let y = Ux and solve the lower triangular system Ly = b for y. Since L is triangular, determining y from this equation requires only O(n 2 ) operations. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 6 / 46

19 Matrix Factorization Solution Strategy Suppose that A has been factored into the triangular form A = LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Then we can solve for x more easily by using a two-step process: First we let y = Ux and solve the lower triangular system Ly = b for y. Since L is triangular, determining y from this equation requires only O(n 2 ) operations. Once y is known, the upper triangular system Ux = y requires only an additional O(n 2 ) operations to determine the solution x. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 6 / 46

20 Matrix Factorization Solution Strategy Suppose that A has been factored into the triangular form A = LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Then we can solve for x more easily by using a two-step process: First we let y = Ux and solve the lower triangular system Ly = b for y. Since L is triangular, determining y from this equation requires only O(n 2 ) operations. Once y is known, the upper triangular system Ux = y requires only an additional O(n 2 ) operations to determine the solution x. Solving a linear system Ax = b in factored form means that the number of operations needed to solve the system Ax = b is reduced from O(n 3 /3) to O(2n 2 ). Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 6 / 46

21 Outline 1 Computation Cost Rationale & Basic Solution Strategy 2 Constructing the Matrix Factorization 3 Example: LU Factorization of a 4 4 Matrix 4 The LU Factorization Algorithm 5 Permutation Matrices for Row Interchanges Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 7 / 46

22 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U First, suppose that Gaussian elimination can be performed on the system Ax = b without row interchanges. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 8 / 46

23 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U First, suppose that Gaussian elimination can be performed on the system Ax = b without row interchanges. With the notation used earlier, this is equivalent to having nonzero pivot elements a (i) ii, for each i = 1, 2,...,n. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 8 / 46

24 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U First, suppose that Gaussian elimination can be performed on the system Ax = b without row interchanges. With the notation used earlier, this is equivalent to having nonzero pivot elements a (i) ii, for each i = 1, 2,...,n. The first step in the Gaussian elimination process consists of performing, for each j = 2, 3,..., n, the operations (E j m j,1 E 1 ) (E j ), where m j,1 = a(1) j1 a (1) 11 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 8 / 46

25 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U First, suppose that Gaussian elimination can be performed on the system Ax = b without row interchanges. With the notation used earlier, this is equivalent to having nonzero pivot elements a (i) ii, for each i = 1, 2,...,n. The first step in the Gaussian elimination process consists of performing, for each j = 2, 3,..., n, the operations (E j m j,1 E 1 ) (E j ), where m j,1 = a(1) j1 a (1) 11 These operations transform the system into one in which all the entries in the first column below the diagonal are zero. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 8 / 46

26 Matrix Factorization: Constructing L & U (Cont d) The system of operations in (E j m j,1 E 1 ) (E j ), where m j,1 = a(1) j1 a (1) 11 can be viewed in another way. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 9 / 46

27 Matrix Factorization: Constructing L & U (Cont d) The system of operations in (E j m j,1 E 1 ) (E j ), where m j,1 = a(1) j1 a (1) 11 can be viewed in another way. It is simultaneously accomplished by multiplying the original matrix A on the left by the matrix m M (1) = m n Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 9 / 46

28 Matrix Factorization: Constructing L & U (Cont d) The system of operations in (E j m j,1 E 1 ) (E j ), where m j,1 = a(1) j1 a (1) 11 can be viewed in another way. It is simultaneously accomplished by multiplying the original matrix A on the left by the matrix m M (1) = m n This is called the first Gaussian transformation matrix. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 9 / 46

29 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) We denote the product of this matrix with A (1) A by A (2) and with b by b (2), Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 10 / 46

30 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) We denote the product of this matrix with A (1) A by A (2) and with b by b (2), so A (2) x = M (1) Ax = M (1) b = b (2) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 10 / 46

31 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) We denote the product of this matrix with A (1) A by A (2) and with b by b (2), so A (2) x = M (1) Ax = M (1) b = b (2) In a similar manner we construct M (2), the identity matrix with the entries below the diagonal in the second column replaced by the negatives of the multipliers m j,2 = a(2) j2 a (2) 22. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 10 / 46

32 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) The product of M (2) with A (2) has zeros below the diagonal in the first two columns, Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 11 / 46

33 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) The product of M (2) with A (2) has zeros below the diagonal in the first two columns, and we let A (3) x = M (2) A (2) x = M (2) M (1) Ax = M (2) M (1) b = b (3) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 11 / 46

34 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) In general, with A (k) x = b (k) already formed, Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 12 / 46

35 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) In general, with A (k) x = b (k) already formed, multiply by the kth Gaussian transformation matrix M (k). = m..... k+1,k m n,k Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 12 / 46

36 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) to obtain A (k+1) x = M (k) A (k) x Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 13 / 46

37 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) to obtain A (k+1) x = M (k) A (k) x = M (k) M (1) Ax Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 13 / 46

38 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) to obtain A (k+1) x = M (k) A (k) x = M (k) M (1) Ax = M (k) b (k) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 13 / 46

39 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) to obtain A (k+1) x = M (k) A (k) x = M (k) M (1) Ax = M (k) b (k) = b (k+1) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 13 / 46

40 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) to obtain A (k+1) x = M (k) A (k) x = M (k) M (1) Ax = M (k) b (k) = b (k+1) = M (k) M (1) b Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 13 / 46

41 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) The process ends with the formation of A (n) x = b (n), where A (n) is the upper triangular matrix a (1) 11 a (1) 12 a (1) 1n 0 a (2)... A (n) 22. = (n 1) a n 1,n 0 0 a (n) n,n Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 14 / 46

42 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) The process ends with the formation of A (n) x = b (n), where A (n) is the upper triangular matrix a (1) 11 a (1) 12 a (1) 1n 0 a (2)... A (n) 22. = (n 1) a n 1,n 0 0 a (n) n,n given by A (n) = M (n 1) M (n 2) M (1) A Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 14 / 46

43 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) This process forms the U = A (n) portion of the matrix factorization A = LU. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 15 / 46

44 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) This process forms the U = A (n) portion of the matrix factorization A = LU. To determine the complementary lower triangular matrix L, Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 15 / 46

45 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) This process forms the U = A (n) portion of the matrix factorization A = LU. To determine the complementary lower triangular matrix L, first recall the multiplication of A (k) x = b (k) by the Gaussian transformation of M (k) used to obtain: A (k+1) x = M (k) A (k) x = M (k) b (k) = b (k+1), Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 15 / 46

46 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) This process forms the U = A (n) portion of the matrix factorization A = LU. To determine the complementary lower triangular matrix L, first recall the multiplication of A (k) x = b (k) by the Gaussian transformation of M (k) used to obtain: A (k+1) x = M (k) A (k) x = M (k) b (k) = b (k+1), where M (k) generates the row operations (E j m j,k E k ) (E j ), for j = k + 1,...,n. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 15 / 46

47 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) To reverse the effects of this transformation and return to A (k) requires that the operations (E j + m j,k E k ) (E j ) be performed for each j = k + 1,...,n. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 16 / 46

48 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) To reverse the effects of this transformation and return to A (k) requires that the operations (E j + m j,k E k ) (E j ) be performed for each j = k + 1,...,n. This is equivalent to multiplying by [ M (k)] 1 : [ L (k) = M (k)] 1. = m..... k+1,k m n,k Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 16 / 46

49 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) The lower-triangular matrix L in the factorization of A, then, is the product of the matrices L (k) : m L = L (1) L (2) L (n 1) = m n1 m n,n 1 1 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 17 / 46

50 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) The lower-triangular matrix L in the factorization of A, then, is the product of the matrices L (k) : m L = L (1) L (2) L (n 1) = m n1 m n,n 1 1 since the product of L with the upper-triangular matrix U = M (n 1) M (2) M (1) A gives Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 17 / 46

51 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) LU = L (1) L (2) L (n 3) L (n 2) L (n 1) M (n 1) M (n 2) M (n 3) M (2) M (1) A Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 18 / 46

52 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) LU = L (1) L (2) L (n 3) L (n 2) L (n 1) M (n 1) M (n 2) M (n 3) M (2) M (1) A = [M (1) ] 1 [M (2) ] 1 [M (n 2) ] 1 [M (n 1) ] 1 M (n 1) M (n 2) M (2) M (1) A Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 18 / 46

53 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) LU = L (1) L (2) L (n 3) L (n 2) L (n 1) M (n 1) M (n 2) M (n 3) M (2) M (1) A = [M (1) ] 1 [M (2) ] 1 [M (n 2) ] 1 [M (n 1) ] 1 M (n 1) M (n 2) M (2) M (1) A = A Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 18 / 46

54 Matrix Factorization Constructing L & U (Cont d) LU = L (1) L (2) L (n 3) L (n 2) L (n 1) M (n 1) M (n 2) M (n 3) M (2) M (1) A = [M (1) ] 1 [M (2) ] 1 [M (n 2) ] 1 [M (n 1) ] 1 M (n 1) M (n 2) M (2) M (1) A = A We now state a theorem which follows from these observations. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 18 / 46

55 Matrix Factorization Theorem If Gaussian elimination can be performed on the linear system Ax = b without row interchanges, Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 19 / 46

56 Matrix Factorization Theorem If Gaussian elimination can be performed on the linear system Ax = b without row interchanges, then the matrix A can be factored into the product of a lower-triangular matrix L and an upper-triangular matrix U, Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 19 / 46

57 Matrix Factorization Theorem If Gaussian elimination can be performed on the linear system Ax = b without row interchanges, then the matrix A can be factored into the product of a lower-triangular matrix L and an upper-triangular matrix U, that is, A = LU, where m ji = a (i) ji /a (i) ii, U = a (1) 11 a (1) 12 a (1) 1n 0 a (2) a (n 1) n 1,n 0 0 a (n) n,n m L = m n1 m n,n 1 1 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 19 / 46

58 Outline 1 Computation Cost Rationale & Basic Solution Strategy 2 Constructing the Matrix Factorization 3 Example: LU Factorization of a 4 4 Matrix 4 The LU Factorization Algorithm 5 Permutation Matrices for Row Interchanges Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 20 / 46

59 Matrix Factorization Example (a) Determine the LU factorization for matrix A in the linear system Ax = b, where A = and b = Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 21 / 46

60 Matrix Factorization Example (a) Determine the LU factorization for matrix A in the linear system Ax = b, where A = and b = (b) Then use the factorization to solve the system x 1 + x 2 + 3x 4 = 8 2x 1 + x 2 x 3 + x 4 = 7 3x 1 x 2 x 3 + 2x 4 = 14 x 1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 x 4 = 7 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 21 / 46

61 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (a) Solution (1/2) The original system was considered under Gaussian Elimination Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 22 / 46

62 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (a) Solution (1/2) The original system was considered under Gaussian Elimination where we saw that the sequence of operations (E 2 2E 1 ) (E 2 ) (E 3 3E 1 ) (E 3 ) (E 4 ( 1)E 1 ) (E 4 ) (E 3 4E 2 ) (E 3 ) (E 4 ( 3)E 2 ) (E 4 ) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 22 / 46

63 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (a) Solution (1/2) The original system was considered under Gaussian Elimination where we saw that the sequence of operations (E 2 2E 1 ) (E 2 ) (E 3 3E 1 ) (E 3 ) (E 4 ( 1)E 1 ) (E 4 ) (E 3 4E 2 ) (E 3 ) (E 4 ( 3)E 2 ) (E 4 ) converts the system to the triangular system x 1 + x 2 + 3x 4 = 4 x 2 x 3 5x 4 = 7 3x x 4 = 13 13x 4 = 13 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 22 / 46

64 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (a) Solution (2/2) The multipliers m ij and the upper triangular matrix produce the factorization A = Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 23 / 46

65 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (a) Solution (2/2) The multipliers m ij and the upper triangular matrix produce the factorization A = = Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 23 / 46

66 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (a) Solution (2/2) The multipliers m ij and the upper triangular matrix produce the factorization A = = = LU Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 23 / 46

67 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (b) Solution (1/3) To solve Ax = LUx = = x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 24 / 46

68 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (b) Solution (1/3) To solve Ax = LUx = = we first introduce the substitution y = Ux x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 24 / 46

69 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (b) Solution (1/3) To solve Ax = LUx = = we first introduce the substitution y = Ux. Then b = L(Ux) = Ly. x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 24 / 46

70 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (b) Solution (2/3) First, solve Ly = b (where y = Ux: Ly = y 1 y 2 y 3 y 4 = Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 25 / 46

71 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (b) Solution (2/3) First, solve Ly = b (where y = Ux: Ly = y 1 y 2 y 3 y 4 = This system is solved for y by a simple forward-substitution process: y 1 = 8 2y 1 + y 2 = 7 y 2 = 7 2y 1 = 9. 3y 1 + 4y 2 + y 3 = 14 y 3 = 14 3y 1 4y 2 = 26 y 1 3y 2 + y 4 = 7 y 4 = 7 + y 1 + 3y 2 = 26 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 25 / 46

72 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (b) Solution (3/3) We then solve Ux = y for x, the solution of the original system; Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 26 / 46

73 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (b) Solution (3/3) We then solve Ux = y for x, the solution of the original system; that is, x x x 3 = x 4 26 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 26 / 46

74 Matrix Factorization: 4 4 Example Part (b) Solution (3/3) We then solve Ux = y for x, the solution of the original system; that is, x x x 3 = x 4 26 Using backward substitution we obtain x 4 = 2, x 3 = 0, x 2 = 1, x 1 = 3. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 26 / 46

75 Outline 1 Computation Cost Rationale & Basic Solution Strategy 2 Constructing the Matrix Factorization 3 Example: LU Factorization of a 4 4 Matrix 4 The LU Factorization Algorithm 5 Permutation Matrices for Row Interchanges Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 27 / 46

76 LU Factorization Algorithm (1/3) To factor the n n matrix A = [a ij ] into the product of the lower-triangular matrix L = [l ij ] and the upper-triangular matrix U = [u ij ]; that is, A = LU, where the main diagonal of either L or U consists of all ones: Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 28 / 46

77 LU Factorization Algorithm (1/3) To factor the n n matrix A = [a ij ] into the product of the lower-triangular matrix L = [l ij ] and the upper-triangular matrix U = [u ij ]; that is, A = LU, where the main diagonal of either L or U consists of all ones: INPUT dimension n; the entries a ij, 1 i, j n of A; the diagonal l 11 = = l nn = 1 of L or the diagonal u 11 = = u nn = 1 of U. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 28 / 46

78 LU Factorization Algorithm (1/3) To factor the n n matrix A = [a ij ] into the product of the lower-triangular matrix L = [l ij ] and the upper-triangular matrix U = [u ij ]; that is, A = LU, where the main diagonal of either L or U consists of all ones: INPUT dimension n; the entries a ij, 1 i, j n of A; the diagonal l 11 = = l nn = 1 of L or the diagonal u 11 = = u nn = 1 of U. OUTPUT the entries l ij, 1 j i, 1 i n of L and the entries, u ij, i j n, 1 i n of U. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 28 / 46

79 LU Factorization Algorithm (2/3) Step 1 Select l 11 and u 11 satisfying l 11 u 11 = a 11 If l 11 u 11 = 0 then OUTPUT ( Factorization impossible ) STOP Step 2 For j = 2,...,n set u 1j = a 1j /l 11 (First row of U) l j1 = a j1 /u 11 (First column of L) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 29 / 46

80 LU Factorization Algorithm (2/3) Step 1 Select l 11 and u 11 satisfying l 11 u 11 = a 11 If l 11 u 11 = 0 then OUTPUT ( Factorization impossible ) STOP Step 2 For j = 2,...,n set u 1j = a 1j /l 11 (First row of U) l j1 = a j1 /u 11 (First column of L) Step 3 For i = 2,...,n 1 do Steps 4 and 5: Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 29 / 46

81 LU Factorization Algorithm (2/3) Step 1 Select l 11 and u 11 satisfying l 11 u 11 = a 11 If l 11 u 11 = 0 then OUTPUT ( Factorization impossible ) STOP Step 2 For j = 2,...,n set u 1j = a 1j /l 11 (First row of U) l j1 = a j1 /u 11 (First column of L) Step 3 For i = 2,...,n 1 do Steps 4 and 5: Step 4 Select l ii and u ii satisfying l ii u ii = a ii i 1 k=1 l iku ki If l ii u ii = 0 then OUTPUT ( Factorization impossible ) STOP Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 29 / 46

82 LU Factorization Algorithm (2/3) Step 1 Select l 11 and u 11 satisfying l 11 u 11 = a 11 If l 11 u 11 = 0 then OUTPUT ( Factorization impossible ) STOP Step 2 For j = 2,...,n set u 1j = a 1j /l 11 (First row of U) l j1 = a j1 /u 11 (First column of L) Step 3 For i = 2,...,n 1 do Steps 4 and 5: Step 4 Step 5 Select l ii and u ii satisfying l ii u ii = a ii i 1 k=1 l iku ki If l ii u ii = 0 then OUTPUT ( Factorization impossible ) STOP For j = i + 1,...,n set u ij = 1 l ii [ a ij i 1 k=1 l iku kj ] l ji = 1 u ii [ a ji i 1 k=1 l jku ki ] (ith row of U) (ith column of L) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 29 / 46

83 LU Factorization Algorithm (3/3) Step 6 Select l nn and u nn satisfying l nn u nn = a nn n 1 k=1 l nku kn (Note: If l nn u nn = 0, then A = LU but A is singular) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 30 / 46

84 LU Factorization Algorithm (3/3) Step 6 Select l nn and u nn satisfying l nn u nn = a nn n 1 k=1 l nku kn (Note: If l nn u nn = 0, then A = LU but A is singular) Step 7 OUTPUT (l ij for j = 1,...,i and i = 1,...,n) OUTPUT (u ij for j = i,..., n and i = 1,...,n) STOP Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 30 / 46

85 Matrix Factorization Using the LU Factorization to solve Ax = b Once the matrix factorization is complete, Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 31 / 46

86 Matrix Factorization Using the LU Factorization to solve Ax = b Once the matrix factorization is complete, the solution to a linear system of the form Ax = LUx = b Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 31 / 46

87 Matrix Factorization Using the LU Factorization to solve Ax = b Once the matrix factorization is complete, the solution to a linear system of the form Ax = LUx = b is found by first letting y = Ux Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 31 / 46

88 Matrix Factorization Using the LU Factorization to solve Ax = b Once the matrix factorization is complete, the solution to a linear system of the form Ax = LUx = b is found by first letting and solving for y. y = Ux Ly = b Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 31 / 46

89 Matrix Factorization Using the LU Factorization (Cont d) Since L is lower triangular, we have y 1 = b 1 l 11 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 32 / 46

90 Matrix Factorization Using the LU Factorization (Cont d) Since L is lower triangular, we have y 1 = b 1 and, for each l 11 i = 2, 3,...,n, y i = 1 i 1 b i l ij y j l ii j=1 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 32 / 46

91 Matrix Factorization Using the LU Factorization (Cont d) Since L is lower triangular, we have y 1 = b 1 and, for each l 11 i = 2, 3,...,n, y i = 1 i 1 b i l ij y j l ii After y is found by this forward-substitution process, the upper-triangular system Ux = y is solved for x by backward substitution using the equations x n = y n u nn and x i = 1 u ii j=1 y i n j=i+1 u ij x j Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 32 / 46

92 Outline 1 Computation Cost Rationale & Basic Solution Strategy 2 Constructing the Matrix Factorization 3 Example: LU Factorization of a 4 4 Matrix 4 The LU Factorization Algorithm 5 Permutation Matrices for Row Interchanges Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 33 / 46

93 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Limitations of the LU Factorization Algorithm We assumed that Ax = b can be solved using Gaussian elimination without row interchanges. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 34 / 46

94 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Limitations of the LU Factorization Algorithm We assumed that Ax = b can be solved using Gaussian elimination without row interchanges. From a practical standpoint, this factorization is useful only when row interchanges are not required to control round-off error. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 34 / 46

95 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Limitations of the LU Factorization Algorithm We assumed that Ax = b can be solved using Gaussian elimination without row interchanges. From a practical standpoint, this factorization is useful only when row interchanges are not required to control round-off error. We will now consider the modifications that must be made when row interchanges are required. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 34 / 46

96 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices We begin with the introduction of a class of matrices that are used to rearrange, or permute, rows of a given matrix. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 35 / 46

97 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices We begin with the introduction of a class of matrices that are used to rearrange, or permute, rows of a given matrix. Permutation Matrix An n n permutation matrix P = [p ij ] is a matrix obtained by rearranging the rows of I n, the identity matrix. This gives a matrix with precisely one nonzero entry in each row and in each column, and each nonzero entry is a 1. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 35 / 46

98 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Example The matrix is a 3 3 permutation matrix. P = Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 36 / 46

99 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Example The matrix P = is a 3 3 permutation matrix. For any 3 3 matrix A, multiplying on the left by P has the effect of interchanging the second and third rows of A: PA = a 11 a 12 a 13 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 36 / 46

100 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Example The matrix P = is a 3 3 permutation matrix. For any 3 3 matrix A, multiplying on the left by P has the effect of interchanging the second and third rows of A: PA = a 11 a 12 a 13 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 = a 11 a 12 a 13 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 21 a 22 a 23 Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 36 / 46

101 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Example The matrix P = is a 3 3 permutation matrix. For any 3 3 matrix A, multiplying on the left by P has the effect of interchanging the second and third rows of A: PA = a 11 a 12 a 13 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 = a 11 a 12 a 13 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 21 a 22 a 23 Similarly, multiplying A on the right by P interchanges the second and third columns of A. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 36 / 46

102 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Two useful properties of permutation matrices (1/2) Suppose k 1,...,k n is a permutation of the integers 1,...,n Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 37 / 46

103 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Two useful properties of permutation matrices (1/2) Suppose k 1,...,k n is a permutation of the integers 1,...,n and the permutation matrix P = (p ij ) is defined by p ij = { 1, if j = k i 0, otherwise Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 37 / 46

104 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Two useful properties of permutation matrices (2/2) Then PA permutes the rows of A; that is, a k1 1 a k1 2 a k1 n a k2 1 a k2 2 a k2 n PA = a kn1 a kn2 a knn Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 38 / 46

105 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Two useful properties of permutation matrices (2/2) Then PA permutes the rows of A; that is, a k1 1 a k1 2 a k1 n a k2 1 a k2 2 a k2 n PA = a kn1 a kn2 a knn P 1 exists and P 1 = P t. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 38 / 46

106 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Permutation Matrices & Gaussian Elimination Earlier, we saw that for any nonsingular matrix A, the linear system Ax = b can be solved by Gaussian elimination, with the possibility of row interchanges. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 39 / 46

107 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Permutation Matrices & Gaussian Elimination Earlier, we saw that for any nonsingular matrix A, the linear system Ax = b can be solved by Gaussian elimination, with the possibility of row interchanges. If we knew the row interchanges that were required to solve the system by Gaussian elimination, we could arrange the original equations in an order that would ensure that no row interchanges are needed. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 39 / 46

108 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Permutation Matrices & Gaussian Elimination Earlier, we saw that for any nonsingular matrix A, the linear system Ax = b can be solved by Gaussian elimination, with the possibility of row interchanges. If we knew the row interchanges that were required to solve the system by Gaussian elimination, we could arrange the original equations in an order that would ensure that no row interchanges are needed. Hence there is a rearrangement of the equations in the system that permits Gaussian elimination to proceed without row interchanges. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 39 / 46

109 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Permutation Matrices & Gaussian Elimination (Cont d) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 40 / 46

110 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Permutation Matrices & Gaussian Elimination (Cont d) This implies that for any nonsingular matrix A, a permutation matrix P exists for which the system PAx = Pb can be solved without row interchanges. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 40 / 46

111 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Permutation Matrices & Gaussian Elimination (Cont d) This implies that for any nonsingular matrix A, a permutation matrix P exists for which the system PAx = Pb can be solved without row interchanges. As a consequence, this matrix PA can be factored into PA = LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 40 / 46

112 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Permutation Matrices & Gaussian Elimination (Cont d) This implies that for any nonsingular matrix A, a permutation matrix P exists for which the system PAx = Pb can be solved without row interchanges. As a consequence, this matrix PA can be factored into PA = LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Because P 1 = P t, this produces the factorization A = P 1 LU = (P t L)U. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 40 / 46

113 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Permutation Matrices & Gaussian Elimination (Cont d) This implies that for any nonsingular matrix A, a permutation matrix P exists for which the system PAx = Pb can be solved without row interchanges. As a consequence, this matrix PA can be factored into PA = LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular. Because P 1 = P t, this produces the factorization A = P 1 LU = (P t L)U. The matrix U is still upper triangular, but P t L is not lower triangular unless P = I. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 40 / 46

114 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Example Determine a factorization in the form A = (P t L)U for the matrix A = Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 41 / 46

115 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Example Determine a factorization in the form A = (P t L)U for the matrix A = Note The matrix A cannot have an LU factorization because a 11 = 0. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 41 / 46

116 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (1/4) However, using the row interchange (E 1 ) (E 2 ), Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 42 / 46

117 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (1/4) However, using the row interchange (E 1 ) (E 2 ), followed by (E 3 + E 1 ) (E 3 ) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 42 / 46

118 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (1/4) However, using the row interchange (E 1 ) (E 2 ), followed by (E 3 + E 1 ) (E 3 ) and (E 4 E 1 ) (E 4 ), Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 42 / 46

119 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (1/4) However, using the row interchange (E 1 ) (E 2 ), followed by (E 3 + E 1 ) (E 3 ) and (E 4 E 1 ) (E 4 ), produces Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 42 / 46

120 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (1/4) However, using the row interchange (E 1 ) (E 2 ), followed by (E 3 + E 1 ) (E 3 ) and (E 4 E 1 ) (E 4 ), produces Then, the row interchange (E 2 ) (E 4 ), Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 42 / 46

121 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (1/4) However, using the row interchange (E 1 ) (E 2 ), followed by (E 3 + E 1 ) (E 3 ) and (E 4 E 1 ) (E 4 ), produces Then, the row interchange (E 2 ) (E 4 ), followed by (E 4 + E 3 ) (E 4 ), Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 42 / 46

122 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (1/4) However, using the row interchange (E 1 ) (E 2 ), followed by (E 3 + E 1 ) (E 3 ) and (E 4 E 1 ) (E 4 ), produces Then, the row interchange (E 2 ) (E 4 ), followed by (E 4 + E 3 ) (E 4 ), gives the matrix U = Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 42 / 46

123 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (2/4) The permutation matrix associated with the row interchanges Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 43 / 46

124 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (2/4) The permutation matrix associated with the row interchanges (E 1 ) (E 2 ) and (E 2 ) (E 4 ) Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 43 / 46

125 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (2/4) The permutation matrix associated with the row interchanges (E 1 ) (E 2 ) and (E 2 ) (E 4 ) is P = Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 43 / 46

126 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (2/4) The permutation matrix associated with the row interchanges (E 1 ) (E 2 ) and (E 2 ) (E 4 ) is P = and PA = Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 43 / 46

127 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (3/4) Gaussian elimination is performed on PA using the same operations as on A, except without the row interchanges. Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 44 / 46

128 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (3/4) Gaussian elimination is performed on PA using the same operations as on A, except without the row interchanges. That is, (E 2 E 1 ) (E 2 ), (E 3 + E 1 ) (E 3 ), followed by (E 4 + E 3 ) (E 4 ). Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 44 / 46

129 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (3/4) Gaussian elimination is performed on PA using the same operations as on A, except without the row interchanges. That is, (E 2 E 1 ) (E 2 ), (E 3 + E 1 ) (E 3 ), followed by (E 4 + E 3 ) (E 4 ). The nonzero multipliers for PA are consequently, m 21 = 1, m 31 = 1, and m 43 = 1, and the LU factorization of PA is PA = = LU Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 44 / 46

130 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (4/4) Multiplying by P 1 = P t produces the factorization A = P 1 (LU) = P t (LU) = (P t L)U Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 45 / 46

131 Matrix Factorization: Permutation Matrices Solution (4/4) Multiplying by P 1 = P t produces the factorization A = P 1 (LU) = P t (LU) = (P t L)U = Numerical Analysis (Chapter 6) Matrix Factorization R L Burden & J D Faires 45 / 46

132 Questions?

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