# Vibrations of a Free-Free Beam

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1 Vibrations of a Free-Free Beam he bending vibrations of a beam are described by the following equation: y EI x y t ρ A 4 2 (1) y x L E, I, ρ, A are respectively the Young Modulus, second moment of area of the cross section, density and cross section area of the beam. L is the length of the beam. he solution of Eq. (1) can be written as a standing wave 1 y( x, t) = w( x) u( t), separating the spatial and temporal component. his leads to the following characteristic equation that relates the circular frequency ω to the wavenumber k : 2 EI k 4 ω = ρ A (2) he spatial part can be written as: w( x) = C sin( kx) + C cos( kx) + C sinh( kx) + C cosh( kx) (3) For a Free-Free Beam the boundary conditions are (vanishing of force and moment): w () w () w ( L) w ( L) to get C2 + C4 C1 + C3 C1 sin( kl) C2 cos( kl) + C3 sinh( kl) + C4 cosh( kl) C1 cos( kl) + C2 sin( kl) + C3 cosh( kl) + C4 sinh( kl) 1 A standing wave or stationary wave is a wave frozen in the space and vibrating in time. It result by the sum of two identical waves travelling in opposite directions: y x t y x t y x t Y t kx Y t kx Y kx t w x u t (, ) = (, ) + (, ) = sin( ω ) + sin( ω + ) = 2 sin( )cos( ω ) = ( ) ( ) + 1

2 Using the first two equations the 3 rd and 4 th can be arranged in matrix form: sinh( kl) sin( kl) cosh( kl) cos( kl) C1 = cosh( kl) cos( kl) sin( kl) + sinh( kl) C 2 (4) For a non trivial solution the determinant of the matrix has to vanish to get: cosh( kl)cos( kl ) = 1 (5) he transcendental Eq. (5) has infinite solutions, it can be solved numerically, the first five values are reported here: Mode order n knl Putting these values back in Eq. (5) gives the modeshapes corresponding to the natural frequencies ωn that can be calculated from the characteristic Eq. (2). he mode shapes are given by the following: sin( knl) sinh( knl) wn ( x) = [sinh( knx) + sin( knx)] + [cosh( knx) + cos( knx)] cosh( k L) cos( k L) n n (6) 1 st mode 2 nd mode 3 rd mode 4 th mode 5 th mode Figure 1. First 5 mode shapes for a free-free beam 2

3 he velocity of the bending waves in the beam, also called phase velocity, is given by c B ω k EI ρ A = = 4 ω. It shows that the velocity depend on the frequency. A generic wave travelling in the beam can be described in terms of several harmonics as given by the Fourier analysis, components at higher frequency travel faster creating then a continuous distortion, for this reason they are called dispersive waves. Phase speed c B Frequency ω Figure 2. Phase speed of bending waves It is interesting to notice that for a Clamped-Clamped beam, the boundary conditions are: (vanishing of displacement and slope): w() w () w( L) w ( L) to get C2 + C4 C1 + C3 C1 sin( kl) + C2 cos( kl) + C3 sinh( kl) + C4 cosh( kl) C1 cos( kl) C2 sin( kl) + C3 cosh( kl) + C4 sinh( kl) Using the first two equations the 3 rd and 4 th can be arranged in matrix form: sinh( kl) sin( kl) cosh( kl) cos( kl) C1 = cosh( kl) cos( kl) sin( kl) + sinh( kl) C 2 hat is the same as before, then the resonance frequencies are the same as in the case of a free-free beam except that in this case we do not have the two rigid body modes (translation and rotation at ω ) since it is not allowed by the boundary conditions. 3

4 Chladni 2 patterns It is possible in a laboratory experiment to visualize the nodes of a vibrating beam (nodal lines in this case since the beam has a real width) by sprinkling sand on it: the sand is thrown off the moving regions and piles up at the nodes. he beam is excited with a shaker at exactly his natural frequencies. In this case (low modal coupling) is reasonable to assume that at resonance the deformation shape is mainly given by the mode shape corresponding to the resonant frequency excited. he results for a free-free beam can be seen in the following video: he free-free conditions were simulated suspending the beam with springs introducing an extra natural frequency, reasonably lower than the first resonance in bending vibration. Nevertheless the suspension system gave some troubles in visualising the two nodes at the first resonance. Other mode shapes can be seen quite clearly and the resonance frequencies values are not too far from the theoretical results. he data of the beam are: L = m ρ = 78 Kg m A = h x b.1 x.75 m E = Nm -1 υ.3 3 bh I = 12 2 Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni was a German physicist. Chladni's technique, first published in 1787 in his book, Discoveries in the heory of Sound", consisted of drawing a bow over a piece of metal whose surface was lightly covered with sand. he plate was bowed until it reached resonance and the sand formed a pattern showing the nodal regions. 4

5 f n ωn = heoretical [Hz] Experimental [Hz] 2π n= n= n= n= n= able 1. First five natural frequencies in bending vibration Since the beam in this case is a real piece of steel, there are also longitudinal, in plane and torsional vibrations. In this experiment the shaker was exciting the beam vertically at one corner so that it is possible to see also torsional modes. he values for the torsional vibration can be calculated considering the torsional vibration for a beam of no-circular cross section. ϑ he variation of angular orientation ϑ ( x, t) for the cross section of the beam is described by the following torsional vibration equation: ϑ Gγ ϑ t ρ J P x (7) 5

6 ( υ ) G = E/2 1+ is the shear modulus, υ the Poisson ratio, γ is a torsional constant that h h for a rectangular cross section is γ bh b 12b bh J b h P = ( + ) is the polar moment of area of the cross section. he solution of Eq. (7) can be written as a standing wave: ϑ( x, t) = θ ( x) u( t) (8) he spatial part can be written as: θ ( x) = A sin( k x) + A cos( k x) (9) 1 2 With k ω = and c c Gγ = is the phase velocity, in this case is constant with ρ J P frequency and the waves are not dispersive. conditions are: (vanishing of the moment): For a Free-Free Beam the boundary θ () θ ( L) to get A1 nπ k, n = sin( k L) L With the values of the torsional wavenumber k, n we get the mode shapes: θ ( x) = cos( k L) (1) n, n And the natural frequencies are given by nπ ω, n = c (11) L With the data of the experimental beam we get the first torsional mode is at c f,1 = = Hz, not too far from the experimental result of 315 Hz. 2L 6

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