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2 11 J.D. Holmes / Engineering Structures 24 (22) Narrow band fatigue loading Some wind loading situations produce resonant narrow-band vibrations (Fig. 2). For example, the alongwind response of structures with low natural frequencies, and cross-wind vortex induced response of circular cylindrical structures with low damping. In these cases, the resulting stress variations can be regarded as quasi-sinusoidal with randomly varying amplitudes. For a narrow-band random stress s(t), the proportion of cycles with amplitudes in the range from s to s+ds, is f p (s). ds, where f p (s) is the probability density of the peas. The total number of cycles in a time period, T, is n + ot, where n + o is the rate of crossing of the mean stress. For narrow band resonant vibration, n + o may be taen to be equal to the natural frequency of vibration. Then the total number of cycles with amplitudes in the range s to δs n(s)n + otf p (s) ds. (3) If N(s) is the number of cycles at amplitude s to cause failure, then the fractional damage at this stress level n(s) otf p (s)s m ds N(s) n+ where Eq. (3) has been used for n(s), and Eq. (1) for N(s). The total expected fractional damage over all stress amplitudes is then, by Miner s Rule: D n(s) N(s) n ot + f p (s)s m ds (4) Wind-induced narrow-band vibrations can be taen to have a normal or Gaussian probability distribution. If this is the case, then the peas or amplitudes, s, have a Rayleigh distribution (e.g. Crandall and Mar [2]): Fig. 1. An example of wind-induced fatigue failure of a steel utility pole. f p (s) s 2 s 2exp s2 (5) 2s where s is the standard deviation of the entire stress history. Derivation of Eq. (5) is based on the well-nown level crossing formula of Rice [3]. where n i is the number of stress cycles at an amplitude for which N i cycles are required to cause failure. Thus failure is expected when the sum of the fractional damage for all stress levels is unity. Note that there is no restriction on the order in which the various stress amplitudes are applied in Miner s Rule. Thus we may apply it to a random loading process which can be considered as a series of cycles with randomly varying amplitudes. Fig. 2. Narrow-band random vibration.

3 J.D. Holmes / Engineering Structures 24 (22) Substituting into Eq. (4) D n+ ot 2 s s m+1 exp s2 n+ ot 2s2ds x q exp[(rx) p ]dx 1 pr q+1 (2s)m m 2 1 (6) Here the following mathematical result has been used (Dwight [4]): q+1 p (7) where (x) is the Gamma function. Eq. (6) is a very useful closed-form result, but it is restricted by two important assumptions: high-cycle fatigue behaviour in which steel is in the elastic range, and for which an s N curve of the form of Eq. (1) is valid, has been assumed; narrow band vibration in a single resonant mode of the form shown in Fig. 2 has been assumed. In wind loading this is a good model of the behaviour for vortex-shedding induced vibrations in low turbulence conditions. For along-wind loading, the bacground (sub-resonant) components are almost always important, and result in a random wide-band response of the structure. 4. Wide-band fatigue loading Wide-band random vibration consists of contributions over a broad range of frequencies, with a large bacground response pea this type of response is typical for wind loading (Fig. 3). A number of cycle counting counting methods for wide-band stress variations have been proposed. One of the most realistic of these is the rainflow method proposed by Matsuishi and Endo [5]. In this method, which uses the analogy of rain flowing over the undulations of a roof, cycles associated with complete hysteresis cycles of the metal, are identified. Use of this method rather than a simple level-crossing approach, which is the basis of the narrow-band approach described in the previous section, invariably results in fewer cycle counts. A useful empirical approach has been proposed by Wirsching and Light [6]. They proposed that the fractional fatigue damage under a wide-band random stress variation can be written as: DlD nb (8) where, D nb is the damage calculated for narrow-band vibration with the same standard deviation, s [Eq. (6)]. l is a parameter determined empirically. The approach used to determine l was to use simulations of wide-band processes with spectral densities of various shapes and bandwidths, and rainflow counting for fatigue cycles. The formula proposed by Wirsching and Light to estimate l was: la(1a)(1e) b (9) where a and b are functions of the exponent m [Eq. (1)], obtained by least-squares fitting, as follows: a m (1) b1.587m2.323 (11) e is a spectral bandwidth parameter equal to: e1 m2 2 (12) m m 4 where m is the th moment of the spectral density defined by: m f S(f)df (13) For narrow band vibration tends to zero, and, from Eq. (9), l approaches 1. As tends to its maximum possible value of 1, l approaches a, given by Eq. (1). These values enable upper and lower limits on the damage to be determined. Fig. 3. Wide-band random vibration.

4 112 J.D. Holmes / Engineering Structures 24 (22) Application to wind loading 5.1. Effect of varying wind speed Eq. (6) applies to a particular standard deviation of stress, s, which in turn is a function of mean wind speed, Ū. This relationship can be written in the form: saū n (14) where n is a power between 2 and about 2.5, with the higher values applying if resonant response is significant. The constant A can be estimated from a static structural analysis and from the longitudinal turbulence intensity, if a quasi-steady model of wind loading is assumed, and the bacground wind loading is dominant. Then, A is approximately equal to 2CI u, where the mean stress is equal to CŪ 2, and I u is the longitudinal turbulence intensity. The bacground response will dominate at lower values of the mean wind speed, Ū. As the mean wind speed increases the resonant component will become more significant. This will be reflected mainly in the value of the exponent, n, but will also influence the value for A. The mean wind speed, Ū, itself, is a random variable. Its probability distribution can be represented by a Weibull distribution: exp Ū c (15) f U (Ū) Ū 1 c where is a shape factor, and c is a scale factor. When is equal to 2, the Weibull distribution is nown as the Rayleigh distribution. In Fig. 4, some recorded wind data has been fitted in two ways: 1. allowing the shape factor to vary; 2. fixing the shape factor to be equal to 2. Fig. 4. Probability distributions of recorded mean wind speed at Sydney, Australia. The total damage from narrow-band vibration for all possible mean wind speeds is obtained from Eqs. (6), (14) and (15) and integrating. The fraction of the time T during which the mean wind speed falls between U and U+dU is f U (U)dU. Hence the amount of damage generated while this range of wind speed occurs n is from Eqs. (6) and (14): D U n+ m otf U (U)dU 2AU m 2 1 The total damage in time T during all mean wind speeds between and n ot2am + D n + ot2am m 2 1 m 2 1 U mn f U (U)dU U mn+ 1 c exp U cdu. This is now of the form of Eq. (7), so that: n ot2am + D c n + ot2amc mn m 2 1 cmn+ m 2 1 mn+ mn+ (16) This is a useful closed-form expression for the fatigue damage over a lifetime of wind speeds, assuming narrow band vibration. For wide-band vibration, the same approach can be adopted, maing use of the results of Section 2 to give upper and lower limits on the damage. For wide-band vibration, Eq. (16) can be modified, following Eq. (8), to: ln + ot2amc mn D m 2 1 mn+ (17) By setting D equal to 1 in Eqs. (16) and (17), we can obtain lower and upper limits to the fatigue life as follows: T lower T upper n + o2am c mn ln + o2am c mn m 2 +1 mn+ m 2 +1 mn+ (18) (19)

5 J.D. Holmes / Engineering Structures 24 (22) For the bacground response, the crossing rate, n + o,is itself a wea function of mean wind speed, and should not strictly be treated as a constant. However, this is a second-order effect, and for practical purposes, it should be adequate to tae it as constant, with a conservative value, say one half the lowest structural natural frequency Effect of wind direction The effect of wind direction can be incorporated by fitting a Weibull distribution to wind speeds from each direction sector, i: f U (Ū i ) Ū i c exp Ū i 2 i c i. (2) The structural response will also be a function of wind direction: s i AŪ n i. (21) So that the damage generated from winds from direction, i, is given by: ln + ot2a imc mn i D i m 2 1 mn+ so that the total damage for winds from N direction sectors is: N Dp(q i )D i (22) i1 ln + ot m 2 1 mn+ N i1 p(q i )2A imc mn where p(q i ) is the probability of the mean wind occurring within the direction sector i. In practice, it is liely that only one or two wind directions will be important in the above summation. 6. Cycle count for narrow-band loading The number of expected cycles exceeding various stress levels over a lifetime can be derived for narrowband vibration in a similar manner to the derivation of fatigue life in the previous sections. Thus from Eqs. (4) and (5), the number of cycles exceeding the stress level, s, per unit time is at a mean wind speed Ū: 2n n + oexp s2 2s 2n + oexp s2 (23) 2A 2 Ū from Eq. (14). As before, the fraction of the time T during which the i mean wind speed falls between U and U+dU is f U (U)dU, where f U (U) is given by the Weibull Distribution [Eq. (15)]. Then the number of cycles during the time T, exceeding the stress level, s, when the wind speed falls between U and U+dU, is: n + ot Ū 1 c exp Ū exp c s2 2A 2 Ū 2ndŪ n + ot Ū 1 c exp Ū s c 2 2A 2 Ū 2ndŪ The total number of cycles exceeding s, in time T, for all mean wind speeds is then: n(s) n+ ot c Ū 1 exp Ū c s 2 2A 2 Ū 2ndŪ (24) Eq. (24) apparently must be integrated numerically. It will overestimate the number of fatigue cycles for wideband vibration, and is therefore conservative for wind loading. 7. Example As an example of calculation of fatigue life using Eqs. (18) and (19), assume the following values: m5; n2; 1.5; n +.5 Hertz; [MPa] 1/5 ; c6 m/s; A.1 MPa (m/s) 2 m 2 1 (3.5)e mn+ (7.667) e Then from Eq. (18) T lower years4.3 years From Eq. (1), a= m=.761. From Eq. (9), this is a lower limit for l T upper T lower l 4.3 years5.7 years s This example illustrates the sensitivity of the estimates of fatigue life to the values of both A and c. For example, increasing A to.15 MPa/[(m/s) 2 ] would decrease the fatigue life by 7.6 times (1.5 5 ). Decreasing c from 6 to 5 m/s will increase the fatigue life by 6.2 times (6/5) 1.

6 114 J.D. Holmes / Engineering Structures 24 (22) Conclusions Useful closed-form expressions for estimating the upper and lower limits of fatigue life of structures, or elements of structures, under along-wind loading, have been derived. Some assumptions have been made to derive these expressions the principal one being that the mean wind speed follows a Weibull probability distribution. Results by Wirsching and Light [6] based on numerical simulations have been used for wide-band vibration. The use of closed-form expressions avoids the extensive numerical calculations that are usually required for this type of calculation, and is useful for approximate calculations to determine whether, in fact, fatigue under wind loading is a problem that needs to be considered for a particular structure. The theory developed in this paper is applicable to the accumulated fatigue damage from many storms of the temperate synoptic type. It may also be applicable to fatigue damage generated in a tropical cyclone event, provided the slowly varying mean component can be fitted with a Weibull Distribution, and if the wind direction changes occurring during the passage of this type of storm, can be accommodated using the approach described in Section 5.2. References [1] Patel, Freathy P. A simplified method for assessing windinduced fatigue damage. Engineering Structures 1984;6: [2] Crandall SH, Mar WD. Random vibration in mechanical systems. New Yor: Academic Press, [3] Rice SO. Mathematical analysis of random noise. Bell System Technical Journal, 1944; 23; and 1945; 24; Reprinted in Wax N. Selected papers on noise and stochastic processes. New Yor: Dover, [4] Dwight HB. Tables of integrals and other mathematical data. Toronto: Macmillan, [5] Matsuishi M, Endo T. Fatigue of metals subjected to varying stress. Fuuoa: Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, [6] Wirsching PH, Light MC. Fatigue under wide band random stresses. Journal of the Structural Division ASCE 198;16:

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