1 G.C.S.E. PHYSICAL EDUCATION Unit 1 Factors Affecting Participation and Performance MUSCLES Name: G.C.S.E. P.E. Teacher:.
2 By the end of this booklet you should: Be able to describe and explain how muscles and their composition, function and action affect movement and performance (fast twitch for power and strength activities, slow twitch for endurance activities). Know the location of the major muscle groups (deltoid, trapezius, pectorals, biceps, tripceps, latissimus dorsi, abdominals, gluteals, guadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius) and how activities and exercise affects these muscles. Be able to explain the role of antagonistic pairs, prime movers and synergist during a range of different physical activities. Be able to describe the role and function of tendons during movement. Be able to explain how performance and participation can improve as the efficiency of the muscle improves.
3 MUSCLES Every movement that takes place in your body depends on muscles. They work by shortening or contracting. There are three kinds of muscle: 1. Involuntary (smooth) Bbb Bbb 2. Cardiac Muscle Bbb Bbb Bbb Bbb 3. Voluntary Muscle (skeletal/striped) Bbb Bbb
4 THE MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS Complete the worksheet by choosing from the list below, and writing in the boxes provided, the correct name and functions for the muscles and tendons illustrated. Muscles: - Gluteus Maximus Tripceps Gastrocnemius Quadriceps Deltoids Hamstrings Pectoralis Major Biceps Achilles Rectus Abdominals. Action: Raises the arm away from the side (Abduction) Bends (flexes) the arm at the elbow joint Raises the body onto the toes Bends (flexes) the leg at the knee Pulls outstretched arms together in front of body Straightens (extends) the arm at the elbow Flexes the trunk forward Straightens (extends) the leg at the knee Straightens (extends) thigh at the hip joint Transmits the power of the calf muscle to the foot
5 Complete the worksheet by writing in the names of the muscles shown and give one example of how that muscle is used in sport. For example the triceps muscle is used in putting the shot.
6 HOW MUSCLES WORK Voluntary muscles produce movement by contracting and relaxing. Muscles get shorter when they contract and longer when they relax again. All voluntary muscles are attached by tendons to bones. These points of attachment are called origins and insertions. Some muscles have more than one attachment at one end (this is an indication of strength of the muscle) e.g. the. and the. Using page 12 of GCSE PE for OCR, label the diagram below. Muscles always work in because they can only and not These pairs are known as muscles. For movement to occur at a joint, one muscle shortens ( ), whilst the other muscle lengthens ( ). The muscle that contracts is known as the or muscle. The muscle that relaxes is known as the muscle. Muscles which hold the bone in place, and also contract to help the prime mover are known as.
7 Complete the table below to explain what happens as the elbow bends and straightens when performing a bicep curl. Movement Phase Elbow bends Elbow straightens Biceps Triceps Prime Mover Antagonist Complete the table below identifying the prime mover and the antagonist muscle for the various actions. Action Joint Prime Mover Antagonist Kicking a ball Hip Bench Press Elbow Chin Up Elbow Leg Curl Knee Sit Ups Hip Press Ups Shoulder Press Ups Elbow
8 TENDONS Tendons attach to Ligaments attach to As a muscle contracts, the tendons at each end of the muscle takes the strain. Tendons must therefore be strong enough to work under heavy loads and resist the intense, sudden muscular contractions involved in sport, e.g. throwing the javelin or cricket ball. The tendon of origin resists the pull of the muscle whilst the tendon of insertion exerts the pull on the bone to which it is attached. This causes the joint to bend or straighten. Tendons are a connective tissue which has a less efficient blood supply than skeletal muscle. A thorough warm up will stimulate blood flow to the tendons and this will reduce the chance of injury to the issue. One tendon which is prone to injury is the Achilles tendon.
9 MUSCLES FOR ENDURANCE AND POWER Fast and Slow Twitch Muscle Fibres There are two types of muscle fibre present in voluntary muscles. Fast Twitch Fibres Slow Twitch Fibres FAST TWITCH FIBRES Fast, powerful contractions Burn up their supply of 0 2 usually within 10 seconds. They then have to use the body s store of carbohydrates as a short term energy source. (Anaerobic Exercise) Tire quickly Used for short term power and strength activities. (Anaerobic Activities) E.g. Bb Bb SLOW TWITCH FIBRES Contract more slowly and with less power than fast twitch fibres Are able to replace their 0 2 supply while they are working. (Aerobic Exercise) Can function for longer periods of time Used for longer term endurance activities. (Aerobic Activities) E.g. Bb Bb The mixture.. The fibre distribution varies from person to person. Is inherited. You cannot change the distribution of muscle fibres, but you can train both types of fibre to make them more efficient.
10 In many sporting events we often use both types of fibres at different times during the activity. Complete the table below showing examples of the use of both types of muscle fibres in different sporting activities. ACTIVITY SLOW TWITCH FAST TWITCH Marathon Running Most of the race Spring finish
11 THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE AND TRAINING ON MUSCLES Skeletal muscle responds to training in two ways. Voluntary muscles become stronger and more flexible when they are exercised. This development of the muscle is known as hypertrophy. When exercise stops, due to injury or some other reason, muscles begin to lose the strength and mass that was gradually building up during regular activity. This is known as atrophy (wasting of the muscle). Different activities rely on different muscles and muscular requirement. With regular training muscles adapt well to the exercise that they are required to perform. In activities which involve heavy workloads, e.g. sprinting, new muscle fibres are generated (muscle bulk) until the muscles are strong enough to perform the task. In endurance activities where bulk is of no advantage, muscles adapt to training by utilizing energy more efficiently to delay the onset of fatigue. SPRINTER MARATHON RUNNER Big, powerful muscles As little bulk as possible Muscles are able to maximise stored energy in short bursts of all-out activity. Muscles utilise energy much more efficiently and for much longer periods of time.
12 KEY WORDS SECTION WORD 1) Involuntary Muscle DESCRIPTION 2) Voluntary Muscle 3) Cardiac Muscle 4) Origin 5) Insertion 6) Prime Mover 7) Antagonist 8) Synergist 9) Slow twitch fibres 10) Fast twitch fibres 11) Aerobic 12) Anaerobic 13) Atrophy
14 HOMEWORK/EXTENSION TASKS Below are a number of homework tasks. All work should be handed in on time and fully completed. (You may be asked to complete this work on separate sheets of paper in this booklet). Use this booklet, your textbook, the Internet and any other resources to help you research and answer the questions. 1) Complete worksheet 1. 2) Complete worksheet 2. 3) Complete worksheet 3. 4) Complete the How Muscles Work crossword. 5) Working in pairs, using sticky labels, identify the major muscle groups and their whereabouts on your partner. 6) Identify a specific muscle group that is important in any aspect of your own practical activity. State whether you feel you need to increase power or stamina and outline how you might achieve this. 7) Slow and fast twitch muscle fibres are important in different sports. Describe sports which involve slow twitch, fast twitch and a mixture of both types of muscular activity.
15 ICT HOMEWORK OR CLASSROOM EXERCISES 1) Using the Internet, download a diagram of the body showing the major muscles print all and put in your file. 2) Collect three website addresses different to those already provided that contain useful information on muscles. 3) Type in the following web address: Go to: Anatomy and physiology - muscles - revision print off information - test. Answer and print off 4) Type in the following web address: Go to: GCSE PE How the body moves S-cool Quicklearn: 1) The Muscles print off information 2) Skeletal muscles print off information 3) Muscles and Movement print off information 5) - GCSE - Interactive Quizzes: - Voluntary Muscles complete and print - Involuntary/Cardiac Muscles complete and print - Muscle attachment complete and print - Antagonistic Systems complete and print
16 USING THE INTERNET Below are a number of useful website addresses to help you research this topic in more detail. (Add on any other sites you find)
17 WORKSHEET 1 1. Identify and label the muscle groups indicated on the drawings below. 2. For each muscle/muscle group below, write down the type of movement it produces. deltoids.. trapezius.. pectorals.. biceps.. triceps latissimus dorsi. abdominals.. gluteals.. quadriceps.. hamstrings. gastrocnemius
18 WORKSHEET 2 1. Using the drawings on the right, complete the following tasks: a) Identify and label the muscles involved in bending and straightening the arm at the elbow joint. b) Identify on each drawings, the prime mover muscle in the above movement. c) Identify on each drawing, the antagonistic muscle in the same movement. 2. Label the tendon of origin and the tendon of insertion of the prime mover muscle that you will already have labelled in each of the drawings opposite. 3. Name the two main types of muscle fibre found in skeletal muscle. State which type is used predominantly in anaerobic exercise and which type in aerobic exercise. a) b) 4. Explain the meaning of the term synergist with respect to muscular action Explain the meaning of the terms atrophy and hypertrophy Why does muscle bulk increase as a result of some physical activity, but not as a result of all physical activity? If anaerobic activity is only possible in short bursts, how do games players manage repeatedly to sprint for a ball or to catch an opponent over an extended period of time?....
19 WORKSHEET 3 1. Explain the terms prime mover, antagonist and synergist. (6) Prime mover Antagonist Synergist 2. Name and describe the 3 types of muscle found in the body. (6) What is the difference between the origin of a muscle and its insertion? (4) Why is it inadvisable to completely stop activity during the close season? (4)
20 HOW MUSCLES WORK Complete the following crossword ACROSS 3. The wasting of muscle due to inactivity is called (7) DOWN 1. Muscles working to assist the prime mover are called (10) 4. Muscles are connected to bones by.. (7) 2. Muscle fibres that are used during fast power events. (4,6) 5. The build up of muscle through regular training is called.. (10) 6. An alternative word for describing the prime mover. (7) 6. Muscles working in opposition to each other are said to be working.. (16) 9. The type of muscle fibre used during endurance events. (4,6) 10. The muscle responsible for most of the work during a movement. (5,5) 11. The minimum number of muscles around a joint. (3) 7. The number of directions in which a muscle can create movement. (3) 8. The name given to the muscle that relaxes in order to allow movement at a joint. (10) 10. In order to create movement in two directions at a joint, muscles need to work in (5)
21 MUSCLES MIND MAP
22 ADDITIONAL NOTES
24 BOOKLET REVIEW Teacher Comment Action Required Reward Student signature on completion Teacher Comment Action Required Reward Student signature on completion Teacher Comment Action Required Reward Student signature on completion
25 EXTENSION TASKS MUSCLES TASK 1 Complete Section A TASK 2 Complete Section B TASK 3 Complete Section C TASK 4 Complete Section D
26 SECTION A Circle the correct answer. 1) Which muscle is found only in the walls of the heart? A. Voluntary B. Involuntary C. Cardiac 2) Which muscle is capable of rapid contraction, which causes skeletal movement? A. Voluntary B. Involuntary C. Cardiac 3) Which muscle allows flexion at the elbow? A. Deltoid B. Gluteus maximus C. Bicep 4) Which muscle allows flexion at the knee? A. Tricep B. Adominals C. Hamstrings 5) How are muscles attached to bone? A. Ligaments B. Tendons C. Cartilage 6) Which muscle allows abduction at the shoulder? A. Deltoid B. Pectorals C. Quadriceps
27 1) Describe THREE different occasions when fast-twitch muscle fibre is important in physical activity. (3) 2) Identify the specific muscle group that is important to a sprinter. State whether the athlete needs to increase stamina or speed and outline how he may achieve it. (5) 3) Describe the difference between a weight training programme of a shot putter and a marathon runner. (2) 4) Explain the terms prime mover, antagonist and synergist. (6) Prime mover:. Antagonist:.. Synergist:. 5) Name and describe 3 types of muscle found in the body. 6) Briefly explain how muscles produce movement. (3)
28 SECTION B USING THE INTERNET Below are a number of useful website addresses to help you research this topic in more detail. (Add on any other sites you find)
29 SECTION C 1) Identify and label the muscle groups indicated on the drawings below. 2) For each muscle/muscle group below, write down the type of movement it produces. deltoids.. trapezius.. pectorals.. biceps.. triceps latissimus dorsi. abdominals.. gluteals.. quadriceps.. hamstrings. gastrocnemius
30 3) Using the drawings on the right, complete the following tasks: a) Identify and label the muscles involved in bending and straightening the arm at the elbow joint. b) Identify on each drawings, the prime mover muscle in the above movement. c) Identify on each drawing, the antagonistic muscle in the same movement. 4) Label the tendon of origin and the tendon of insertion of the prime mover muscle that you will already have labelled in each of the drawings opposite. 5) Name the two main types of muscle fibre found in skeletal muscle. State which type is used predominantly in anaerobic exercise and which type in aerobic exercise. a) b) 6) Explain the meaning of the term synergist with respect to muscular action... 7) Explain the meaning of the terms atrophy and hypertrophy.. 8) Why does muscle bulk increase as a result of some physical activity, but not as a result of all physical activity?..
31 9) If anaerobic activity is only possible in short bursts, how do games players manage repeatedly to sprint for a ball or to catch an opponent over an extended period of time?.. 10) Explain the terms prime mover, antagonist and synergist. (6) Prime mover.. Antagonist.. Synergist. 11. Name and describe the 3 types of muscle found in the body. (6) What is the difference between the origin of a muscle and its insertion? (4) Why is it inadvisable to completely stop activity during the close season? (4)......
32 HOW MUSCLES WORK Complete the following crossword ACROSS 3. The wasting of muscle due to inactivity is called (7) DOWN 1. Muscles working to assist the prime mover are called (10) 4. Muscles are connected to bones by.. (7) 2. Muscle fibres that are used during fast power events. (4,6) 5. The build up of muscle through regular training is called.. (10) 6. An alternative word for describing the prime mover. (7) 6. Muscles working in opposition to each other are said to be working.. (16) 9. The type of muscle fibre used during endurance events. (4,6) 10. The muscle responsible for most of the work during a movement. (5,5) 11. The minimum number of muscles around a joint. (3) 7. The number of directions in which a muscle can create movement. (3) 8. The name given to the muscle that relaxes in order to allow movement at a joint. (10) 10. In order to create movement in two directions at a joint, muscles need to work in (5)
33 MUSCLES MIND MAP
34 SECTION D - KEY WORDS SECTION WORD 1) Involuntary Muscle DESCRIPTION 2) Voluntary Muscle 3) Cardiac Muscle 4) Origin 5) Insertion 6) Prime Mover 7) Antagonist 8) Synergist 9) Slow twitch fibres 10) Fast twitch fibres 11) Aerobic 12) Anaerobic 13) Atrophy
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