Sensor Performance Metrics

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1 Sensor Performance Metrics Michael Todd Professor and Vice Chair Dept. of Structural Engineering University of California, San Diego me if you want a copy.

2 Outline Sensors as dynamic systems Zero-order sensors First-order sensors Second-order sensors Fundamental sensor performance metrics sensitivity bandwidth/transmission band(s) cross-axis sensitivity sensitivity to extraneous measurands

3 The Process of Getting An Acceleration Measurement plate vibration epoxy temperature viscoelastic effects housing self-dynamics (e.g., resonances) boundary conditions binding post manufacturing tolerances self-dynamics (e.g., cross-axis sensitivity) environment EMI cabling contact leads contact wire stray capacitance coupling piezoelectric element boundary conditions seismic mass seating signal conditioning DAQ board DSP data presentation environment human error (e.g., filter settings) quantization error human error software glitches (e.g., round-off) human error Microsoft observer

4 Input/Output Representation of Sensors What we WANT to measure is some kind of response of the structure (e.g., acceleration at point q, Y q ( ) ), to some kind of excitation of the plate (e.g., impact hammer strike at point p, X p ( )); we usually describe the response in terms of an FRF (frequency response function): H pq () = Y q ()/ X p () Just as the plate transfers an excitation into an acceleration, the accelerometer subsequently transfers this acceleration into a measured representation of itself. Thus, what we ACTUALLY measure, Y q,obesrved, is NOT necessarily equal to what we WANT to measure, : ( ) Y q ( ) ( ) Y q,observed () = H epoxy ()H hou sin g ()H post ()H mass ()H piezo ()H wires () ########### "########### $ Y () q H sensor ( ) And this doesn t include all data acquisition and signal conditioning response functions We need to understand the behavior of the sensor transfer function in order to choose the right sensor characteristics for an application and calibrate it.

5 A Failure Example...Measuring Pendulation Loads Sea state can lead to dangerous load pendulation during LOTS exercises Design fiber optic accelerometer array to monitor load and ship motions Also asked to monitor centripetal acceleration (has DC component) Actual signal What we measured accelerometers + electronics had low-frequency attenuation

6 General Input/Output Sensor Model: Accelerometer inertial mass housing piezoelectric material contact plate binding post inertial mass/ damping block housing (base) mass k m c effective damping/ stiffness x y input motion input motion Newton s 2nd Law on m: m d2 y dt 2 + c dy dt + ky ##" ## $ "output" = c dx dt + kx # "# $ "input" And, in general, d n y a n dt n + a d n1 y n1 dt n1 + + a dy 1 dt + a 0y = F(t) Sensors are themselves dynamical systems

7 Zero-Order Sensors These sensors don t behave as dynamic systems and can only measure static signals sensor model is a 0 y(t) = F(t) so the output is easily obtained y(t) = (1/a 0 ) " # K static sensitivity The sensor s static sensitivity K determines the simple proportional input/output relationship. The sensor has no relevant dynamics, so it responds instantly to changes in F(t), provided the changes aren t too fast Sensor ideally contains no storage or inertial elements (or, more accurately, the behavior of these elements is negligible) There are no sensors that are truly zero-order, but in some applications, sensors act like zero-order P plenum spring y piston P P atm = ka piston "y, or intake valve force due to pressure difference P atm "P = ka # " piston # $ static sensitivity, K F(t) "y

8 First-Order Sensors These sensors contain storage elements which cannot respond immediately to inputs Modeled as first-order dynamical system time constant a 1 dy dt + a 0y = F(t) dy dt + y = KF(t) static sensitivity The zero-state response (with no input) of this system shows the influence of : y(t) =5 =20 =0.5 t The larger the sensor s time constant, the longer it takes to respond to input changes.

9 First-Order Sensors (Cont d) We know from dynamic systems theory that we can utilize the powerful kernel method based on zero-state impulse-response to get the formula for the response to ANY input. The impulse response for an impulse-loaded first-order system is dy dt + y = K"(t) h 1 (t) = Ke t /" /" For any general input F(t), then, we know the sensor s response to it: y(t) = y 0 e t /" + t /" t # F(T )h 1 (t T )dt T =0 = y 0 e " # + F(T )(K /" )e(tt )/" dt T =0$ $ $ " $ $ $ $ # transient response t # steadystate response

10 control volume Q E Example: Bulb Thermometer The change in energy stored in the bulb, E, must balance the exchange of heat between sensor and environment: E = Q mc dt dt = ha(t "T ) mc dt ha dt +T = T # # dt +T = F(t) dt m = liquid mass in the sensor c = specific heat of liquid h = convective heat transfer coefficient A = sensor surface area Standard from for first-order sensor Note that the static sensitivity, K, is 1

11 First-Order Sensors: Step Input Consider the sensor response to a step change in the input, say 0 to A, so F(t)=A: y(t) = y 0 e t /" t + # (tt )/" A(K /" )e dt = KA + (KA y0 )e T =0 Our steady response (what we want to measure) is KA, which is the actual measurement A modified by the constant static sensitivity of the sensor K Our current measurement (initial condition) is y 0 We can define an error fraction function as t /" (t) = y(t) " y ss "t /# = e y 0 " y ss 0.37 When t=, the sensor has responded to 63% of the real measurement; When t=2.3, the sensor has responded to 90% of the real measurement; When t=5, the sensor has responded to 99% of the real measurement t / One may experimentally find by plotting the ln of error function during test data collection, since ln = "(1/# )t, and finding the slope of the best-fit line.

12 First-Order Sensors: Periodic Input Consider an input that is periodic in time, so F(t) = Asint y(t) = y 0 e t /" t + $ (tt )/" Asin#T (K /" )e dt = Ce t /" + T =0 where C = y 0 + KA" 1 + " 2, tan# = $" 2 KA sin(#t +%) 1 + " 2 2 # Once the transient portion dies out, we have the first-order sensor frequency response to a periodic input The steady-state sensor response matches the input in frequency, but it lags the input by a time delay and gets attenuated: / " / " input output

13 First-Order Sensors: Periodic Input (Cont d) This attenuation and lag, as a function of parameters," are shown here M phase shift (deg) Attenuation factor M is the ratio of the dynamic amplitude to the static amplitude: KA M = " 2 KA 1 = " 2 " " Phase shift was defined previously, tan 1 "# to measure high frequencies, need very small or get too much attenuation (filtering) to measure low-frequency (towards static) signals, can use systems with large

14 Second-Order Sensors These sensors contain both storage elements (in the form of damping) as well as inertia Modeled as second-order dynamic systems: d 2 y a 2 dt 2 + a dy 1 dt + a 0 y = F(t) 1 n 2 d 2 y dt 2 + 2" dy n dt + y = KF(t) n = a 0 /a 2 # natural frequency " = a 1 /2 a 0 a 2 # damping ratio The natural frequency corresponds to a time scale that the sensor wants to respond at for any inputs it sees The damping ratio determines the characteristic manner in which the sensor response approaches the steady-state measurement: 0 < < 1 (underdamped) sensor transient responds will oscillate (at ) n > 1 sensor transient response will monotonically (not oscillate) approach steady-state; = 1, called critical damping, represents the quickest monotonic approach (optimal)

15 Second-Order Sensors (Cont d) The vast majority of sensor designs result in sub-critical damping (oscillations), so we will proceed with our discussion with that assumption. The transient response of a second-order sensor system with sub-critical damping is ( " y trans (t) = e " nt y 0 cos" n 1 2 t + y 0 + y 0 n " % + * $ ' cos # n 1" 2 n 1" 2 t- )* &,- sensor initial conditions We can again use the kernel method to get the general sensor response: 1 n 2 d 2 y dt 2 + 2" dy n dt + y = K#(t) results in h 2 (t) = K n 1"# 2 e"# nt sin n 1"# 2 t For any general input F(t), then, we know the sensor s response to it: y(t) = y trans (t)+ t " T =0 t " T =0 F(T )h 2 (t T )dt = y trans (t) # "# $ + F(T )(K# n / 1$ 2 )e $# n (tt ) sin [# n 1$ 2 (t T )]dt ##########"########## $ transient response steadystate response

16 Second-Order Sensors: Step Input Consider the sensor response to a step change in the input, say 0 to A, so F(t)=A: t $ T =0 y(t) = y trans (t)+ A(K n / 1"# 2 )e "# n (t"t ) sin [ n 1"# 2 (t "T )]dt % = KA " KAe "# nt ' cos d t + & # 1"# sin 2 d t ( *, where d = n 1"# 2 ) KA = 0 if < 1, sensor rings at d = 0.25 = 0.5 = 1 = 2 n t these oscillations die out and the expected measurement, KA, is eventually achieved system performance can be characterized by rise time and settling time

17 Second-Order Sensors: More Step Input As with the first-order sensor, we can compute an error function (t) : (t) n t % (t) = e "#$ nt ' cos$ d t + & # 1 " # sin$ ( dt* 2 ) rise time: time it takes to first achieve 90% of steady-state (or, error is 10%) settling time: time it takes for oscillations to settle within ±10% of steady-state n t settling time rise time rise time decreases with decreased, but the trade-off is that settling time increases with decreased the region near the intersection of these curves is an optimal design point for the sensor

18 Second-Order Sensors: Periodic Input Consider an input that is periodic in time, so F(t) = Asint t % T =0 y(t) = y trans + AsinT (K n / 1"# 2 )e "$ n (t"t ) sin d (t "T ) dt = y trans + KAsin(t +&), where tan& = "2# / n ( 1" ( / n ) 2 ) 2 + ( 2# / n ) 2 1" ( / n ) 2 After the transient portion (which oscillates at sensor time scale n ) dies out, the sensor response oscillates at the same frequency as the input,, but with a phase shift and an amplitude modification, both of which depend on damping and the ratio / n = 0.5 / n =1.5 / n output lags the input and is magnified for <1 / n output is attenuated for / n >1, and the lag continues to increase

19 Second-Order Sensors: Periodic Input (Cont d) This amplitude effect M and phase shift are shown here; define = " / " n M = 0.01 = 0.25 = 0.5 = 1 = 2 amplification (resonance) transmission attenuation phase shift (deg) = 0.01 = 0.25 = 1 = 0.5 = 2 M = 1 ( 1 " 2 ) 2 + ( 2#" ) 2 resonance occurs if input frequency approaches the sensor s natural frequency (large attenuation, especially for small ) M is near unity for small and goes to zero for large (regardless of ) phase shift increasingly lags as increases, with the most abrupt changes occurring at resonance (especially for small ) output is in phase with input for small and out of phase for large (regardless of )

20 Transmission Band: Unity Gain and Linear Phase Regime As shown previously, there is a frequency regime for second-order sensors where transmission is near unity and phase shifts are near zero. M " " = 2# +# 2 1 +# error tolerance = 0.7 corresponds to the widest band for retaining a unity transfer function this is also the regime where the phase is most closely linearly related to the frequency nonlinear phase shifts cause a non-uniform phase lead/lag in the original signal and the measured signal (signal distortion)

21 Signal Distortion Suppose have original signal to be measured: x(t) = sin2t + sin 4t A linear phase shift means that the measured signal may be represented by: y(t) = sin 2t +" ( ) + sin( 4t + 2" ) = sin# + sin2# which by inspection is the same as the original signal but time-shifted Consider a nonlinearly phase shifted measured signal: y(t) = sin 2t ( ) + sin( 4t + 2) Near sensor resonance, phase distortion is maximized nonlinear phase measured linear phase measured original

22 Accelerometers: Case of Second-Order Sensor housing binding post inertial mass m y piezoelectric material contact plate inertial mass/ damping block housing (base) mass k c effective damping/ stiffness x input motion direct force input motion direct force, F(t) Newton s 2nd Law on m: m d2 y dt 2 + c dy dt + ky = c dx dt + kx + F(t) Accelerometers are designed so that the mass is protected from direct forces, so F(t)=0; if we define z=y-x, we can re-write this equation and normalize as before for second-order systems: 1 n 2 d 2 z dt 2 + 2" dz n dt + z = # 1 2 n d 2 x dt 2 input x output z accelerometers measured acceleration of input by relative motion response of the inertial mass

23 Let s Consider a Periodic Input to this Accelerometer... If x = Asint, then x = "A 2 sint, and z(t) = KA2 sin(t "#) ( 1" 2 ) 2 + 2$ ( ) 2, tan# = " 2$ Very response to previous second-order 1" 2 response, but with an extra 2 in the numerator; phase shift is the same We can define M for this system depending on what we consider the input: displacement, velocity, or acceleration Displacement input amplitude: A good trans. Velocity input amplitude: Acceleration input amplitude: A A 2 pretty much stinks good trans. M = 2 ( 1" 2 ) 2 + 2# ( ) 2 M = ( 1" 2 ) 2 + 2# ( ) 2 M = 1 ( 1 " 2 ) 2 + ( 2#" ) 2

24 Demonstration of Accelerometer in Acceleration Mode Consider a periodic acceleration input labeled in black) and the corresponding measured output (labeled in red) for three different damping ratios over a swept frequency range (0< <8) = 0.1 = 0.7 = 2.0 In acceleration mode, output signal is in phase and in near-unity transmission for low and then enters attenuated, out-of-phase behavior for post-resonant Very low or very high damping shrink the useful transmission band ( = 0.7 is optimal)

25 Measuring Wideband Signals Beyond Transmission Band We will assume that the sensor behaves as a linear dynamic system, so multiple inputs may be treated by superposition; suppose a sensor s resonance is at 3 Hz, and we try to measure a signal composed of 1 Hz and 5 Hz components: x(t) = sin2t + sin10t Input components are in black, outputs in red: 1 Hz component + 5 Hz component = total input and response Not very good signal representation due to distortions induced by resonance

26 An Accelerometer Cut-Away Let s look at a cut-away view of a seismic accelerometer: contains seismic mass, as expected utilizes elastic beams as springs in this example, uses fiber Bragg gratings to transduce bending of beams into displacement/acceleration seismic mass housing fiber optic cable fiber Bragg grating (fiber optic transducer, attached to beam) elastic beams (springs)

27 Sensor Performance Properties We will utilize this example of an accelerometer to explore several sensor performance properties: sensitivity: What is the response of the sensor to inputs, usually over a range of time scales? (Usually given in terms of the transfer function) resolution: What is the minimum detectable value of the intended input? (Usually given in terms of power or amplitude spectral density) cross-axis sensitivity: How much does the sensor respond to inputs not aligned with the primary sensing direction? (Usually expressed as a fraction of the main sensitivity) multiple resonances: Does the sensor have multiple nonlinear (resonant) areas that affect sensitivity and response? (The answer is typically, yes ). sensitivity to extraneous measurands: Does the sensor respond to unintended inputs? (Does an accelerometer, for example, also respond to strain or temperature inputs yielding false signals?)

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